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but, like Lady Macbeth or Madame Roland, years, to see my daughter a woman : to which they imparted her own fire to her more phlegmatic answered. It is done : and then, at that instant, I helpmate, — "chastised him," when neces
awoke out of my trance; and Dr. Howlsworth sary," with the valour of her tongue," and did there affirm, ihat that day she died made just
fifteen years from that time."--pp. 26–28. cheered him on, by the encouragement of her high example, to all the ventures and sacri
This gift of dreaming dreams, or seeing fices, the triumphs or the martyrdoms, that visions, seems, indeed, to have been heredilay visibly across her daring and lofty course. tary in the family; for the following is given on The Lady Fanshawe, we take it, was of a less the credit of the fair writer's own experience. passionate temperament; and her book, ac- When she and her husband went to Ireland, cordingly, is more like that of an ordinary on their way to Portugal, they were honourwoman, though living in extraordinary times. ably entertained by all the distinguished royalShe begins, no doubt, with a good deal of love ists who came in their way. Among others, and domestic devotion, and even echoes, from she has recorded that, that sanctuary, certain notes of loyalty; þut, “We went to the Lady Honor O'Brien's, a lady in very truth, is chiefly occupied, for the best that went for a maid, but few believed it! She part of her life, with the sage and serious was the youngest daughter of the Earl of Thomond. business of some nineteen or twenty accouche- There we staid three nights. The first of which I mens, which are happily accomplished in dif- was surprised by being laid in a chamber, where, ferent parts of Europe ; and seems, at last, to
about one o'clock, I heard a voice that wakened be wholly engrossed in the ceremonial of the window, I saw, by i he light of the moon, a
I drew the curtain, and, in the casement of diplomatic presentations,—the description of woman leaning into the window, through the case. court dresses, state coaches, liveries, and ment, in white, with red hair, and pale and ghasily jewellery,—the solemnity of processions, and complexion. She spoke loud, and in a tone I had receptions by sovereign princes, -and the due never heard, thrice, A horse!' and then, with a
sigh more like the wind ihan breath, she vanished, interchange of presents and compliments with and, to me, her body looked more like a thick cloud persons of worship and dignity: Fully one than substance. I was so much frightened, that third of her book is taken up with such goodly my hair stood on end, and my night-clothes fell off. matter; and nearly as much with the geneal. I pulled and pinched your faiher, who never woke ogy of her kindred, and a faithful record of during the disorder I was in ; but at last was much their marriages, deaths, and burials. From surprised to see me in this fright, and more so when
I related the story and showed him the window the remainder
, however, some curious things opened. Neither of us slept any more that night, may be gathered; and we shall try to extract but he entertained me with telling me how much what strikes us as most characteristic. We more these apparitions were usual in this country may begin with something that preceded her than in England! and we concluded ihe cause io gend relates to her mother; and is given, it from the power of the devil, which he exercises own recollection. The following singular le- be the great superstition of the Irish, and the want will be observed, on very venerable author
among thein very much." ity:
Ingenious and orthodox as this solution of “Dr. Howlsworih preached her funeral sermon, the mystery must be allowed to be, we conin which, upon his own knowledge, he told, before fess we should have been inclined to prefer many hundreds of people, this accident following: that of the fair sleeper having had a fit of That my mother, being sick to death of a fever three months after I was born, which was the occasion nightmare; had it not been for the conclusive she gave me suck no longer, her friends and ser testimony of the putative virgin of the house vants thought, to all outward appearance, that sbe of Thomond, who supplies the following aswas dead, and so lay almost two days and a night: tonishing confirmation; and leads us rather but Dr. Winston, coming to comfort my father, to suspect that the whole might have been a ly on her face, said she was so handsome, and now trick, to rid herself the sooner of their scrulooks so lovely, I cannot think she is dead; and pulous and decorous company. suddenly took a lancet out of his pocket, and wiih it cut the sole of her foot, which bled. Upon this shawe, the lady of the house came to see us,
