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INST1TUT10NUM,

SEU
ELEMENTORUM,

D. JUSTINIANI

LIBER PRIMUS»

TITULUS PRIMUS.

BE JUSTITIA ET JURE.

D. 1. T. 1.

Definitiojustitias. JUSTITIA e9t constans et per- Justice is the constant and perpetua voluntas jus suum cuique tri- petual disposition to render every buendi. man his due.

DefiYitio jurisprudcntiae. § I. Jurisprudentia est divina- § 1. Jurisprudence is the knowrum atque humanarum rerum no- ledge of things divine and human; titia, justi atque-injusti scientia. the science of what is just and unjust.

De juris

§ II. His igitur generaliter coga:tis, et incipientibus nobis exponere jura populi Romani, ita vid^ntur posse tradi commodissime, si primo levi ac simplici via, post deinde diligentissima atque exactissima interpretatione, singula tr adantur; alioqui, si statim ab initio rudem adhuc et infirmum aniMum studios' mu'titudine ac varieUtc rcrum oneravenmus, duorurn

methodo.

§ 2. These definitions being premised, we shall commence our exposition of the Roman Law most conveniently, if we take at first ike plainest and easiest path, and then proceed to treat each particular with the utmost exactness : for, if at the beginning we overload the mind of the student •with-a multitude and variety oj topics, we may cause him either wholly to avxindon his studies, or bring hm .alteram, aut desertorem studiorum late to that knowledge through great efficiemus, aut cum magno labore, labour and diffidence, which he might eaepe etiam cum diffidentia, (quae otherwise have acquired earlier with plerumque juvenes avertit,) seriiis ease and confidence. ad id perducemus, ad quod, leviore via ductus, fine magno labore et fine ulla diffidentia, maturing product potuisset.'

Juris praecepta.

$ III. Juris praecepta sunt: ho- § 3. The precepts of the law ar»x

neste vivere, alteram non laedere, to live honestly, to hurt no one, to

«uum cuique tribuere, give to every one his due.

De jure publ § IV. Hujus studii duse sunt positiones, publicum et privatum. Publicum jus est, quod ad statum rei Romans spectat. Privatum est, quod ad singulorum ultilitatem pertinet. Dicendum est igitur de jure privato, quod tripertitum est: collectum enim est ex naturalibus praeceptis, aut gentium, aut civilibus.

ico ct privato.

§ 4. The law is divided into, public and private. Public law, regards the stateoj the commonwealth: but private law, of which we shall here treat, concerns the interest of individuals; and is tripartite, being collected from natural precepts, from the law/ of nations, and from municipal Regulations.

TITULUS SECUNDUS.
DE JURE NATURALI, GENTIUM, ET CIVILI.

De jure JUS naturale est, quod natura omnia animalia docuit: nam jus istud non humani generis proprium est, sed omnium animalium, quae in coelo, quae in mari, nascuntur. Hinc descend it maris atque foeminae conjunctio, quam nos matrimonium appellamus. Hinc liberorum procrcatio, hiuc cducatio.

naturali.

The law of nature is a law not only to man, but likewise to all other animals, whether produced on the earth, in the air, or in the waters. From hence proceeds that conjunction of male and female, which we denominate matrimony; hence the procreation and education of chil

qren» We perceive also, that other

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VidemiM enim, carters quoque animalia isuus juris peritia censeri.

animals are considered as having some knowledge of this law.

Distinctio juris gentium et civilis, ar definitione ct etymologia.

§ I. Jus autem civile a jure gentium distinguitur, quod omnes populi, qui legibus et moribus reguntur, partim suo proprio, partim communi omnium hominum, jure utuntur: nam quod quisque populus sibi jus constituit, id ipsius proprium civitatis est, vocaturque jus civile, quasi jus proprium ipsius civitatis. Quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes gentes per J que custoditur, vocaturque jus gentium, quasi quo jure omnes gentes utantur: et populus itaque Romanus,partim suo proprio, partim commupi omnium hominum, jure utitur. Quit singula, proper places qualia sint, suis locis proponemus.

$ 1. Civil law is distinguished from the law of natons, because every community governed by laws, uses partly its own and partly the laws which are common to all mankind. That law, which a people enacts for its own government, is called the civil law of that people. But that laxv, which natural reason appoints for all mankind, is called the law of nations, because all nations make use of it. The people of Rome are governed partly by their own. laws, and partly by the laws, whichare common to ail men. Of these we shall treat separately in their

Ab appellatione ct efFectibus.

f II. Sed jus quidem civile ex unaquaque civitate appellatur, veluti Atheniensium: nam, si quis velit Solonis vel Draconis leges appellare jus civile Atheniensium, non erraverit. Sic enim et jus, quo Romanus populus utitur, jus civile Romanorum appellamus, vel jus Quiritum, quo Quirites utuntur: Romani enim a Romulo, Quirites a Quirino, appellantur. Sed, quoties non addimus nomen cujus sit civitatis, nostrum jussignificamus: sicuti cum poctam dicimus, nee addimus nomen, subauditus apud Gr.tcos egregius Homerus, apud nos Virgilius. Jus autem gentium omni humano generi «pmiaune est: nam, usu exigente et

§ 2. Civil laws take their denomination from that city, in which they are established: it would not therefore be erroneous to call the laws of Solon or Draco the civil laivs of Athens: and thus the law, -which the Roman people make use of, is styled the civil law of the Romans, or of the Quirites ;for the Romans are also called Quiritesyrom Quirinus. Whenever we mention the words civil law, without addition, we emphatically denote our own law; thus the Greeks, when they say the poet, mean Homer, and the Romans Virgil. The law of nations is common to all mankind and all nations have enacted some laws, as occasion and Iiumanis •necess'itatfbus, gentes hu- necessity required: forwars arose.

