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finds "his whole life delineated with large, the elective affinities prevail. Theresa begins sharp strokes, and a number of bland and to cool to her new love.; and, on condition of general reflections !" We doubt whether Natalia undertaking to comfort Wilhelm, conthere is any such nonsense as this, any sents to go back to her engagements with Lowhere else in the universe.
thario—and the two couples, and some more, After this illumination, the first step he are happily united. takes, with the assent of these oracular sages, This is the ultimate catastrophe—though is to propose for Theresa, in a long letter. they who seek it in the book will not get at it But while waiting for her answer, he is sent quite so easily—there being an infinite varieby Lothario to visit his sister, to whose care, ty of other events intermingled or premised. it appears, poor Mignon had been transferred There is the death of poor Mignon-and her by Theresa. This sister he takes, of course, musical obsequies in the Hall of the Pastfor the Countess from whom he had parted the arrival of an Italian Marchese, who turns 80 strangely in the castle, and is a little em- out to be her uncle, and recognises his brother barrassed at the thought of meeting her. But in the old crazy harper, of whom, though he he discovers on the road that there is another has borne us company all along, we have not sister; and that she is the very healing an- had time to take notice—the return of Philigel who had given him the great coat when na along with a merry cadet of Lothario's wounded in the forest, and had haunted his house, as sprightly and indecorous as everfancy ever since.
the saving of Felix from poisoning, by his “He entered the house ; he found himself in the drinking out of the bottle instead of the glass most earnest, and, as he almost fell, the holiest -and ihe coming in of the Count, whom place, which he had ever trod. A pendent dazzling Wilhelm had driven into dotage and piety by lustre threw its light upon a broad and softly rising wearing his clothes—and the fair Countess, stair, which lay before him, and which paried into who is now discovered to have suffered for two divisions at a turn above. Marble statues and busts were standing upon pedestals, and arranged in years from her momentary lapse in the castle niches; some of them seemed known to him. The —the picture of her husband having, by a impressions of our childhood abide with us, even most apt retribution, been pressed so hard to in their minulest traces. He recognised a Muse her breast in that stolen embrace, as to give which had formerly belonged to his grandfather." pain at the time, and to afflict her with fears
He finds poor Mignon in a wretched state of cancer for very long after! Besides all of health—and ascertains that it is a secret this, there are the sayings of a very decided passion for him that is preying on her deli- and infallible gentleman called Jarno—and cate form. In the mean time, and just as his his final and not very intelligible admission, romantic love for Natalia (his fair hostess) that all which our hero had seen in the hall has resumed its full sway, she delivers him of the castle was 6 but the relics of a youthful Theresa's letter of acceptance-very kind and undertaking, in which the greater part of the confiding, but warning him not to lay out any initiated were once in deep earnest, though of his money, till she can assist and direct him all of them now viewed it with a smile." about the investment. This letter perplex- Many of the passages to which we have es him a little, and he replies, with a bad now alluded are executed with great talent; grace, to the warm congratulations of Natalia and we are very sensible are better worth ex—when, just at this moment Lothario's friend tracting than many of those we have cited. steps in most opportunely to inform them, But it is too late now to change our selections that Theresa had been discovered not to be —and we can still less afford to add to them. the daughter of her reputed mother!—and on the whole, we close the book with some that the bar to her union with Lothario was feelings of mollification towards its faults, therefore at an end. Wilhelm affects great and a disposition to abate, if possible, some magnanimity, in resigning her to his prior part of the censure we were impelled to beclaims—but is puzzled by the warmth of her stow on it at the beginning. It improves cerlate acceptance and still more, when a still tainly as it advances and though nowhere more ardent letter arrives, in which she sticks probable, or conversant indeed either with to her last choice, and assures him that “her natural or conceivable characters, the inventdream of living with Lothario has wandered ive powers of the author seem to strengthen far away from her soul;" and the matter by exercise, and come gradually to be less seems finally settled, when she comes post- frequently employed on childish or revolting haste in her own person, flies into his arms, subjects. While we hold out the work thereand exclaims, "My friend-my love-my fore as a curious and striking instance of that husband ! Yes, for ever thine! amidst the diversity of national tastes, which makes a warmest kisses”—and he responds, "O my writer idolized in one part of polished Europe, Theresa !!-and kisses in return. In spite who could not be tolerated in another, we of all this, however, Lothario and his friends would be understood as holding it out as an come to urge his suit; and, with the true Ger- object rather of wonder than of contempt; man taste for impossibilities and protracted and though the greater part certainly could agonies, the whole party is represented as not be endured, and indeed could not have living together quite quietly and harmonious- been written in England, there are many pasly for several weeks-none of the parties sages of which any country might reasonably pressing for a final determination, and all of be proud, and which demonstrate that if taste them occupied, in the interval, with a variety be local and variable, genius is permanent and of tasks, duties, and dissertations. At last universal. >
(October, 1804.) The Correspondence of SAMUEL RICHARDSON, Author of Pamela, Clarissa, and Sir Charles
Grandison ; selected from the original Manuscripts bequeathed to his Family. To which are prefixed, a Biographical account of that Author, and Observations on his Writings. By Anna LETITIA BARBAULD. ' 6 vols. 8vo. Phillips, London: 1804.