" About five o'clock," continues Lady Fanhe immediately caused her to be laid upon the bed again, and to be rubbed, and such means, as she saying she had not been in bed all night, because came to life, and opening her eyes, saw two of her owned that house, had desired her to stay with
a cousin O'Brien of hers, whose ancestors had kinswomen stand by her, my Lady Knollys and him in his chamber, and that he died at two o'clock, my Lady Russell
, both with great wide sleeves, and she said, I wish you to have had no disas the fashion then was, and said, Did not you turbance, for' 'tis the custom of the place, that, promise me fifteen years, and are you come again when any of the family are dying, ihe shape of a already? which they not understanding, persuaded her to keep her spirits quiet in that great weakness be dead." This woman was many ages ago got
woman appears in the window every night vill they wherein she then was; but, some hours after, she with child by the owner of this place, who mur. desired my father and Dr. Howlsworth might be dered her in his garden, and Aung her into the river left alone with her, to whom she said, I will ac, under the window, but truly I thought not of it quaint you, that, during the time of my trance, I when I lodged you here, it being the best room in was in great quiet, but in a place I could neither the house." We made lile reply to her speech, distinguish nor describe ; but the sense of leaving but disposed ourselves :o be gone suddenly.' my girl, who is dearer to me than all my children, remained a trouble upon my spirits. Suddenly I We shall close this chapter, of the supersaw two by me, cloathed in long white
garments, natural, with the following rather remarkable dust; and they asked me why I was troubled in so ghost story, which is calculated, we think, to great happiness. I replied, o let me have the same make a strong impression on the imagination. grant given 19 Hezekiah, that I may live fifteen Our diligent chronicler picked it up, it seems, on her way through Canterbury in the year ink, and paper, which was your father's trade, and 1663; and it is thus honourably attested: by it, I assure you, we lived better than those who
were born to 20001. a year, as long as he had his ** And here I cannot omii relating the ensuing liberty."--pp. 37, 38. siory, confirmed by Sir Thomas Barien, Sir Arnold Breames, i he Dean of Canterbury, with many more
The next scene presents both of them in so gentlemen and persons of this town.
amiable and respectable a light, that we think ** There lives not far from Canterbury a gentle. it but justice to extract it, though rather long, man, called Colonel Colepeper. whose mother without any abridgment. It is, indeed, one was widow unto the Lord Strangford: this gentle; of the most pleasing and interesting passages man had a sister, who lived with him, as the world in the book. They had now gone to Bristol, said, in too much love. . She married Mr. Porier. This brother and sister being both atheists and in 1645. living a life according to their profession, went in a frolick into a vault of their ancestors, where, be
“My husband had provided very good lodgings fore they returned, they pulled some of their father's for us, and as soon as he could come home from and mother's hairs! Within a very few days after, the council, where he was at my arrival, he with Mrs. Porter fell sick and died. Her brother kept all expressions of joy received me in his arms, and her body in a coffin set up in his buttery, saying it gave me a hundred pieces of gold, saying, ' I know would not be long before he died, and then they thou that keeps my heart so well, will keep my would be both buried together ; but from the night fortune, which from this time I will ever put into afier her death, until the time that we were told ihe thy hands as God shall bless me with increase;' story, which was three months, they say that a head, and now I thought myself a perfect queen, and as cold as death, with curled hair like his sister's, my husband so glorious a crown, that I more valued did ever lie by him wherever he slept, notwith myself to be called by his name than born a standing he removed to several places and countries princess; for I knew him very wise and very good, to avoid ir; and several persons told us they also and his soul doated on me, --upon which confidence had felt this apparition."
