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De ignorantia teya.oris.

§ X. Non esse autem admittendam excusationen» ejus, qui hoc solo utitur, quod ignotus patri pupillorum sit, Divi fratres rescripserunt.

§ 10. The divine brothers have enacted by their rescript, that the pretence of being unknown to thefather of a pupil is not of itself a sufficient excuse.

De inimicitiis cum patre pupilli vel adulti. § XI. Inimicitiae, quas quis cum § 11. A capital enmity, against patre pupillorum vel adultorum the father of a pupil or adult, unreexercuit, si capitales fuerunt, nee conciled, is usually considered as an reconciliatio intervenit, a tutela vel excuse from tutelage or curatorship. Clira solent excusare.

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Dc status controversii ii patre pupilli illata. § XII» Item is, qui status con- § 12. Alio he, whose condition troversiam a pupillorum patre pas- hath been controverted by the father 8U3 est, excusatur a tutela. of the pupil, is excusedfrom the tu

telage.

De § XIII. Item major septuaginta annis a tutela et cura se potest excusare. Minores autem viginti quinque annis olim quidem excusabantur: nostra autem constitutions prohibentur ad tutelam vel curam adspirare: adeo ut nee excusatione opus sit. Qua constitutione cavetur, ut nee pupillus ad legitimam tutelam vocetur, nee adultus: cum sit incivile, eos, qui alieno auxilio in rebus suis administrandis egere noscuntur, e% ab aliis reguntur, alioium tutelam vel curam subjre.

retate.

§ 13. Persons above seventy ytar* of age, may be excusedfrom tutelage and curation. Also minors were formerly excusable; but, by our constitution, they are now prohibited from aspiring to these trusts; so thai excuses are become unnecessary. By the same constitution, neither pupils, nor adults, shall be called even to a legal" tutelage. For it is absurd that persons, who are themselves governed, and need assistance in the administration of tlieir own affair+y. should be admitted, either as tutors or curators, to manage the affairs of others.

De militia. $ XIV. Idem et in milite obser- § 14. Note also, that no military vadum est, ut nee volens ad tutelae person, although willing, can be ad-. onus admittatur. mitted tutor or curator.

De grammaticis, rhetoribus, ct medicis. § XV. Item Romae grammatici, $15. At Rome,grammarians, rherhetores, et medici, et qui in patria torkians, and physicians, and they sua has artes exercent, et intra who exercise such professions in their numerum sunt, atutelaet cura ha- own country, within the number aubent vacationem. thorised, are exempted from tutelage

and curation. y

De tenipore et modo pi § XVI. Qui autem se vult excusare, si plures habeat exeusationes, et de quibusdam non probaverit, aliis uti, intra tempora constituta, non prohibetur. Qui autem exc.usare se volunt, non appellant, sed intra quinquagima dies continues, ex quo cognorerint se tutores vel curatores datos, se excusare debent, cujuscunque generis sint; id est, qualitercunque dati fuerint tutores, si intra centesimum lapidem sint ab eo loco, ubi tutores dati sunt. Si vero ultra centesimum lapidem habitant, dinumeratione facta viginti millium diurnorum, et amplius triginta dierum J qui tamen, ut Scaevola dicebat, sic debent computari, ne minus sint, quam quinquagima dies,

oponendi exeusationes.

§ 16.- He who can allege many excuses, and hath failed in his proof of some, is not prohibited from assigning others within the time prescribed. But tutors and curators of whatever kind, whether legal, testamentary, or dative, (if desirous to excuse themselves J ought not to prefer an appeal from their appointment; but they should exhibit their excuses before the proper magistrate, within fifty days after they are certified of their nomination, if they are within an hundred miles from the place of nomination* But, if they are distant more than an hundred miles, they are allowed a day for every twenty miles, and thirty days besides; which, taken together, ought never, according to Scaevola, to make a less number of days than fifty.

De excusatio.ie pro parte patrimonii.

§ XVII. Datus autem tutor ad § 17. When a tutor is appointed^ universum parrimonium datus esse he is considered as having the care freditur. of the whole patrimony of his pupil.

De tutelae gestione. $ XVIII. Qui tutelam alicujus § 18. A tutor of a minor, can not gessit, invitus curator cjusdem fieri be compelled to become his aerator: non compellitur; in tantum ut, li- and, by the rescript of the emperors cet pater-familias, qui testamento Severus and Antoninus, although the tutorem dedit, adjecerit seeundem father of a family should, by testacuratorem dare, tamen, invitum ment, appoint any person to be first eum curam suscipere non cogen- the tutor of his children, and after* dum, divi Severus et Antoninus wards their curator, the person so rescripserunt, appointed if unwilling, is not compel

lable to serve.

De marito.

§ XIX. Iidem rescripserunt, § 19. The same emperors have en

maritum uxori su* curatorem da- acted, that a husband may ex

tum excusare se posse, licet se im- cuse himself from being curator to

misceat. his wife, even after he hath begun

to act.

De falsis allegationibus. § XX. Si quis autem falsis alle- § 20. If any man by false allegagatioriibus excusationem tutelae me- tions, hath merited to be removed ruerit, non est liberatus onere tute- from tutelage, he is not therefore Ik. freed from the burden of this office.

TITULUS VIGESIMUS-SEXTUS.