The public has great reason to be satisfied, and of his sitting down, after his adventures we think, with Mrs. Barbauld's share in this are concluded, to give a particular account of publication. She has contributed a very well them to the public. written Introduction; and she has suppressed There is something rather childish, we about twice as many letters as are now pre- think, in all this investigation ; and the probsented to our consideration. Favourably as lem of comparative probability seems to be we are disposed to think of all for which stated purely for the pleasure of the solution. she is directly responsible, the perusal of the No reader was ever disturbed, in the middle whole six volumes has fully convinced us of an interesting story, by any scruple about that we are even more indebted to her for the means or the inducements which the nar. bearance than to her bounty.
rator may be presumed to have had for tellThe fair biographer unquestionably posses- ing it. While he is engaged with the story, ses very considerable talents, and exercises such an inquiry never suggests itself; and her powers of writing with singular judgment when it is suggested, he recollects that the and propriety. Many of her observations are whole is a fiction, invented by the author for acute and striking, and several of them very his amusement, and that the best way of fine and delicate. Yet this is not, perhaps, communicating it must be that by which he the general character of her genius; and it is most interested and least fatigued. To us must be acknowledged, that she has a tone it appears very obvious, that the first of the and manner which is something formal and three modes, or the author's own narrative, is heavy; that she occasionally delivers trite and by far the most eligible; and for this plain obvious truths with the pomp and solemnity reason, that it lays him under much less reof important discoveries, and sometimes at- straint than either of the other two. He can tempts to exalt and magnify her subject by introduce a letter or a story whenever he a very clumsy kind of declamation. With finds it convenient, and can make use of the all those defects, however, we think the life dramatic or conversation style as often as and observations have so much substantial the subject requires it. In epistolary writing merit, that most readers will agree with us there must be a great deal of repetition and in thinking that they are worth much more egotism; and we must submit, as on the than all the rest of the publication.
stage, to the intolerable burden of an insipid She sets off indeed with a sort of formal confidant, with whose admiration of the hero's dissertation upon novels and romances in epistles the reader may not always be disgeneral; and, after obligingly recapitulating posed to sympathize. There is one species the whole history of this branch of literature, of novel indeed (but only one), to which the from the Theagenes and Chariclea of Helio- epistolary style is peculiarly adapted; that is, dorus to the Gil Blas and Nouvelle Heloise the novel, in which the whole interest deof modern times, she proceeds to distinguish pends, not upon the adventures, but on the these performances into three several classes, characters of the persons represented, and in according to the mode and form of narration which the story is of very subordinate imadopted by the author. The first, she is portance, and only serves as an occasion to pleased to inform us, is the narrative or epic draw forth the sentiments and feelings of the form, in which the whole story is put into the agents. The Heloise of Rousseau may be mouth of the author, who is supposed, like considered as the model of this species of the Muse, to know every thing, and is not writing; and Mrs. Barbauld certainly overobliged to give any account of the sources of looked this obvious distinction, when she ashis information; the second is that in which serted that the author of that extraordinary the hero relates his own adventures, and the work is to be reckoned among the imitators of third is that of epistolary correspondence, Richardson. In the Heloise, there is scarcely where all the agents in the drama successive any narrative at all; and the interest may be ly narrate the incidents in which they are said to consist altogether in the eloquent exprincipally concerned. It was with Richard- pression of fine sentiments and exalted passon, Mrs. Barbauld then informs us, that this sion. All Richardson's novels, on the other last mode of novel writing originated; and hand, are substantially narrative; and the she enters into a critical examination of its ad- letters of most of his characters contain little vantages and disadvantages, and of the com- more than a minute journal of the conversaparative probability of a person dispatching a tions and transactions in which they were narrative of every interesting incident or con successively engaged. The style of Richardversation in his life to his friends by the post, son might be perfectly copied, though the
epistolary form were to be dropped; but no society, than in reading to these girls in, it may be, imitation of the Heloise could be recognised, a little back shop; or a mantua-maker's parlour if it were not in the shape of letters.
