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assignment of the bill of lading, though they were in fact intended for the use of a distant creditor of the purchaser: for under the circumstances they remained completely in the power of the purchaser who shipped them, and who could at any time alter their place of destination. In the case of a sale of land, where the purchase money is not paid, the Court of Chancery considers the purchaser a trustee for the seller, Poilexfen v. Moore, 3 Atk. 272., Blackburn v. Gryson, 1 Brown's Ch. Rep. 420.
Add to the cases of stoppage in transitu, Stubbs v. Lund, 7 Mass. Rep. 452, an instructive case, decided by a judge of no common talent.
Page 465. To the cases on the subject of delivery of goods to carriers, add Potter v. Lansing, 1 Johns. N. Y. Rep. 215.
Page 467. Servitudo. Servitudines. Services, servitudes, easements. I have stated, page 467, 468, that of the three translations, I have preferred services: here in agreeing with Ur. Wood, Dr. Taylor, and Dr. Harris, the compilers of the Napoleon code being neuter, I have against me, Lord Mansfield, in the case cited from 1 Burr. 443; Gibbon, 8 Rom. Hist. 73; Mr. Du Ponceau of Philadelphia, whose opinions on subjects of the civil law, I hold in great respect; and Mr. Jefferson, in his late learned and elaborate defence of the proceedings of the United States, in respect of Mr. Ed. Livingston's claim to the New Orleans Batture. In this tract the reader will meet with much collateral information on alluvion, servitudes, finedia rustica et urbana, and other points connected with the civil law. All these learned men translate servitudo by servitude. But to my ear, the last word seems exclusively appropriated in common language, to the situation of servants and slaves.
Page 553. I sent to Philadelphia the pages of Harris's edition that contained the 118th novel, to have the Greek printed there. Hence, not having it before me, I inadvertently translated that novel anew.
Page 582. Novation. This is somewhat allied to the English doctrine of extinguishment.
Page 583. For peredentum, read prudentum. Page 615, near the top, for defective quality, read, non-delivery. Page 617. Add to the cases respecting sales in market overt, Cheriot v. Foussat, 3 Binn. 220. 258.
Page 622. Commandite. I borrow the following note from Mr. Du Ponceau, to whom the bar are obliged for the useful translation of the French commercial code in the second volume of Walsh's Review, and very ably elucidated by the notes he has added to it.
Societe" en commandite. Our language has no corresponding words to express this technical phrase, nor that of associe commandataire which is derived from it. We are therefore obliged to adopt the French words themselves as well as we can to our own idiom, with some variations for the sake of euphony and analogy, as far as these can be obtained.
This species of partnership, like the greatest part of the mercantile customs of Europe, draws its origin from Italy. Hence the words commandite and commanditaire are derived from the Italian commando, which itself takes its derivation from the Latin mandatum. Societe en commandite is as it were, societas cum mandato, a contract of partnership coupled with a contract of mandatum or bailment. Such a partnership is composed of one or more acting and responsible, and one or more dormant partners; the latter of whom are not bound by the acts of their associates, beyond the amount they bring into the general stock. They merely place their funds in the hands of others, to be employed in trade for their benefit; and therefore these different partners, not only as between each other, but as between them and the rest of the world, stand together in the relation ofprincipal and factor: mixed indeed, with some of the circumstances attending ordinary partnerships, but only in a certain degree, and to a limited extent. From this mixture of relative rights and duties, this species of contract has received its denomination.
These partnerships are useful in countries, where there are great capitalists, who wish to employ a part of their money in trade without exposing themselves to unlimited risks. They furnish employment for funds, which would otherwise remain inactive. The laws of America and Great Britain however do not recognize such associations.
Libros, Titulos et Sectiones Institutionum.
Proatmium de Confirmatione Institutionum.
1. De bellis et legibus Justiniani.
2. De compositione codicis et pandectarum.
3. De tempore, auctoritatibus, fine et utilitate compo-
5. Quid in institutionibus contineatur.
6. Ex quibus libris composite sunt institutiones atque
earum recognitio et confirmatio.