DE SUSPECTIS TUTORIBUS VEL CURATORIBUS.

D. xxvi. T. 10. C. v. T. 43.

Unde suspecti crimen descendat. SCIENDUM est, suspecti cri- The accusation of a suspected tu~ men -ex lege duodecim tabularum tor, or curator, is derived from the descendere. law of the twelve tables.

Qui de hoc crimihe cognoscunt.

§ I. Datum autem est jusremo- % \. At Rome the power of rc

vendi tutores suspectos Roma pra- moving suspected tutors belongs to

tori, et in provinces praesidibus ea- the praetor; in the provinces to the

tann, et legato proconsulis. governors, or to the legate of a

proconsul.

Qui suspecti $ II. Ostendimu», qui possunt tie suspecto cognoscere; nunc vitleamus, qui suspecti fieri possint: et possunt quidem onraes tutores fieri suspecti, sive sint testamentarii, sire non sint, sed alterius generis tutores. Quare etsi legitiraus fuerit tutor, accusari poterit. Quid si patronus? Adhuc idem erit dicendum: dummodo meminerimus, fararc patroni parcendum esse, licet ut suspectus remotus fuerit.

fieri possunt.

§ 2. We have shewn what magis* trates may take cognisance of suspect* edpersons: let us now inquire, what persons may become suspected. And all tutors may become so, whether testamentary, or other. For even a legal tutor may be accused/ so may a patron: but we must remember, that, as such, his reputation must be spared, although he be removed from his trust, as a suspected person.

Qui possunt suspectos pos'u'are.

§ III. Consequens est, ut videa- § 3. Let us then inquire, by whom

mus, qui possint suspectos postu- suspected persons may be accused.

lare. Et sciendum est, quasi pub- Now an accusation of this sort is of a

licam esse hanc accusationem; hoc public nature, and open to all. For,

est, omnibus patere. Quinimomu- by a rescript of the emperors Scve

lieres ad'mittuntur ex rescripto di- rus and Antoninus, even women are

vorum Severi et Antonini; sed hae admitted to be accusers; yet such on

sol«, quae, pietatis necessitudine ducte, ad hoc procedunt: ut puta mater, nutrix quoque et avia: potest et soror. Sed et, si qua alia mulier fuerit, quam praetor propensa pietate 'intellexerit, sexus verecundiam non egredientem, sed pietate productam, non sustinere injuriam pupillorum, admittet earn ad accusationem.

ly, as are induced by their duty, or by their relation to the minor; thus a mother, a nurse, or a grand-mother, or a sister, may become accusers. But the prator can at discretion admit any woman, who acting with becoming modesty, but impatient of wrongs offered to pupils, appears to have no other motive, than to relieve the injured.

An pubes vcl inipubes.

§ IV. Impuberes non possunt tutores suos suspectos postulare: puberes autem curatores suos ex consilio necessariorum suspectos possunt arguere: et ita Divi Severus ejt Antoninus rescripserur.t.

§ 4. No pupil can bring an accusation of suspicion against his tutor/ but adults, by the rescript of Severus and Antoninus, are permitted, when they act by advice of persons related to ihem, to accuse their curators. (Prochein ami.)

Qui dicatur § V. Suspectus autem est, qui non ex fide tutelam gerit, licet solvendo sit, ut Julianus quoque scripait. Sed, ct anteaquam incipiat tutelam gcrere tutor, posse eum quasi suspectum removeri, idem Julianus scripsit: et secundum eum constitutum est.

suspectus.

$ 5.' Any tutor however responsible who does not faithfully execute his trust, may, according to Julian, be pronounced suspected. And it is also his opinion adhered to in our constitutions, that a tutor may be removed from his office, as suspected, even before he has begun to execute it.

De effectu remotionis.

§ VI. Suspectus autem remotus, § 6. A suspected person removed^ siquidem ob dolum, famosus est: if on account of fraud, is infamous, si ob culpam, non aeque. iff0'' neglect only, not equally so.

De effectu accusalionis. § VII. Si quis autem suspectus § 7. If any tutor is accusedupon postulatur, quoad cognitio finiatur, suspicion, hisadministration,accordinterdicitur ei administrate, ut Pa- ing to Papinian, is suspended, while piniano visum est. the accusation is pending.

Quibus modis cognitio finitur.

$ VIII. Sed, si suspecti cognitio § 8. If a suspected tutor or cura

suscepta fuerit, posteaque tutor vel tor should die, pending the accusa

curator decesserit, cxtinguitur sus- tion, the cognisance of it is extin

pecti cognitio. guished.

Si tutor copiam § IX. Si quis tutor copiam sui non faciat, ut alimenta pupillo decernantur, cavetur epistola divorum Severi et Antonini, ut in possessionem bonorum ejus pupillus mittatur; et, qua: mora deteriora futura sunt, dato curatore, distrain jubentur: ergo, ut suspectus, removeri poterit, qui non pnestat alimenta.

sui non faciat.

§9.Ifa tutor fails to appear, tc avoid a decree of maintenance for his pupil, it is provided by the constitution e/"Severus and Antoninus, that the pupil shall be put into the possession of his tutor's effects; and that, a curator being appointed, those things, which are perishable, may be sold: and a tutor, not affording maintenance to his pupil, may be removed, as suspected.

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