with a brick floor."-p. xl. xli. After finishing her discourse upon Novels, During his apprenticeship, he distinguished Mrs. Barbauld proceeds to lay before her himself only by exemplary diligence and readers some account of the life and perform- fidelity; though he informs us, that he even ances of Richardson. The biography is very then enjoyed the correspondence of a gentlescanty, and contains nothing that can be man, of great accomplishments, from whose thought very interesting. He was the son of patronage, if he had lived, he entertained the a joiner in Derbyshire; but always avoided highest expectations. The rest of his worldly mentioning the town in which he was born. history seems to have been pretty nearly that He was intended at first for the church; but of Hogarth's virtuous apprentice. He married his father, finding that the expense of his his master's daughter, and succeeded to his education would be too heavy, at last bound business; extended his wealth and credit by him apprentice to a printer. He never was sobriety, punctuality, and integrity; bought a acquainted with any language but his own. residence in the country; and, though he did From his childhood, he was remarkable for not attain to the supreme dignity of Lord invention, and was famous among his school- Mayor of London, arrived in due time at the fellows for amusing them with tales and respectable situation of Master of the Worstories which he composed extempore, and shipful Company of Stationers. In this course usually rendered, even at that early age, the of obscure prosperity, he appears to have vehicle of some useful moral. He was con- continued till he had passed his fiftieth year, stitutionally shy and bashful; and instead of without giving any intimation of his future mixing with his companions in noisy sports celebrity, and even without appearing to be and exercises, he used to read and converse conscious that he was differently gifted from with the sedate part of the other sex, or assist the other flourishing traders of the metropolis. them in the composition of their love-letters. He says of himself
, we observe, in one of The following passage, extracted by Mrs. these letters—“My business, till within these Barbauld from one of the suppressed letters, few years, filled all my time. I had no is more curious and interesting, we think, leisure; nor, being unable to write by a reguthan any thing in those that are published. lar plan, knew I that I had so much invention, “As a bashful and not forward boy, I was an
till I almost accidentally slid into the writing early favourite with all the young women of taste
of Pamela. And besides, little did I imagine and reading in the neighbourhood. Half a dozen that any thing I could write would be so of them, when met to work with their needles, kindly received by the world.”' Of the origin used, when they got a book they liked, and thought and progress of this first work he has himself I should, to borrow me to read to them; their left the following authentic account. mothers sometimes with them; and both mothers and daughters used to be pleased with the observa. "Two booksellers, my particular friends, en. tions they put me upon making.
treated me to wrile for them a little volume of “I was not more than thirteen, when three of letters, in a common style, on such subjects as these young women, unknown to each other, having might be of use to those country readers who were an high opinion of my taciturnity, revealed to me unable to indite for themselves. Will it be any their love-secrets in order to induce me to give them harm, said I. in a piece you want to be written su copies to write afier, or correct, for answers to their low, if we should instruct them how they should lovers' letters; nor did any of them ever know that think and act in common cases, as well as indile i I was the secretary to the others. I have been di. They were the more urgent with me to begin the rected to chide, and even to repulse, when an little volume for this hint. I set about it; and, in offence was either taken or given, at the very time the progress of it, writing two or three letters to that the heart of the chider or repulser was open instruct handsome girls. who were obliged to go before me, overflowing with esteem and affection; out to service, as we phrase it, how to avoid the and the fair repulser, dreading to be taken at her snares that might be laid against their virtue: she word, directing this word, or that expression, to be above story recurred to my thought: and hence softened or changed. One highly gratified with sprung Pamela."--Introd. p. li. her lover's fervour and vows of everlasting love, has said, when I have asked her direction- I can. This publication, we are told, which made not tell you what to write; but (her heart on her its first appearance in 1740, was received with lips) you cannot write 100 kindly.. All her fear a burst of applause. Dr. Sherlock recomwas only that she should incur slight for her kind. mended it from the palpit. Mr. Pope said it ness."-Vol. i. Introduction, p, xxxix. xl.