I will tell you what happened. My Lady Rivers,
a brave woman, and one that had suffered many We may now go back a little to the affairs of thousand pounds loss for the king, and whom I had this world. Deep and devoted attachments are a great reverence for, and she a kindness for me as more frequently conceived in circumstances a kinswoman, in discourse she tacitly commended of distress and danger than in any other: the knowledge of state affairs; and that some and, accordingly, the love and marriage of thereof, as my Lady Aubigny, Lady Isabel Thynne,
women were very happy in a good understanding Sir Richard Fanshawe and his lady befel dur- and divers others, and yet none was at first more ing their anxious and perilous residence with capable than 1; that in the night she knew there the court at Oxford, in 1644. The following came a post from Paris from the queen, and that little sketch of the life they passed there is she would be extremely glad to hear what the curious and interesting :
queen commanded the king in order to his affairs;
saying, if I would ask my husband privately, he "My father commanded my sister and myself to would tell me what he found in the packet, and I come to him to Oxford, where the Court then was; might tell her. I, that was young and innocent, and but we, that had till ihat hour lived in great plenty to that day had never in my mouth. What news ?' and great order, found ourselves like fishes out of began to think there was more in inquiring into the water, and the scene so changed, that we knew public affairs than I thought of; and that it being a not at all bow to act any part but obedience; for, fashionable thing would make me more beloved of from as good a house as any gentleman of England my husband, if that had been possible, than I was. had, we came to a baker's house in an obscure When my husband returned home from council, street; and from rooms well furnished, to lie in a after welcoming him, as his custom ever was, he very bad bed in a garret, to one dish of meat, and went with his handful of papers into his study for an that not the best ordered, no money, for we were hour or more; I followed him; he turned hastily, and as poor as Job, nor clothes more than a man or two said, 'What wouldst thou have; my life?' I told brought in their cloak bags: we had the perpetual him, I heard the prince had received a packet from discourse of losing and gaining towns and men: at the queen, and I guessed it was that in his hand, and the windows the sad spectacle of war, sometimes I desired to know what was in it; he smilingly replagues, sometimes sicknesses of other kind, by plied, "My love, I will immediately come to thee ; reason of so many people being packed together, pray thee go, for I am very busy :' when he came as, I believe, there never was before of that quality; out of his closet I revived my suit; he kissed me, always in want, yet I must needs say, that most and talked of other things. At supper I would eat bore it with a martyr-like cheerfulness. For my nothing; he as usual sat by me, and drank often to own part, I began to think we should all, like me, which was his custom, and was full of discourse Abraham, live in tents all the days of our lives. to company that was at table. Going to bed I asked The king sent my father a warrant for a baronet, again ; and said I could not believe he loved me if but he returned it with thanks, saying he had 100 he refused to tell me all he knew; but he answer. much honour of his knighthood, which his majesty ed nothing, but stopped my mouth with kisses. So had honoured him with some years before, for the we went to bed; I cried, and he went 10 sleep! fortune he now possessed."-pp. 35–37.
Next morning early, as his custom was, he called
to rise, but began to discourse with me first, to They were married very privately the year which I made no reply; he rose, came on the other after; and certainly entered upon life with lit- side of the bed and kissed me, and drew the curtle but their mutual love to cheer and support tains softly, and went to court. When he came them; but it seems to have been sufficient.
home to dinner, he presently came to me as was
usual, and when I had him by the hand, I said, “Both his fortune and my pronised portion, Thou dost not care to see me troubled ;' to which which was made 10,0001, were both at that time in he, taking me in his arms, answered, “My dearest expectation; and we might truly be called merchant soul, nothing upon earth can afflict me like ihat: adveni urers, for the stock we set up our trading But when you asked me of my business, it was with did not amount to twenty pounds betwixt us; wholly out of my power to satisfy thee; for my life but, however, it was to us as a little piece of armour and fortune shall be thine, and every thought of is against a bullet, which, it it be right placed, my heart in which the trust I am in may not be though no bigger than a shilling, serves as well as revealed : But my honour is my own; 'which I a whole suit of armour; so our stock bought pen, I cannot preserve if I communicate the prince's
affairs; and, pray thee, with this answer rest satis- | darings of Mrs. Hutchinson,—though we canfied.' 'So great was his reason and goodness, thal, not say that the occasion called so clearly for upon consideration, it made my folly appear to me their display. During their voyage to Portudeath, I never thought fit to ask him
any business, gal, and but what he communicated freely to me, in order
When we had just passed the Straits, we saw to his estate or family."
