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D. xxvii. T. 7. C. v. T. 57.

Qui satisdare cogantur. NE tamen pupillorum, pupilla- It is a branch of the prater's office rumve, et eorum, qui quseve in curatione sunt, negotia a curatoribus tutoribusve consumantur vel diminuantur, curet praetor, ut et tutores et curatores eo nomine satisdcnt. Sed hoc non est perpetuum ; nam tutores testamento dati, satisdare non coguntur : quia fides eorum et diligentia ab ipso testatore approbata est. Item ex inquisitione tutores vel curatores dati, satisdatione non onerantur, quia idonei electi sunt.

to see, that tutors and curators give a sufficient security for the safety and indemnification of their pupils. But this is not always necessary; for a testamentary tutor is not compelled to give security, inasmuch as his fidelity and diligence seem sufficiently approved of by the testator. Also tutors, and curators appointed upon inquiry, are supposed to be qualified, and therefore not obliged to give security.

Quatenus satisdatio in iis, qui satisdare non compelluntur, locum

hat ere possit.

5 I. Sed, si ex testamento vel inquisitione duo pluresve dati fuerint, potest unus offerre satisdationde indemnitate pupilli vel adolescentis, et contutori suo vel concuratori prrcferri, ut solus administret; vel ut contutor aut concurator satis offerens praeponatur ei, ut et ipse solus administret. Itaque per se non potest petere satisdationem a contutore vel concuratore; sed offerre debet, ut electionem det concuratori vel contutori suo, utrum velit satis accipere, an satisdare. Quod si nemo eorum satis offerat, siquidem ad.criptum fuerit a testatore, quis gerat, ille gerere debet; quod si non fuerit adscriptum,

§ 1. If two, or more, are appointed by testament, or by a magistrate, after inquiry, to be tutors or curators, any one of them, by offering security, may be preferred to the scle administration, or cause his co-tutor, or co-curator, to give security, in order to be admitted himself to the administration. Thus a man can not demand security from his co-tutor or co-curator; but by offering it himself, he may compel his co-tutor, or co-curator, to give or receive security. When no security is offered, the person appointed by the testator must be preferred; but, if no such person be appointed, then he must administer whom a majority of the tutors shall quern Major pars elegerit, ipse gerere debet, ut edicto praetoris cavetur. Sin autem ipsi tutores dissenserint circa eligendum eum vel eos, qui gerere debent, praetor partes suas interponere debet. Idem et in pluribus ex inquisitione datis comprobandum est; id est, ut major pars eligere possit, per quern administratio fiat.

elect, according to the prartorian edict: if they disagree in their choice, the proctor may interpose. The same rule is to be observed, when many, either tutors or curators, are nominated on inquisition by the magistrate, viz. that a majority determine who shall administer.

Qui ex administratione tutcls vel curationis tenentur.

§ II. Sciendum autem est, non solum tutores vel curatores pupillis veladultis, caeterisque personis, ex administratione rerum teneri: sed ctiam in cos, qui satisdationem accipiunt, subsidiariam actionem esse, quae ultimum eis presidium possit afferre. Subsidiaria autem actio in eos datur, qui aut omnino a tutoribus vel curatoribus satisdari non curaverunt, aut non idonee passi sunt caveri: quae quidem tarn ex prudentum responsis, quam ex constitutionibus imperialibus, etiam in haeredes eorum extenditur.

$ 2. It is to be noted that tutors and curators are not alone subject to an action, on account of administering the affairs of pupils, minors, and others under their protection. For a subsidiary action, which is the last remedy to be used, will also lie against a magistrate either for entirely omitting to take, or for taking insufficient sureties : and this action according to the answers of the lawyers, as well as by the imperial constitutions, is extended even against the heir of such magistrate.

^ Si tutor vel curator cavere nolit.

§ III. Quibus constitutionibus § 3. By the same constitutions it

et illud exprimitur, ut, nisi caveant is expressly enacted, that tutors and

tutores et curatores, pignoribus cap- curators, who refuse to give caution,

tis coerceantur. may be compelled to it.

Qui dicta ectione non tenentur.

§ IV. Neque autem prafectus $ 4. Neither the prafect of the

urbi, neque praetor, neque praeses xity,nor the prcttor,nor the governor

provinciae, neque quisquam alius, of a province, nor any other, who

cui tutores dandi jus est, hac ac- has power to assign tutors, shall be

tione tenebitur: sed hi tantummo- subject to a subsidiary action: but

do, qui satisdationem exiijere so- those magistrates only are liable to

lent. it. who exact the security.




D. xxvii. T. 1. C. v. T. 62.

De numero EXCUSANTUR autem tu'tores et curatores variis ex causis; pler&mque tamen propter liberos, sive in potestate sint, sive emancipati. Si enim tres liberos superstites Roma» quis habeat, vel in Italia quatuor, vel in provinciis quinque, a tutela vel cura potest excusari, exemplo cseterorum munerum; nam et tutelam et curam placuit publicum munus esse. Sed adoptivi liberi non prosunt; in adoptionem autem dati naturali patri, prosunt. Item nepbtes ex filio prosunt, ut in locum patris sui succedant; ex filii non prosunt» Filii autem superstites tantum ad tutela vel curas muneris excusationem prosunt: defuncti autem non prosunt. Sed, si in bello amissi sunt, quaskum est, an prosint? Et constat, eos solos prodesse, qui in acie amittuntur. Hi enim, qui pro republics» ceciderunt, in perpetuum per gloriam vivere intelliguntur.