would do more good than volumes of sermons; We add Mrs. Barbauld's observation on and another literary oracle declared, that if this passage, for the truth of the sentiment it all other books were to be burnt, Paruela and contains, though more inelegantly written the Bible should be preserved! Its success than any other sentence in her performance. was not less brilliant in the world of fashion. “ Human nature is human nature in every class ;
* Even at Ranelagh," Mirs. Barbanid assures the hopes and the fears, the perplexities and the us, "it was usual for the ladies to hold the
up struggles, of these low-bred girls in probably an volumes to one another, to show they had got obscure village, supplied the future author with the book that every one was talking of." Asd, those ideas which, by their gradual development, what will appear still more extraordinary, one mentina ; nor was he probably happier, or amused gentleman declares, that he will give it to his in a more lively manner, when sitting in his grollo, son as soon as he can read, that he may have with a circle of the best informed women in Eng: an early impression of virtue. ---After laithfully land about him, who in after times courted bis reciting these and other testimonies of the
high estimation in which this work was once cious observations upon this popular and held by all ranks of people, Mrs. Barbauld original performance. After a slight sketch subjoins some very acute and judicious ob- of ihe story, she observes, servations both on its literary merits and its
"The plot, as we have seen, is simple, and no moral tendency. We cannot find room for the underplois interfere with the main design—no di. whole of this critique; but there is so much gressions, no episodes. It is wonderful that, without good sense and propriety in the following pas- these helps of common writers, he could support a sage, that we cannot refrain from inserting it. work of such length. With Clarissa it begins,
with Clarissa it ends. We do not come upon un"So long as Pamela is solely occupied in schemes expected adventures and wonderful recognitions, by to escape from her persecutor, her virtuous resista quick turns and surprises : We see her fate from ance oblains our unqualified approbation ; but from afar, as it were through a long avenue, the gradual the moment she begins to entertain hopes of mar- approach to which, without ever losing sight of the rying him, we admire her guarded prudence, rather object, has more of simplicity and grandeur than the than her purity of mind. She has an end in view, most cunning labyrinth that can be contrived by an interesied end; and we can only consider her as art. In the approach to the modern country seat, the conscious possessor of a treasure, which she is we are made to catch transienıly a side-view of it wisely resolved not to part with but for its just price through an opening of the trees, or to burst upon it Her staying in his house a moment after she found from a sudden furning in the road; but the old herse!f at liberty to leave it, was totally unjustifiable: mansion stood full in the eye of the traveller, as he her repentant lover oughi to have followed her to drew near it, contemplating its turrets, which grew her father's cotiage, and to have married her from larger and more distinct every step that he adthence. The familiar footing upon which she con- vanced; and leisurely filling his eye and his imagindescends to live with the odious Jewkes, shows ation with still increasing ideas of its magnificence. also, that her fear of offending the man she hoped As the work advances, the character rises; the to make her husband, had got the better of her distress is deepened; our hearts are torn with pily delicacy and just resentment; and the same fear and indignation; bursts of grief succeed one another, leads her to give up her correspondence with honest will at length the mind is composed and harmonized Mr. Williams, who had generously sacrificed his with emotions of milder sorrow; we are calmed interest with his patron in order to effect her deliv. into resignation, elevated with pious hope, and diserance. In real life, we should, at this period, con missed glowing with the conscious triumphs of virsider Pamela as an interesting girl: but the author iue.--Introd. pp. Ixxxiii. Ixxxiv. says, she married Mr. B. because he had won her atřection: and we are bound, it may be said, to be.
