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eucharist of the Lord, be devout according to the order that is delivered.'

To this the institution of Christ, I might add many more reasons to prove, that in the Lord's supper both bread and wine are to be administered; but that its being the very Lord's supper, one should think, might be reason enough for it; for it is but a bad supper where there is bread only, and not drink. So that to deny the cup to the communicants, is to deprive the communicants of one part of their supper ; yea, and to deprive the communion itself of the perfect nature of a sacrament, by destroying the analogy betwixt the sign and thing signified, which, as we have seen, consisteth in the resemblance there is betwixt bread and wine's nourishing of our bodies, and Christ's feeding of our souls d. Whereas we know that bread without wine, or some liquid thing or other in its stead, is not the whole and perfect nourishment of our bodies; and therefore not like to Christ, who is alone the perfect food and nourishment of our souls. And seeing therefore this sacrament was ordained for the spiritual nourishment of our souls, as bread and wine together make up the perfect nourishment of our bodies, neither of them is to be denied to any, but both administered to all communicants.

And if we consult antiquity, we shall find that in the first three hundred years, be sure, the people partaked of the cup as well as bread. In the liturgy ascribed to James, it is said, * And when the deacons take the dishes and cups to distribute to the people.' And Justin Martyr, in his Second

Hoc sacramentum ordinatur ad spiritualem refectionem quæ corporali conformatur. Ad corporalem autem refectionem duo requiruntur, scilicet cibus qui est alimentum siccum, et potus qui est alimentum humidum. Et ideo etiam ad integritatem hujus sacramenti duo concurrunt, scilicet spiritualis cibus et spiritualis potus. — Tho. Part. 3. q. 73. Art. 1. Unitas sacramenti quia est signum, sumitur ab unica significatione, quæ ex duabus consecrationibus resultat, utpote per quas significatur una refectio, cujus integritas constat ex cibo et potu. — Dom. à Soto 4. Sent. Dist. 12. q. 1. Art. 12. Proponitur igitur species panis et vini, ut doceatur plena et perfecta refectio esse in sumptione corporis et sanguinis Christi ex divinitate Christi: Plena autem refectio cibus et potus est.

Biel. Lect. 95. in Canon. ex Hugon. de Sacram. lib. ii. c. 8. p. 8.

• «Οτι δε εταίρουσιν οι διάκονοι τους δίσκους και τους κρατήρας εις το μεταδούναι τα Aai-- Lilnrg. Jacob.

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Apology for Christians, saith expressly', 'But the president having given thanks, and all the people praised God, those which are called deacons by us give to every one that is present to partake of the consecrated bread, and wine, and water; and they carry it also to those that are not present.' And Cyprian 8, . There are some either ignorantly or simply consecrating the Lord's cup, and administering it to the common people, (who] do not that which Jesus Christ our Lord and God, the author and doctor of this sacrifice, did and taught. And elsewhere, ' Where, the solemnity being ended, the deacon begins to offer the cup to those that are present. Yea, and Ignatius", · For there is one flesh of '

• the Lord Christ, and his blood one that was shed for us; one bread that is broken to all, and one cup that is distributed to all.'

Neither did the next three hundred years deny the people what the first, according to Christ's institution, granted them. This is the manner,' saith Athanasius, of this cup, and no other; this do you lawfully give the people to drink of.' And Hilary “, “ If the faults be not so great, that a man may be excommunicated, he ought not to separate himself from the medicine of the body and blood of the Lord.' • Not,' saith Chrysostom', ' as it was in the Old

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1 Ευχαριστήσαντος δε σου προεστώτος και επιυφημήσαντος σάντος του λαού, δι καλούμενοι παρ' ημίν διάκονοι διδόασιν εκάστα των παρόντων μισαλαβείν από του ευχαριστηθέντος άρτου, και οίνου, και ύδατος, και τοις ου σαρούσιν άσοφίρoυσι.Justin. Apol. 2.

8 Tamen quoniam quidam vel ignoranter vel simpliciter in calice Domino sanctificando et plebi adıninistrando non hoc faciunt, quod Jesus Christus Dominus et Deus noster sacrificii ejus autor et doctor fecit et docuit. — Cyprian. Epistolar. Epist. 3. ad Cæcilium Fratrem. lib. ii. Ubi solemnibus adimpletis calicem diaconus offerre præsentibus cæpit. — Id. de Lapsis.

h Μία γάρ έστιν η σάρξ Κυρίου Ιησού, και ίν αυτού το αίμα το υπέρ ημών εκχυθίν, είς και άρτος τοις πάσιν ιδρύφθη, και ένα ποτήριον τοϊς όλους διενεμήθη.-Ignat. Epist. ad Philad.

1 "Ουτος ο τρόπος τούτου του ποτηρίου μόνος, αλλός ουδείς· τούτο υμείς νομίμως sportineri roīs nacis.-Athanas. Apol. 2.

* Si non sunt tanta peccata ut excommunicetur quis, non se debet à medicina corporis et sanguinis Domini separare.- · Hilar. apud Gratian. de Consecrat. Distinct. 2. Can. Cum omne crimen.'

1 Οι καθάπις επί της παλαιάς τα μίν ο ιερεύς ήσθε, τα δε ο ερχόμενος και

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Testament, the priest ate some things and the people another, and it was not lawful for the people to partake of these things which the priest partaked of; it is not so now, but but one body and one cup is now propounded to all.? Yea, Gelasius saith", . The division of one and the same mystery cannot happen without great sacrilege.' To pass by others, as Leo Romanus " and Gregorius Turonensis', both of which lived about this time, and gave testimony to this truth, Remigius saith P, • The cup itself is also called the cominunion, as if he should have said the partaking; because all communicate or partake of it, and receive their part in the blood of Christ.'