Persons, nominated as tutors, or curators, may, upon diverse accounts, excuse themselves; generally as having children, whether subject, or emancipated. For at Rome, if a man has three children living, in Ita* ly Jour, or in the Provinces ^ve, he may therefore be excused from tiaclage and curation, as well as from other employments of a public nature ; for both tutelage and curation are esteemed public offices. But adopted children will not avail the adoptor; they will nevertheless excuse their natural father, who gave them in adoption. Also grand-children by a son, when they sufceed in. place of their father, will excuse their grand-father; but grand-children by a daughter will not. Those children only, who are living, can excuse from tutelage and curation ,the deceased are of no avail: should it be asked if a parent can count upon sons, destroyed in war? We must answer, he can avail himself of those only, who perished in battle: for those who have fallen for the republic, are esteemed to live ill the immortality of their fame»

De aclministratione rei fiscalis. § I. Item divus Marcus in se- $ 1. The emperor Marcua dcclarmestribus rescripsit, eum, qui res ed by rescript from his Stmestnal' fisci administrat, a tutela et cura council, that a person engaged in the quamdiu administrat, excusari pos- Treasury Department is excused se> from tutelage and curation, whilejo


De absentia reipublicse causa. § H. Item, qui reipublica: causa §'2. Persons absent on public buabsunt, a tutela vel cura excusantur. siness, are exempted from tutelage Scd et, si fucrint tutores vel curato- and curation; and if such, who are

i-es dati, deinde reipublic» causa abesse cceperint, a tutela vel cura excusantur, quatenus reipublica: causa absunt: et intcrea curator loco eorum datur; qui, si reversi fuerint,

already assigned to be either tutors or curators, should afterwards- be thus absent, they are excused xvhile they continue in public service;- and curators must be appointed in their

recipiunt onus tutela; : nam nee anni place; on their return, they must ahabent vacationem, ut Papinianus gain take upon them the burden of

libro quinto responsorum scripsit: nam hoc spatium habent ad novas tutelas vocati.

tutelage. But they are not. intitled (as Papinian asserts in the fifth book of his answers J to the privilege of a year's vacation: for that term is allowed to those only, who are called to anew tutelage.

De potestate. §111. Et, qui potestatem aliquam § 3. By a rescript of the emperor

habent, se excusare possunt, ut divus Marcus rescripsit: scd susceptam tutelam deserere non possunt.

Marcus, all superior magistrates may, as such, excuse themselves „• but they cannot desert a tutelage once undertaken.

De lite cum pupillo vel adulto.

§ IV. Item propter litem, quam cum pupillo vel adulto tutor vel curator habet, excusari non potest: nisi forte dc omnibus bonis vel hoereditate controvcrsia sit.

§ 4. No tutor or curator can excuse hirhself by alleging a law-suit with the pupil or minor; unless the. suit is for all the goods, or the -whole inheritance of such pupil or minor. .

De tribus tutelas ct curae oneribus. § V. Item tria onera tutelse non $ 5. Three tutelages or curator; .iffeciatae, vel curce, praestant vaca- ships unsolicited, excuse during- theittionem,quamdiii administrantur: ut continuance, from the burden of a tamen, plurium pupillorum tutela fourth. But the tutelage or curavel cura eorundem bonorum, veluti tion of many pupils, as of several brofratrum, pro una computetur. thers, under one patrimony, is reck

oned as one only.

Tie paupertate.

§ VI. Sed et propter paupertatem excusationem tribui, tarn divi fratres, quam per se divus Marcus rcscripsit, si quis imparem se oneri injuncto possit docere.

§ 6. The diyine brothers have declared by their rescript, and the emperor Marcus also, that poverty is a sufficient excuse, when it can be proved such, as to render a man incapable of the burden imposed upon him.

De adversa valetudine. § VII. Item propter adversam § 7. Illness also, if it prevent a v'aktudinem, propter quam ne suis man from transacting his ownbusiquidem negotiis interesse potest, ness, is a sufficient excuse. excusatio locum habet.

De irnperitia literarum. $ VIII. Similiter eos, qui literas § 8. By the rescript of the emperor

nesciunt, esse excusandos, Divus Pius rescripsit; quamvis et imperiti literarum possint ad administrationem negotiorem suIEcere.

Antoninus Pius, illiterate persons are to be excused; although in some cases they may suffice.

De inimicitia patris. $ IX. Item si propter inimicitias § 9. If a father through enmity

aliquem testamento tutorem pater dederit, hoc ipsum pr estat ei excusationem; sicut per contrarium non excusantur, qui, se tutelam administraturos, patripupillorumpromiserantl

appoints any particular person, by testament, the motive will afford a sufficient excuse. Contrarywise, he who by promise hath engaged himself to a testator, can not be excused from the office of tutelage.

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