coming towards us, with full sails, a Turkish galley, After the ill success of the royal arms had well manned, and we believed we should be all made it necessary for the Prince to retire be- carried away slaves, for this man had so laden his yond seas, Lady Fanshawe and her husband ship with goods for Spain, that his guns were use.
less, though the ship carried sixty guns. He called attended him to the Scilly Islands. We give for brandy, and after he had well drunken, and all this natural and simple picture of their dis- his men, which were near two hundred, he called comforts on that expedition :
for arms, and cleared the deck as well as he could,
resolving to fight raiher than lose his ship, which “ The next day, after having been pillaged, and was worth 30,0001. This was sad for us passengers: extremely sick and big with child, I was set on but my husband bid us be sure to keep in the cabin, shore, almost dead, in the island of Scilly; when and not appear, the women, which would make the we had got to our quarters near the castle, where Turks think that we were a man-of-war, but if the prince lay, I went immediately to bed, which they saw women, they would take us for merchants, was so vile that my footman ever lay in a better, and board us. He went upon the deck, and took a and we had but three in the whole house, which gun and bandoliers, and sword, and, with the rest consisted of four rooms, or rather partitions, two of the ship's company, stood upon deck expecting low rooms, and two little lofts, with a ladder to go the arrival of the Turkish man-of-war. This beast, up: in one of these they kepy dried fish, which was the captain, had locked me up in the cabin; I knock his trade, and in this my husband's two clerks lay; ed and called long to no purpose, until at length the one there was for my sister, and one for myself
, cabin-boy came and opened the door. I, all in and one amongst the rest of the servants; but tears, desired him to be so good as to give me his when I waked in the morning, I was so cold blue ihrum cap he wore, and his tarred coat, which knew not what to do; but the daylight discovered he did, and I gave him half-a-crown, and putting that my bed was near swimming with the sea, them on, and finging away my night-clothes, I which ihe owner told us afterwards it never did — crept up softly and stood upon the deck by my but al spring lides.''
husband's side, as free from sickness and sear as, I We must not omit her last interview with confess, from discretion ; but it was the effect of her unfortunate Sovereign, which took place that passion which I could never master. at Hampton Court, when his star was hastening parley, and so well satisfied with speech and sight
• By this time the two vessels were engaged in to its setting! It is the only interview with of each other's forces, that the Turks' man-of-war that unhappy Prince of which she has left tacked about, and we continued our course. But any notice; and is, undoubtedly, very touch- when your father saw it convenient to retreat, looking and amiable.
