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account of the history of the Roman law from Pomponius, which is worth perusal. Kosini Antiq Rom. quto. Amstelod. 1685. p 554. On the subject of the laws of the twelve tables in particular, he refers to the collections and comments of Julius Pacius, Antonius Augustinus, Joannes Oldendorpius, Joannes, Antonius Contius, Fr. Hottomannus, Dionysius Gothofredus, St;phanus Pighius, Fr. Balduinus, Hadrianus Ttirnebus, Ludovicus Charondas, Justus Lipsius, and Theodorus Marcilius: of whom but few are noted by Camus in his Lettrcs sur la Profession D'Avocat. Paris, 1776.

The edition of J. Gothofred, in the book above cited, Quatuorfontes, &c is in the most esteem.

Autores ct fragmenta veterum jurisconsultorum, de origine et progressu juris romani, cum notis Arnoldi Vinnii et variorum. Ex edit. Sim. Van Leewen, Leyden, 1G71. Jena, 1697 8vo.

Jurisprudentia vetus ante Justinianea. Ex recens. et cum not. Schultingii. Leyden, 1717. Leipsic, 1737- qto. This comprehends the fragments of Gaius,.Paulus, Ulpian, and other jurisconsults, preceding Justinian.

y Gothofredus. Codex Theodosianus, cum amplissimo commentario, studio Antonii Marvilii- Leyden, 1665. 6 vol fol.

Secondly. Historical treatiseson Roman Jurisprudence generally.

y. Gothofredi. juris 12mo. Several editions.

yo. Vin Gravina. Origines juris civilis, seu de ortu et progress* juris civilis. With the annotations of Mascou. Leipsic, 1737. qto. Ven. 17^9 to 4.

Hen. Chr. Hausotter. Historia legum romanarum. Leipsic. 3758. 8vo.

yo. Gotl. Heineccius. Antiquitatum romanarum jurisprudential!! lllustrantiumi Syntagma. This is comprehended in the Geneva edition of his works in 8 vols. qto. 1743 and 1748. But there are also •everal separate editions; the best at Strasburg (Argentor.) in J 734, 1741 and in 2 vol. 8vo. 1755.

Ejusdem historia juris civilis, 8vo. the best edition is Ritter's, published at Strasburgh. This and the preceding treatise form the fourth volume of his works, in qto.

Burchard Gotthelf Struvius. Historia juris romani, 4to. Jena, 1718.

yo. Fr. Eisenhardt. Historia juris literaria. 8vo. Helms tad t. 1752,1763.

yo. Douatii. Historia juris civilis romanorum. Paris, 1678. ISmo.

Spanheim. Orbis Romanus.

Thomasiua. D^Iineatio historia; juris Romani et Germanici. Erfurt. 8vo. 1750. Ncevorum jurisprudentiae romanse, lib. duo. Hal. Magd. 1707.

Brunquellus. Historia juris Romano-Germanici. 8vo. Amstel- 1730. Gravina, Heineccius, Struvius and Brunquellus, may be considered a.s the best of this class of writers. • ' •

Histoire du droit romain par Claude yoseph de Ferriere. 12mo. Paris, 1718. This is taken chiefly from Gravina. Dr. Beaver has translated it, and added Duck's treatise de usu et auctoritate jurU civilis.

Ant. Terasson. Histoire de la Jurisprudence Romaine. Paris, 1750, in folio. Compiled at the direction of Chancellor D'Agucssau. A work, says Mr. Gibbon, of more promise than performance. It contains however a curious and interesting collection of ancient documents and fragments.

Dr. Beaver's history of the legal polity of the Roman state. 4to. 1781.

Dr. Taylor's elements of the civil law 4to. 1755. There is a* anonymous abridgement of this desultory but very interesting book, by the Rev. Mr. Kilts, with a preface on the nature of moral obligation.

Boncha'icPs Recherches historiques sur les edits des Magistrats Roan.i,'is in torn. 41. page 1. of the Memoires de l'Academie Francoise.

Thirdly. The principal editions of the Corpus juris civilis.

Corpus juris civilis cum glossis Genev. 1614. 4 vol. qto.

Idem cum notis D. Gothofredi. Paris. Vitray. 1628. 2 vol. fol. This is the edition 1 have employed.

Idem Daniel Elzevir 1664. 2 vol 8vo. Amst.