She then makes some excellent remarks on lieve an author's own arcount of his characters the conduct of the story, and on the characters But again, ir is quite natural that a girl, who had that enliven it; on that of the heroine, she such a genuine love for virtue, should feel her heart observes, atrac ed to a man who was endeavouring to destroy that virrue? Can a woman value her honour infi. “In one instance, however, Clarissa certainly Ditely above her life, and hold in serious detestation sins against the delicacy of her character, that is, every word and look contrary to the nicest purity, in allowing herself to be made a show of to the and yet be won by those very attempts against her loose companions of Lovelace. But, how does her honour to which she expresses so much repugnance? character rise, when we come to the more distress-His altempis were of the grossest nature ; and ful scenes; the view of her horror, when, deluded previous to. and during those attempts, he endeav. by the preiended relations, she re-enters the fatal oured to intimidate her by siernness. He puts on
house; her temporary insanity afier the outrage, in the master too much, 1o win upon her as the lover, which she so affectingly holds up to Lovelace the liCan affection be kindled by outrage and insulti cence he had procured, and her dignified behaviour Surely, if her passions were capable of being awa. when she firsi sees her ravisher, after the perpetra. kened in his favour, during such a persecution, the tion of his crime! What finer subject could be precircumstance would be capable of an interpretation sented to the painter, than the prison scene, where very little consistent with that delicacy the author she is represented kneeling amidst the gloom and meant to give her. The other alternative is, thai horror of that dismal abode ; illuminating, as it she married him for
were, the dark chamber, her face reclined on her “The gilt coach and dappled Flanders miares.'
crossed arms, her white garments floating round
her in the negligence of woe ; Belford contemplating Indeed, the excessive humility and grasimude ex. her with respectful commiseration : Or, the scene pressed by herself and her parents on her exaltation, of calmer bui heart-piercing sorrow, in the interview shews a regard to rank and riches beyond the just Colonel Morden has with her in her dying momeasure of an independent mind. The pious good-ments! She is represented fallen into a slumber, in man Andrews should not have thought his virtuous her elbow.chair, leaning on the widow Lovick, daughter an infinitely beneath her licentious mas- whose left arm is around her neck: one faded ter, who, after all, married her !o gratify his own cheek resting on the good woman's bosom, the passions.- Introd. pp. Ixii. Ixvi.
kindly warmth of which had overspread it with a The first part of this work, which concludes faintish flush, the other pale and hollow, as if alwith the marriage of the heroine, was written of the veins contrasting their whiteness, hanging
ready iced over by death; her hands, the blueness in three months; and was founded, it seems, lifeless before her-the widow's tears dropping un. on a real story which had been related to telt upon her face--Colonel Morden, with his arms Richardson by a gentleman of his acquaint- folded, gazing on her in silence, her coffin just apance. It was followed by a second part, con- pearing behind a screen. What admiration, what fessedly very inferior to the first, and was
reverence, does the au' hor inspire us with for the ridiculed by Fielding in his Joseph Andrews; liar nature !
innocent sufferer, ihe sufferings 100 of such a pecuan offence for which he was never forgiven. “There is something in virgin puriiy, to which
Within eight years after the appearance of the imagination willingly pays homage. In all ages, Pamela. Richardson's reputation may be said something saintly has been attached to the idea of publication of the volumes of his Clarissa. Richardson to overcome all circumstances of disWe have great pleasure in laying before our around the violated virgin, more radiant than she readers a part of Mrs. Barbauld's very judi- | possessed in her first bloom. He has drawn the
triumph of mental chastity; he has drawn it un. man whose study it is to avoid fighting is not quite contaminated. untarnished, and incapable of min- so likely as anoi her to be the best.' gling with pollution. The scenes which follow the
Introd. pp. cxxvii. cxxvi. death of the heroine, exhibit grief in an affecting variety of forms, as it is modified by the characters
Besides his great works, Richardson pubof different survivors. They run into considerable lished only a paper in the Rambler (the 97th); length, but we have been so deeply interested, tha: an edition of Æsop's Fables, with Reflections; we feel it a relief to have our grief drawn off, as it and a volume of Familiar Letters for the use were, by a variety of sluices, and we are glad not of persons in inferior situations. It was this to be dismissed ill we have shed tears, even to latter work which gave occasion to Pamela : satiety."-Introd. pp. xciii.xcvii.
it is excellently adapted to its object, and we This criticism we think is equally judicious think may be of singular use to Mr. Wordsand refined; and we could easily prolong this worth and his friends in their great scheme extract, in a style not at all inferior. With of turning all our poetry into the language of regard to the morality of the work, Mrs. Bar- the common people. In this view, we rebauld is very indignant at the notion of its commend it very earnestly to their considera. being intended to exhibit a rare instance of tion. female chastity.