ing upon me, he blessed himself, and snatched me
up in his arms, saying, 'Good God, that love can During his stay at Hampion Court, my hus. make this change!' and though he seemingly chid band was with him ; to whom he was pleased 10 he would laugh at it as often as he remembered talk much of his concerns, and gave him three thai voyage." credentials for Spain, with private instructions, and letters for his service : But God, for our sins, dis- What follows is almost as strong a proof of posed his Majesty's affairs otherwise. I went three that "love which casteth out fear;" while it times to pay my duty to him, both as I was the is more unexceptionable on the score of prudaughter of his servant, and wife of bis servant. dence. Sir Richard, being in arms for the The last time I ever saw him, when I took my lcave, I could not refrain from weeping, When he King at the fatal batile of Worcester, was afhad saluted me, I prayed to God' 10 preserve his terwards taken prisoner, and brought to Lonmajesty with long life and happy years; he stroked don; to which place his faithful consort imme on ihe cheek, and said, Child, if God pleaseth mediately repaired, where, in the midst of it shall be so ! both you and I must submit to God's her anxieties, will, and you know in what hands I am in ;' then turning to your father, he said, Be sure, Dick, 10 "I met a messenger from him with a letter, tell my sou all that I have said, and deliver those which advised me of his condition, and told me he letters to my wife; pray God bless her! I hope I was very civilly used, and said little more, but that shall do well;' and iaking him in his arms, said, I should be in some room at Charing Cross, where 'Thou hast ever been an honest man, and I hope he had promise from his keeper that he should rest God will bless thee, and make thee a happy ser. there in my company at dinner-time; this was vant to my son, whom I have charged in my letter meant 10 him as a great favour. I expected him to continue his love, and trust to you ;' adding, 'I with impatience, and on the day appointed provided do promise you, that if ever I am restored to my a dinner and room, as ordered, in which I was with dignity, I will bountifully reward you for both your my father and some more of our friends, where, service and sufferings.' Thus did we part from about eleven of the clock, we saw hundreds of that glorious sun, that within a few months after poor soldiers, both English and Scotch, march all was murdered, to the grief of all Christians that naked on foot, and many with your father, who were not forsaken by God."
was very cheerful in appearance; who, after he had These are almost sufficient specimens of spoken and saluted me and his friends there, said, the work before us; for it would not be fair to line I have to spare ; this is the chance of war;
• Pray let us not lose time, for I know not how extract the whole substance of it. However, nothing venture, nothing have; so let us sit down we must add the following striking trait of and be merry whilst we may;' then taking my heroism and devoted affection, especially as hand in his, and kissing me, *Cease weeping, no we have spoken rather too disparagingly of other thing upon earth can move me; remember the fair writer's endowment of those qualities. We are all at God's disposal.
“During the time of his imprisonment, I failed In point of courage and love to her husband not constanıly to go, when the clock struck four in it is quite on a level, perhaps with any of the the morning, with a dark lantern in my hand all
alone and on foot, from my lodging in Chancery coach, the soldiers stood to their arms, and the Lane, at my cousin Young's, to Whitehall, in at lieutenant that held the colours displaying them, the entry that went out of King Street into the which is never done to any one but kings, or such bowling.green. There I would go under his window as represent their persons : I stood still all the and sotily call him; he, after the first time except while, then at the lowering of the colours to the ed, never failed to put out his head at the first call; ground, they received for them a low courtesy froin thus we talked together, and sometimes I was so me, and for himself a bow; then taking coach, with wet with the rain, that it went in at my neck and very many persons, both in coaches and on foot, I out at my heels. He directed how I should make went to the duke's palace, where I was again re. my addresses, which I did ever to their general, ceived by a guard of his excellency's, with the Cromwell, who had a great respect for your father, same ceremony of the king's colours as before. and would have bought him off to his service, upon Then I was received by the duke's brother and any terms.
near a hundred persons of quality. I laid my hand * Being one day to solicit for my husband's upon the wrist of his excellency's right hand; he liberty for a time, he bid me bring, the next day, a putting his cloak thereupon, as ihe Spanish fashion certiñcate from a physician that he was really ill. is, went up the stairs, upon the top of which stood Immediately I went to Dr. Batters, that was by the duchess and her daughter, who received me with chance both physician to Cromwell and to our great civility, puting me into every door, and all family, who gave me one very favourable in my my children, till we came to sit down in her excel. busband's behalf. I delivered it at the Council | lency's chamber, where she placed me upon her Chamber, at three of the clock that afternoon, as right hand, upon cushions, as the fashion of this he commanded me, and he himself moved, that court is, being very rich, and laid upon Persian seeing they could make no use of his imprisonment, carpets.'' whereby to lighten them in their business, that he " The iwo dukes embraced my husband with might have his liberty upon 40001. bail, to take a great kindness, welcoming him to the place, and course of physic, he being dangerously ill. Many the Duke of Medina Celi led me to my coach, an spake against it; but most Sir Henry Vane, who honour that he had never done any but once, when said he would be as instrumental, for ought he he waited on your queen to help her on the like knew, to hang them all that sat there, if ever he occasion. The Duke d’Alcala led my eldest daugh. had opportunity; but if he had liberty for a time, ter, and the younger led my second, and the Gov. that he might iake the engagement before he weni ernor of Cadiz, Don Antonio de Pimentel, led the out; upon which Cromwell said, I never knew third. Mrs. Kesrian carried Betty in her arms." that the engagement was a medicine for the scor. butic!' They, hearing their general say so, thought
There is great choice of this sort for those it obliged him, and so ordered him his liberty upon who like it; and not a little of the more bail."