7. Adhortatio ad studium juris.
Lib. 1. Tit. 1. De Justitid et Jure.
1. Definitio jurisprudential.
2. De juris methodo.
3. Juris prsecf pta.
4. De jure publico et privato.
Lib. 1. Tit. 2. De Jure naturali Gentium et Civili.
1. Distinctio juris gentium et civilis, a definitione et
2. Ab appellatione et effectibus.
3. Divisio juris in scriptum et non scriptum; et subdi-
visio juris scripti.
4. De lege et plebiscito.
5. De senatus-consulto.
6. De constitutione.
7. De jure honorario.
8. De responsis prudentum.
9. De jure non scripto.
10. Ratio superioris divisionis.
11. Divisio juris in immutabile et mutabilc.
12. De objectis juris.
Lib. I. Tit. 3. De Jure Personarum.
1. Dt-finitio libertatis.
2. Definitio servitutis.
3. /Servi et mancipii etymologia.
4. Quibus modis servi constituuntur.
5. De liberorum et servorum divisione.
Lib. 1. Tit. 4. De Ingenuis.
De ingenui tit-hnitione.
1. De erronei ingenui manumissione.
Lib. 1. Tit. 5. De Libertinis.
Definitio et origo libertinorum et manumissionis.
Lib. 1. Tit. 6. Qui et quibus causis manumittere nonpossri-
1. De servo instituto cum libertate.
2. De servo instituto sine libertate.
3. Quid sit in fraudem creditorum manumittere.
5. Quae sunt justx causae manumissionis.
6. De causa semel probata.
7. Abrogatio posterioris capitis legis ^Eliae Senttf'
Lib. 1. Tit. 7. De lege Fusid Caninid Tollenda.
Lib. 1. Tit. 8. De his qui sui vel alietii Juris sunt.
1. De jure gentium in serVos.
2. De jure civium Romanorum in servos.
Lib. 1. Tit. 9. De Patrid Potestate.
1. Definitio nuptiarum.
2. Qui habent in potestate.
3. Qui sunt in potestate.
Lib. 1. Tit. 10. De Nuptiis.
Qui possunt nuptias contrahere. . „
1. Quae uxores duci possunt vel non. De cognao*
primum de parentibus et liberis.
2. De fratribus et 6ororibus.
3. De fratris et sororis filia vel nepte.
4. De consobrinis. ,
5. De amita matertera, amita magna, matertera magna.
6. De affinibus et primum de privigna et nuru.
7. De socru et noverca.
8. De comprivignis.
9. De quasi privigna, quasi nuru, et quasi noverca.
10. De servili cognatione.
11. De reliquis prohibitionibus.
12. De poenis injustarum nuptiarum.
13. De Iegitimatione.
Lib. 1. Tit. 11. De Adoptionibus.
1. Divisio adoptionis.
2. Qui possum adoptare filium familias, vel non.
4. De aetate adoptantis et adoptati.
5. De adoptione in locum nepotis vel neptis, vel dein-
6. De adoptione filii alieni in locum nepotis et contra.
7. De adoptione in> locum nepotis.
8. Qui dari possunt in adoptionem.
9. Si is, qui generare non potest, adoptet.
10. Si foemina adoptet.
11. De liberis arrogatis.
12. De servo adoptato, vel filio nominato, a domino.
Lib» 1. Tit. 12. Quibus modis jus patria potestatis solvitur.
1. De deportatione.
2. De relegatione.
3. De servitute pcenae.
4. De dignitate.
5. De captivitate et postliminio.
6. De emancipatione, item de modis et effectibus eju6-
7. Si alii emancipentur, alii retineantur in potestate.
8. De adoptione.
9. De nepote nato post filium emancipatum.
10. An parentes cogi possunt liberos suos de potestate
Lib 1. Tit. 13. De Tutelis.
1. TuteUe definitio.
2. Definitio et etymologia tutoris.
3. Quibus testamento tutor datur: et primum de libe-
ris in potestate.