To these we may add the next three hundred years too. Gregory the Great saith?, • His body in the sacrament is taken ; his flesh is divided for the people's salvation; his blood is poured not into the hands of unbelievers, but into the mouths of believers.' And Gregory the Second', . The high priests, when any one hath sinned and made confession, when they have chastised and afflicted him enough with hunger, they give him the precious body of the Lord, and make him drink of his holy blood.' Yea, and Gregory the Third too saith ", " But to lepers, if they be believing Christians, let the participation of the body and blood of the

θέμις ουκ ήν τω λαώ μετέχειν ων μετείχαν ο ιερεύς, αλλ' ού νύν, αλλά σασιν εν σώμα argóxutas rad 6 rotupov. Chrysost. in 2. Cor. Hom. 14.

m Quia divisio unius ejusdemque mysterii sine grandi sacrilegio non potest pervenire. — Gelas. Can. de Consecrat. Dist. 2.

n Vide Leon. de Quadrag. Sermo quart.
• Vide Greg. Turon. de Gloria Martyrum, c. 10.

P Appellatur et ipse calix communicatio, quasi participatio, quia omnes communicant ex illo, partemque sumunt ex sanguine Domini. — Remig. in 1 Cor. 11. et Haymo in eund. loc.

9 Ejus ibi corpus sumitur, ejus caro in populi salutem partitur: ejus sanguis non tam in manus (so I suppose it should be read for manu') infidelium, sed in ora fidelium funditur.- Greg. Mag. Dialog. lib. iv. c. 58.

* Pontifices, ubi peccârit quis et confessus fuerit, cùm probè castigârint, probè fame afflixerint ; tum preciosum illi Domini corpus impertiunt, et sancto illum sanguine potant. Greg. Sec. Epist. ad Leonem Isaurum.

* Leprosis autem, si fideles Christiani fuerint, Dominici corporis et sanguinis participatio tribuatur. — Greg. Tert. Epist. 1. ad Bonifacium.

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Lord be granted.' And Haymo Halberstatensis saith', • In the church believers every day eat his body and drink his blood.'

And this was the , doctrine also of the church of Christ, from the nine hundredth year of his incarnation to the time of the schoolmen, as we may see in Bernard, Fulbertus Carnotensis, Theophylact", and others, that lived within that time. But let these speak for the rest : Anselm”, • Whosoever, whether rich, or mean, or poor, whether clerk or layman, that shall eat this bread of the Lord, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.' Micrologus saith “, That Gelasius, writing to some bishops, ordered those to be excommunicated who, having taken the Lord's body, should forbear to partake of the cup.' And Hugo de St. Victore?, • The Lord's supper is received in both kinds, to signify that the effect of this sacrament is double.'

And though the schoolmen were the first that, as I can find, moved the question, whether it was lawful to receive the body of Christ without the blood; yet even amongst them several, if not most, hold with us, that both kinds ought to be administered, as Lombard, Bardinus, Alexander

* Præsens ecclesia, in quâ quotidie comedunt fideles ejus corpus et sanguinem bibunt. — Haymo in Apocal. c. 2. Vide Concil. Brac. 3. Bayl. 2.

P. 269.

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u Bernard. Serm. 1. in Ramis Palm. Fulbert. Carnot. de tribus capitibus Theophylact. in 1 Cor. 11. Zachar. Chrysopol. l. iv. c. 156. Humbert. de Sylvâ Candida contra Græcorum Calumnias. Petrum Cluniacens. contra Petrum Brius. Art. 4. Ivon. Carnot. Decret. c. 7. Ivon. Camer, in Explic. Sac. Can. Dist. 3. Mund. de Veritate Eucharistiæ, lib. i.

* Quicunque homo, sive dives, sive mediocris, sive pauper, sive clericus, sive laicus, qui manducaverit panem Domini hunc, et biberit calicem Domini indignè, reus erit corporis et sanguinis Domini, - Anselm. in 1 Cor. 11.

→ Unde et beatus Gelasius in ordine quinquagesimus primus scribens quibusdam episcopis excommunicari præcepit, quicunque sumpto corpore Dominico à calicis participatione se abstinerent. Microl. de Eccles, Obserdat. c. 19.

• In utraque sumitur ad significandum, quòd duplex est effectus hojas sacramenti. - Hugo de S. Victore Spec. de Myst. Ecclesia.

· Lombard. 4. Sent. Dist. 11. Bardin. I. iv. Dist. 11. Alexand, Alens.

Alensis, and others. And amongst the rest, Albertus Magnus saith expressly b, ‘ Because the use of the faithful, and the unity of the mystical body, is not perfectly signified and caused, but only under a double sign; and therefore in the virtue of the sacrament both ought to be had.' And thus we see, how from our Saviour's time, for thirteen or fourteen hundred years together, the cup was administered as well as the bread to all : and therefore we may well conclude, it ought to be denied to none.

p. 4. q. 53. Vide Durand. I. iv. Rational. Div. Offic. c. 42, 54. Richard de Mediavill. et Petruin de Tarant. 4. Sent. Dist. 11. Petrum de Palude 4. Sent. Dist. 21. Biel. 4. Sent. Dist. 12.

• Quia non perfectè signatur et causatur usus fidelium, et unitas corporis mystici, nisi sub duplici signo; ideoque virtute sacramenti utrumque debet haberi.— Albert. Mag. 4. Sent. Dist. 8.

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