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man e jura qu dam sibi constitue- and the consequences were captivity

runt: bella etenimorta sunt, et cap- andservitude; both which are con

tivitates secut f, et servitutes, qu» trary to the law of nature; for by

-sunt «aturaM juri contrarian: jure tliat law, all men are born free. But

enimnaturali emnes homines ab ini- almost allconlracts were at first in

rtio*liberi nascebantur: et ex hoc -traduced by the law of nations; as

jure gentium,omnes pene contractus for instance, buying, selling, letting

Yntroducti sunt, ut emptio et vendi- hire'mg,partnerships deposit, a loan

tio, locatio et conductio, societas, deposition, mutuuin, et alii innumerabiles.

xmd otherp without number %

-Divisio juris in scriptum et non scriptum.; et subdivisio juris scripti.

§ 3. The Roman law is divided, 'like the Grecian, into written and unwritten. The written, consists of the plebiscites, the decrees of the senate, ordinances of princes, the edicts

citum, senatus-consultum, princi- of magistrates, and the answers of

pum placita, magistratuum edicta, the sages ofthe law.

responsa prudentum.

De lesje et plebiscite

-$'111. Constat autem jus nostrum, quo utimur, aut scripto, aut sine scripto: ut apud Gnscos T«»

vafLui »1 u.11 tyfpctipai, ot it ttypettytl.

Scriptum autem jus, est, lex, plebis

§ IV. Lex est, quod populus Ro.raanus, senatorio magistratu interrogante, (veluti consule,) constituebat. Plehiscitum est, quod plebs, plebeio magistratu interrogante, (veluti tribuno,) constituebat. PL'bs autem a populo eo difFert, quo species a genere; nam appellatione populi universi cives significantur, connumeratis etiam patriciis et senatoribus. Plebis autem appellatione, sine patriciis et senatoribus, cseteri cives significantur. Sed et plebiscita, lege Hortensia lata, non minus valerc, quam leges, cosperunt.

§ 4. A low is xvhat the, Roman people enact at the request of a senatorial magistrate; as a consul. A plebiscite is what the commonalty efiact, what requested by a plebeian magistrate, as a tribune. The "word commonalty differs from people, as a species from its genus; for all the citizens, including patricians andsenators, are comprehended under the termpeople. The term commonalty, includes all the citizens, except patricians and senators. The plebiscites, by the Hortensian laxv, began to have the same force, as the larvs themselves*

De senatus-consulto. $ V. Senatus-consultum est, quod $ 5. A senatorial decree is -what senatus jubct acque constituit: nam, the seriate commands and appoints? cum auctus esset populus Romanus for, when the people of Home became

in eum modum, ut difficile esset, in tinum eum convocari legis sanciendx causa, aequum visum est, sena*um vice populi consuli.

so increased that it was difficult to> assemble them for the enacting of laws, it seemed right, that the senate should be consulted instead of the people.

lpe constitutione.

$ VI. Sed ef, quod principi placuit, legis habet vigorem : cum lege regia, quae de ejus imperio lata est, populus ei, et in eum, omne imperium suumet potestatem concedat. Quodcunque ergo imperator per epistolam constituit, vel cognoscens decrevit, vel edicto praecepit, legem esse constat. Haec sunt, qiue consututiones appellantur. Plane ex his qusedam sunt personales, qua; sec ad exemplum trahuntur, quoniam non hoc princeps vult: nam quod alicui ob meritum indulsit, vel si quam poenam irrogavit, vel si cui sine exemplo subvenit, personam non transgreditur. Alia; autem, cam generrles sint, omr.es procul4ubio tettent.

§ 6. The ordinance of the prince hath also the force of a law; for the people by the lex regia, make a concession to him of their -whole power. Therefore whatever the emperor ordains by rescript, decree, or edict, is law. Such acts are called constitutions. Of these, some are personal^ and are not to be drawn into precedent ;for, if the prince hath indulged any man on account of his merit, or inflicted any extraordinary punishment on a criminal, or granted some unprecedented assistance, these, acts extend not beyond the individual. But other constitutions being general, undoubtedly bindalL

De jure honorario.

$ VII. Prauorum quoque edicts non modicam obtinent juris auctoritatem. Hoc etiam jus honorarium solemus appellare: quod, qui honores gerunt, (id est magistratus,) auctoritatem huic juri deJerunt. Proponebant et axliles curules edictum de quibusdam causis; quod et ipsum juris honorarii jus honorarium pcrtio est,

C

$ 7. The edicts of theprators are also of great authority. These edicts are called the honorary law, because the magistrates -who bear honors in the state, have given them their sanction. The curule adiles also, upon certain occasions, published their edicts, which became a part of the

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