solemn and still duller discussion of diplomatic These are specimens of what we
think pest of these, and of the genealogies and obitua
etiquette and precedence. But, independent in the work; but, as there may be readers ries, which are not altogether without interest, who would take an interest in her description there is enough both of heart, and sense,
and of court ceremonies, or, at least, like to see how she manages them, we shall conclude
observation, in these memoirs, at once to rewith a little fragment of such a description.
pay gentle and intelligent readers for the
trouble of perusing them, and to stamp a " This afternoon I went to pay my visit to the character of amiableness and respectability Duchess of Albuquerque. When I came to take on the memory of their author.
(November 1825.) Memoirs of SAMUEL PEPYs, Esq. F.R.S., Secretary to the Admiralty in the Reign of Charles
II. and James II., comprising his Diary from 1659 to 1669, deciphered by the Rev. John Smith, A. B., of St. John's College, Cambridge, from the original Shorthand MS. in the Pepysian Library, and a Selection from his Private Correspondence. Edited by Richard LORD BRAYBROOKE. 2 vols. 4to. London: 1825.
We have a great indulgence, we confess, and tastes, and principles, have been comfor the taste, or curiosity, or whatever it may monly found associated or disunited: And be called, that gives its value to such publica- as, in uncultivated lands, we can often judge tions as this; and are inclined to think the of their inherent fertility by the quality of the desire of knowing, pretty minutely, the man- weeds they spontaneously produce — so we ners and habits of former times, -of under, may learn, by such an inspection of the moral standing, in all their details, the character and growths of a country, compared with its subordinary way of life and conversation of our sequent history, what prevailing manners are forefathers-a very liberal and laudable de- indicative of vice or of virtue—what existing sire; and by no means to be confounded with follies foretell approaching wisdom – what that hankering after contemporary slander, forms of licentiousness give promise of comwith which this age is so miserably infested, ing purity, and what of deeper degradationand so justly reproached. It is not only curi- what uncertain lights, in short, announce the ous to see from what beginnings, and by what rising, and what the setting sun! While, in steps, we have come to be what we are :- like manner, we may trace in the same records But it is most important, for the future and the connection of public and private morality, for the present, to ascertain what practices, and the mutual action and reaction of government and manners;—and discover what indi. | were produced on the society of Athens or vidual corruptions spring from political dis- Sparta by the battles of Marathon or Salamis, honour - what domestic profligacy leads to we are indebted not so much to the histories the sacrifice of freedom and what national of Herodotus, Xenophon, or Thucydides, as virtues are most likely to resist the oppres- to the Deipnosophists of Athenæus—the anecsions, or yield to the seductions of courts. dotes of Plutarch-the introductory and inci.