Idem. Elzevir et Bleau, 1681 1700. 2 vol. 8vo.

Corpus juris civilis academicum. Col. Mun. 1759. 1 vol. qto.

The editions of the Institutes, are too numerous to catalogue. There are also about a dozen editions of the Paraphrase of the Institutes, by Theophilus, in Greek and Latin, and in Latin.

Fourthly. Commentators on the Corpus juris, or particular parts of it.

These may be reduced to the works of Cujacius, Virmius, Voetius, Noodt, and Boehmer. Harris quotes Joachim Mysinger frequently. I am not acquainted with any work of Mys'mger's but his commentary on the title, de fide instrumentorum lib. 2 decretalium, Helmst. 1582, in fol. and Marp. 1602 8vo. I have found the brief notes of D. Gothofred to his edition of the Corpus Juris civilis, worth attention.

Fifhily Compilations on the civil law.

I possess a great number of them, but I know of few worth noticing, except the following.

Cujacii Paratitla in pandectas et Codicem f of which there are about eight editions in 12mo. and 8vo. separate from the general collection of his works.

Hemeccii Elementa juris secundum ordinem Institutionum.

Idem secundum ordinem Pandectarum.

Of these there are several editions in Ovo. and 12mo. separate from his works.

Barriga de Montvallon. Epitome juris et legum Romanorum. 8vo. Paris 1756.

Claude Jos- de Ferriere. Nova et methodica juris civilis tractatio. 2vol. 12mo. Paris. The last of four editions is in 1734.

Ferriere. La Jurisprudence du Codede Justinian,*}

du Digest. I 1688.6voIin q».

des Novellcs. J

I have freely used the Nouvelle traduction des Institutes de l'Etnpireur Justinian of the same author, with notes, in 6 vol. 8vo. Paris. 1761.

J'othier'a Pandccta Justinians 3 v. fol. 1748.

Jean Domat. Les Loix civiles dans leur ordre naturel. 5 vol. 8vo. and with a supplement by D'Hericourt in 2 vol. fol. Paris, 1724.

This has been edited in English by Sirahan; and is the boot generally used in England on this subject; though Wood's institutes of the civil law (fol.) is a very ufeful digest upon the whole.

Ayleffe's Pandect of the Roman civil law, fol. 1734, is a work not deficient in learning, but too desultory and shortInconvenient brevity, also renders the following works of less Talus than they might be, though they aVe not destitute of merit.

Schombcrg's Elements of the Roman Law. 8vo. 1780.

Dr. Halifax'* Analysis of the civil law, a pamphlet 1775.

Dr. Arthur Browu's Elements of the civil and Admiralty law: Dablin, and London, 180i, is commonly used among the bar in this Country, and therefore I have purpoavly omitted many observations, that mat be found also ia that book; which though far too brief, deserves to k popular. i


Page 42. Insert, as a title to the second section of tit. 15., Quis dicatur intestatus. N. B. The titles to the several sections being arbitrary, differ in different editions: and sometimes the sections themselves are differently divided. But there is a sufficient similarity in general to lead to the same passage in all the editions. I follow Harris in this respect, t Page 99. Insert, as a title to section 8, Quando conjunguntur tempora.

Page 188. For hxreditatis, read hareditas. ! Page 409, line the last. Cambaceres. I was mistaken in ascribing the CodeNapoleon to Cambaceres. Mr. Du Ponceau has enabled me to correct this mistake. The authors or redacteurs of the Code civil Napoleon, were Portalis, Tronchtt, Bigot-Preameneu, and Maleville, as appears by the Discours Preliminaire to the " Projet de Code civil," presented by those gentlemen as a committee appointed by government on the 24th Thermidor, year 8, and published the year after. Cambaceres indeed reported a project of a code civil to the convention some years before, which, although Portalis and the others praise sufficiently, they adopt sparinglv. Cambaceres was consul in the year 9.