There is little more to be said of the transShe objects with some reason, to the num- actions or events of Richardson's life.
His ber of interviews which Clarissa is represented books were pirated by the Dublin booksellers: to have had with Lovelace after the catas- at which he was very angry, and could obtain trophe; and adds, " If the reader, on casually no redress. He corresponded with a great opening the book, can doubt of any scene be- number of females; and gradually withdrew tween them, whether it passes before or after himself from the fatigues of business to his the outrage, that scene is one too much."- country residence at Parson's Green ; where The character of Lorelace, she thinks, is very his life was at last terminated in 1761, by a much of a fancy piece; and affirms, that our stroke of apoplexy, at the age
of seventy-two. national manners do not admit of the existence His moral character was in the highest deof an original. If he had been placed in gree exemplary and amiable. He was temFrance, she observes, and his gallantries di- perate, industrious, and upright; punctual and rected to married women, it might have been honourable in all his dealings; and with a more natural; “but, in England, Lovelace kindness of heart, and a liberality and genewould have been run through the body, long rosity of disposition, that must have made him before he had seen the face either of Clarissa a very general favourite, even if he had never or Colonel Morden."
acquired any literary distinction.—He had a Mrs. Barbauld gives us a copious account considerable share of vanity, and was observ. of the praise and admiration that poured in ed to talk more willingly on the subject of his upon the author from all quarters, on the pub- own works than on any other. The lowness lication of this extraordinary work: he was of his original situation, and the lateness of overwhelmed with complimentary letters, his introduction into polite society, had given messages, and visits. But we are most grati- to his manners a great shyness and reserve; fied with the enthusiasm of one of his female and a consciousness of his awkwardness and correspondents, who tells him that she is very his merit together, rendered him somewhat sorry," that he was not a woman, and blest jealous in his intercourse with persons in more with the means of shining as Clarissa did; for conspicuous situations, and made him require a person capable of drawing such a character, more courting and attention, than every one would certainly be able to act in the same was disposed to pay. He had high notions of manner, if in a like situation !"
parental authority, and does not seem always After Clarissa, at an interval of about five quite satisfied with the share of veneration years, appeared his Sir Charles Grandison. which his wife could be prevailed on to show Upon this work, also, Mrs. Barbauld has made for him. He was particularly partial to the many excellent observations, and pointed out society of females; and lived, indeed, as Mrs. both its blemishes and beauties, with a very Barbauld has expressed it, in a flower-garden delicate and discerning hand. Our limits will of ladies. Mrs. Barbauld will have it, that not permit us to enter upon this disquisition: this was in the way of his profession as an we add only the following acute paragraph. author; and that he frequented their society “Sir Charles, as a Christian, was not to fight a
to study the female heart, and instruct him. duel; yet he was to be recognised as the finished self in all the niceties of the female characgentleman, and could not be allowed to want the ter. From the tenor of the correspondence most essential part of the characier, the deporuine:it now before us, however, we are more inclinof a man of honour, courage, and spirit
. . And, in ed to believe, with Dr. Johnson, that this parorder to exhibit his spirit and courage, it was neces; tiality was owing to his love of continual sary to bring them into action by adventures and superiority, and that he preferred the converof Miss Byron, a meritorious action, but one which sation of ladies, because they were more must necessarily expose him to a challenge. How lavish of their admiration, and more easily enmust the author untie this knot? He makes him gaged to descant on the perplexities of Sir so very good a swordsman, that he is always capa. Charles, or the distresses of Clarissa. His ble of disarming his adversary without endangering close application to business, and the sedento depend on the science of his fencing master? tary habits of a literary life, had materially Every one cannot have the skill of Sir Charles ; injured his health : He loved to complain, as every one cannot be the best swordsman; and the most invalids do who have any hope of being