Of all these things History tells us little- dental passages of the Platonic dialoguesand yet they are the most important that she the details of some of the private orationscould have been employed in recording. She and parts of the plays of Plautus and Terence, has been contented, however, for the most apparently copied from the Greek comedies. part, with detailing merely the broad and ap. For our personal knowledge of the Romans, parent results--the great public events and again, we do not look to Livy, or Dionysiustransactions, in which the true working prin- or even to Cæsar, Sallust, or Tacitus; but to ciples of its destiny have their end and con- Horace, Petronius, Juvenal, and the other summation; and points only to the wrecks or satirists—to incidental notices in the Orations the triumphs that float down the tide of human and Dialogues of Cicero—and above all to his affairs, without giving us any light as to those invaluable letters,—followed up by those of ground currents by which its central masses Pliny,-10 intimations in Plutarch, and Seneca, are governed, and of which those superficial and Lucian-to the books of the Civil lawappearances are, in most cases, the necessary and the biographies and anecdotes of the though unsuspected effects.
Empire, from Suetonius to Procopius. Of the Every one feels, we think, how necessary feudal times—the heroic age of odern Euthis information is, if we wish to understand rope--we have fortunately more abundant and what antiquity really was, and what manner minute information, both in the Romances of of men existed in former generations. How chivalry, which embody all the details of vague and unsatisfactory, without it, are all upper life; and in the memoirs and chronicles public annals and records of dynasties and of such writers as Commines and Froissart, battles--of how little interest to private indi- which are filled with so many individual picviduals—of how little use even to philosophers tures and redundant particularities, as to leave and statesmen! Before we can apply any us scarcely any thing more to learn or to wish example in history, or even comprehend its for, as to the manners and character, the temactual import, we must know something of per and habits, and even the daily life and the character, both of the age and of the per. conversation of the predominating classes of sons to which it belongs—and understand a society, who then stood for every thing in good deal of the temper, tastes, and occupa- those countries: And, even with regard to tions, both of the actors and the sufferers.-- their serfs and vassals, we are not without Good and evil, in truth, change natures, with most distinct and intelligible lights—both in a change of those circumstances; and we scattered passages of the works we have almay be lamenting as the most intolerable of ready referred to, in various ancient ballads calamities, what was scarcely felt as an inflic- and legends relating to their condition, and in tion, by those on whom it fell. Without this such invaluable records as the humorous and knowledge, therefore, the most striking and more familiar tales of our immortal Chaucer. important events are mere wonders, to be For the character and ordinary life of our stared at-altogether barren of instruction- more immediate ancestry, we may be said to and probably leading us astray, even as occa- owe our chief knowledge of it to Shakespeare, sions of sympathy or moral emotion. Those and the comic dramatists by whom he was minute details, in short, which History has so succeeded-reinforced and supported by the often rejected as below her dignity, are indis-infinite quantity of obscure and insignificant pensable to give life, certainty, or reality to matter which the industry of his commentaher delineations; and we should have little tors has brought back to light for his elucidahesitation in asserting, that no history is really tion—and which the matchless charm of his worth any thing, unless it relate to a people popularity has again rendered both interesting and an age of which we have also those hum- and familiar. The manners and habits of still bler and more private memorials. It is not in later times are known to us, not by any means the grand tragedy, or rather the epic fictions, by our public histories, but by the writers of of History, that we learn the true condition of farces and comedies, polite essays, libels, and former ages—the real character of past gene- satires-by collections of private letters, like rations, or even the actual effects that were those of Gray, Swift, Arbuthnot, and 'Lord produced on society or individuals at the time, Orford-by private memoirs or journals, such by the great events that are there so solemnly as those of Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson, Swift's recorded. If we have not some remnants or Journal to Stella, and Doddington's Diarysome infusion of the Comedy of middle life, and, in still later times, by the best of our gay we neither have any idea of the state and and satirical novels—by caricature prints—by colour of the general existence, nor any just the better newspapers and magazines, and understanding of the transactions about which by various minute accounts (in the manner of we are reading.
Boswell's Life of Johnson) of the private life For what we know of the ancient Greeks and conversation of distinguished individuals. for example—for all that enables us to ima- The work before us relates to a period of gine what sort of thing it would have been to which we have already very considerable have lived among them, or even what effects | memorials. But it is, notwithstanding, of