Page 462. By the civil law goods sold and delivered might be reclaimed, if not duly paid for. Quod vendidi non aliter fit accipientis quam si aut pretium nobis solutum sit, aut satis eo nomine datum, vel etiam fidem habuerimus emptori sine ulla satisfactione. Dig. 18. 1. 19. Dig. 18. 1. 53. Dig. 19. 1. 13. 8. and 14. 4. 5. 18. It is with this modification that the civil law doctrine is to be understood, that the obligation of the contract emptio venditio arises not from the delivery of the goods to the vendee, but upon the mutual consent of the parties, the one to sell and the other to buy. Ut primum de re et pretio convenit, Emptio perfecta intelligitur, quamvis nee res traditur, ncc pretium numeratum, nee arrha data sit. Atque in contractibus qui consensu perfitiuntur, distinguenda perfectio contractus, a consummatione sive implement!). Emptionem et venditionem/><rr/?cir solus consensus de re et pretio; consummat rei traditio et pretii numeratio, qui extremus est contrahentium finis. Simulatque autem emptio perfecta est, nascitur utrinque obligatio, teneturque emptor actione ex vendito ut, nummos quos pretii nomine pro re vendita promisit, solvat: venditor actione exempto, ut rem venditatn tradat emptori. Vinn. I. 3. tit. 24. To this general doctrine, an exception was allowed in cases where earnest was given: in those cases, if the buyer repented, he forfeited his earnest money, and was free fronj the contract; if the seller repented, he forfeited the earnest money paid, and as much more. See also Inst. 2. 1.4.

Formerly, by the general law of France, the seller might seize the thing sold, and not paid for, if he could find it in the possession of the buyer, and need not have shared it with the othet creditors: a:.d in some places of France, the seller might even pursue the article in pos672

session of a subsequent purchaser. See Domat's Civil Law, book 4, tit. 5. sect. 2. art. 3., with the notes on that article, and on book 3. tit. 1. sect. 5. art. 3. But this right by the new commercial code of France, art. 576, 577, et seq. is confined to stoppage in transitu, under provisions Very similar to our own law. See Mr. Du Ponceau's translation of the commercial code, 2 Walsh's Review, p. 191,192.

In England, before the statute of frauds, 29 Ch. 2. chap. 3. $ 17, (which enacts, that " no contract for the sale of goods, wares, and mer"chandize, for the price of ten pounds sterling or upwards, shall be al"lowed to be good, except the buyer shall accept part of the goods so "sold and actually receive the same, or give something in earnest to "bind the bargain, or in part payment, or that some note or memoran"dum in writing of the said bargain be made and signed by the parties "charged by such contract or their agents thereunto lawfully autho"rizt d") no bargain for goods was valid without earnest, delivery, or pa\ ment, except a contract to deliver at a future day appointed, and for a settled price; which might have been supported. Since that statute no verbal contract of bargain and sale unaccompanied by delivery or part delivery, payment or part payment, or earnest money (which may or may not be a part of the price, according to the intention of the parties; Pinnel's case, 5 Rep. 177., Pordage v. Cole, 1 Saund. 319., Manning r. Western, 2 Vern. 606., and Hamersly v. Knowlys, 2 Esp. N. Pr. Cas. 666., which are comments on the rule, quicquid solvitur, solvitur ad mo dum solventis) can be supported. It was for some time thought that executory contracts might be taken out of it; but all that class of cases relates to those sales only where the goods to be delivered are not finished, and cannot be delivered at the time of the contract; not to those which exist in solido, and are capable of present delivery. See Rondeau v. Wyatt, 2 H. Bl. 63, and Cooper v. Elston, 7 Term Rep. 14.

Page 463. The case of the United States v. The administrators of Hillegas, in the Circuit Court of the United States for the district of Pennsylvania, reviews all the authorities, and settles, that a surety is discharged by indulgence given to the principal on a new security. Add to the cases on surety, 10 East 39. 1 Bos. & Pull. 419. 4 Dall. 135.

Page 464. Stoppage in transitu. In Hodgson v. Loy, 7 Term Rep. 440, Lord Kenyon,and in ex parte Gwynne, 12 Ves. 382, LordErskine, state, that the right of stoppage in transitu is not founded on the right of the vendor to rescind the contract, but on an equitable lien, indulged to the vendor, from motives of reasonable expedience in the case of bargain and Bale. To me, this right appears to have been suggested by the provisions of the civil law.

I believe it is considered that delivery to a common carrier, is such a delivery to the consignee, as to take away any right in the consignor to rescind the contract, though it leaves unimpaired the right of stopping in transitu ere the goods arrive at their place of destination. In the cast of Walter and Fillis v. Jenks, Judge Washington determined that a vendor had a right in case of insolvency to seize his goods on board a general vessel, to which they were sent by the purchaser who had not paid for them, and for whose use they were ostensibly shipped, without any

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