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Si neget alimenta decerni posse, vel tutelam redcmerit.

§ X. Sed, si quis prsesens negat $ 10. But if the tutor appearing,

propter inopiam alimenta posse de- falsely avers, that the effects of his

cerni, si hoc per mendacium dicat, pupil are insufficient for an allow

remittendum eum esse ad pnefec- ance, he shall be remitted to the pra

tum urbi puniendum placuit, sicut feet of the city, and punished in the

ille remittitur, qui data pecunia, same manner, as one who hath ac

ministerium tutelar acquisierit, vel quired a tutelage by bribery. redemerit.

Dc liberto fraudulenter administrante.

$ XI. Libertus quoque, si frau- § 11. Also a freed-man, who is

dulenter tutelam filiorum vel nepo- proved to havefraudulently adminis

tum patroni gessisse probetur, ad tered the tutelage of the son, or

praefectum urbi remittitur punien- grand-son of his patron, must be re

dus. mittedto theprafect to be punished.

Si suspectus satis offerat § XII. Novissime autum sciendum est, eos, qui fraudulenter tutelam administrant, etiamsi satis offerant, removendos esse a tutela; quia satisdatio tutoris propositum malevolum non mutat, sed diutius grassandi in re familiari facultatem prffistat Suspectum etiam eum putamus, qui moribus talis est, ut suspectus sit. Enimvcro tutor vel curator, quamvis pauper sit, fitlelis tamen et diligens, removendus non est, quasi suspectus.

; et quis dicatur suspectus.

§ 12. Lastly, they who unfaithfully administer their trust, must be removedfrom it, although they tender sufficient security. For giving security alters not the malevolent purpose of the tutor, but procures him a longer opportunity of defrauding the estate. We also deem every man suspected, whose immoralities give cause for it: but a tutor or curator who is faithful and diligent, can not be removed, as a suspected person^ merely on account of poverty.



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D. 1. T. 8. C. xli. T. 1.

Continuatio et duplex rerum divisio. SUPERIORE libro de jure per- We have treated of persons in the sonarum exposuimus; modo vi- foregoing book; let us now inquire

concerning things, which may be divided into such as are, and such as are not within our patrimony, for some things are in common by the law of nature; some are public; some universal; and some there are, to which no man can have a right. But most things are the property of individuals, by whom they are variously acquired, as will appear hereafter.

deamus de rebus; quae vel in nostro patrimonio, vel extra patrimonium nostrum, habentur. Qiuedam enim naturali jure communia sunt omnium, quaedam publica, qusedam universitatis, quadam nullius, pleraque singulorum, qua» ex variis causis cuique acquiruntur, sicut tx subjects apparebit.

De aere, aqua profluente, mari, littore, &c. ,

§ I. Et quidem naturali jure $ 1. Things common to mankind communia sunt omnium h*c, aer, by the law of nature, are the air, aqua profluens, mare, et per hoc running water, the sea, and conselittora maris: nemo igitur ad^lit- quently the shores of the sea; no tus maris accedere prohibetur; man therefore is prohibited from dum tamen a villis et monumentis approaching any part of the seael .Tdificiis abstineat: quia non sunt shore, whilst he abstains from dajuris gentium, sicut est mare. maging farms, monuments, edifices,

isle, which are not in common as the. sea \sk

i; ... p Dje fl^mipious et portubtls.

§ II. Flumina autem omnia, et § 2. Rivers ana ports are public; portus, publica sunt: ideoqu,e jus rhence the right of fishing in a port, piscandi omnibus commune est in or in rivers are in common. portu fluminibusque.

'Definitio littbris. . § III. Est autem littus maris, . % 3. All that tract of land, ,over quatenus hybernus fluctus maximus which the greatest winter food exexcurrit. .. '., . , tends the sea-shore.

J;;. „\. ...... . De usu et proprietate rjparum.

§ IV. Riparum quoque usus pub- § 4. By the law of nations the use licus est jure gentium, sicut ipsius of the banks is as public as the rifluminis; itaque naves ad .eas ap- vers; , therefore all persons are at pellere, funes arboribus ibi natis re- equal liberty to land their vessels, ligare, onus aliquod in his repo- unload them, and to fasten ropes te nere, cuilibet liberum est, sicut per trees.upon the banks, as to navigate ipsunvifluiueninavigare: ced pro- Upon the river itself'; still,the-batiks prietas earum illorum est, quorum -ofa river are the property of f hose tpraediishserent^ qua de causa arbo- .who possess the land adjoining; and \ Jes quoque in eisdem natse eorun- therefore the trees which grow upon, dem sunt. them, are ■. also the property of the

same persons. :\>.-\v.r,,, .-, „; -lulij .tJiiLj L'

v ,, .„ ,_ De usu et proprietate Uttorum.

§ V. Littorum quoque usus $ S. The use of the sea-shore, as publicus est, et juris gentium, sicut well as of the sea, is also public by -et ipsius maris: et ob id cuilibet the law of nations; and therefore liberum est casam ibi ponere, in any person may erect a cottage upon quam se recipiat, sicut retia siccare, it, to which he may resort to dry et ex mari deducere; proprietas his nets, and howl them from the autem eonim.potest intelligi nullius : water,} fpn the shores are not unesse: sed ejusdem juris esse, cujus , derstood to be property in any man, - «t jnare, et, quae subjacet mari, ter- but are compared to the sea itself, and ra vel arena. to /lie sand or ground which is under

the sea. •« 7«'.. ". :•. '■ ■> <. :. :uil:.-.

,,, . De rebus universitatis.

§ VI. Universitatis sunt, non $ 6. Theatres, ground appropri«ingulorum, qua in civitatibus sunt, ated for a race, or public exercise^

'theatra, stadia, et'his shnilia, et si qua alia sunt communia civitatum.

and thing's of this nature, which belong to a whole city, are public, and not private property.

••■ De rebus nullius. § VII. Nullius autem sunt res § 7. Things sacred, religious and sacrae, et religiosae, et sanctae: quod holy, belong to no individual: for enim divini juris est, id nullius in that which is of divine right, is not bonis est. private property.

De rebus sacris.

§ VIII. 'Sacr* res'sunt, quaerne § 8. Things, which have been

pei* pontifices'Deo consecmx sunt; duly consecrated by the pontiffs, are

veluti icdts sacra;, et donaria, quae -sacred; as churches, chapels, and

rite ad mlnisterium Dei dedicate moveables, properly dedicated to the

sunt; quae etiam per nostrum con- service of God: which we have

stitutionem alienari et obligari pro- forbidden by our constitution tobea

hibuimus, excepta causa redemp- liened or obligated^ unless for the rt

tionis captivorura. Si quis autem demption of captives. But, if a

auctoritate sua quasi sacrum- sibi man should consecrate a building

constituerit, sacrum non est, sed by his own authority, it would not

profanum. Locus autem," in quo thus be rendered sacred; but the

aedessacrae sunt aedifiiiatae, etiam, ground upon which a sacred edifice

diruto aedificio, sate* adhuc inanet, hath once been erected, will, accord

ut etPapinianus scripsit. big to Papinian, continue to be sacred, although the edifice is destroyed.

De religiosis.

§ IX. Religiosum locum unus- § 9. Any man may at his will quisque sua voluntate facit, dum render his own place religious, by

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