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Servus autem alienus pure inutiliter slave to be free, by testament aptestamento datur tutor! sed ita, points him, as such, to be a tutor, the cum liber er.it, utiliter datur. Pro- appointment will not avail. Also prius autem servus inutiliter eo mo- the absolute appointment of another do tutor datur. man's slave to be a tutor is altogether

ineffectual; but, if the appointment is upon condition, that the person appointed obtains his freedom, then it is well made: but, if a man by testament appoints his own slave to be a tutor, when he shall obtain his liberty, the appointment will be void.

De furioso et minore viginti-quinque annis. §11. Furiosus, vel minor viginti- § 2. If 'a madman or a minor (unquinque annis, tutor testamento da- der twenty-fve) is by testament aptus, tutor tunc erit, cum compos pointed tutor, the one shall begin mentis, aut major vigimti-quinque to act, when.he becomes of sound annis, fuerit factus. mind, and the other, when he has

completed his twenty-fifth year.

Quibus modis tutores dantur.

§ III. Ad certum tempus, vel ex § 3. It is not doubted, but that a

certo tempore, vel sub conditione, testamentary tutor may be appointed

vel anteharedis institutionem, posse either until a certain time, or from

dari tutorem non dubitatur. « certain time, or conditionally, or

before the institution of an heir.

Cui dantur. § IV. Certae autem rei, vel causa, § 4. A tutor can not be assigned to tutor dari non potest: quia person*, any particular thing, or upon any non causae, vel rei, tutor datur. certain account, but cm only be giv

en to persons.

De tutore dato filiabus, vel filiis, vel liberis, vel nepotibus.

S V. Si quis filiabus suis, vel fi- $ 5. If a man nominates a tutor

liis, tutores dederit, etiam posthu- for his sons or daughters, the nomi

mx vel posthumo dedisse videtur: nation extends to his posthumous is

quia, filii vel filias appellatione, et sue; because, under the appellation

posthumusetposthumacontinentur. of son or daughter, a posthumous

Quod si nepotes sint, an appella- child is comprehended. But, are

tione filiorum et ipsis tutores dati grand-children denoted by the word

sint? Dicendum est, ut et ipsis quoque dati videantur, si modi liberos dixerit; caeterum, si filios, non continebuntur. Aliter enim filii, aliter nepotes appellantur. Plane, si posteris dederit, tarn filii posthumi, quam ca:teri liberi, continebuntur.

sons ? we answer, that under children, grand-children are included, but not under sons: for son, and grand-son, differ in signification» But, if a testator assigns a tutor to his descendants, it is evident, that not only his posthumous sons are comprehended, but all his other children.

TITULUS DECIMUS-QUINTUS.
DE LEG1TIMA AGNATORUM TUTELA.

D. xxvi. T. 4. C. v. T. 30.

Summa.

QUIBUS autem testamento tutor datus non est, his, ex lege duodecim tabularum, agnati sunt tutores, qui vocantur legitimi.

The Agnati by a law of the twelve tables, are appointed tutors to those, to whom no testamentary tutor was given; and these tutors are called legitimi, tutors by latv,

Qui sunt agnati.

§ I. Sunt autem agnati cognati, § 1. Agnati are those, who are

per virilis sexus cognationem coil- collaterally related to us by males,

juncti, quasi a patre cognati: vcluti as a brother by the same father, or

frater ex eodem patre natus, fratris the son of a brother, or by him a

fdius, neposve ex eo: item patruus grand-son ; also a father's brother, or

et pratrui filius, neposve ex eo. At, the son of such brother, or by him a

qui per fceminini sexus personas cognationejunguntur, agnati non sunt, sed alias naturali jure cognati. Itaquc amife tuae filius non est tibi agnatus, sed cognatus: et invicem tu illi eodem jure conjungeris: quia, qui ex ea nascuntur, patris, non matris, familiam scqimntur.

grand-son. But those, who are related to us by a female are not agnate, but cognate, bearing only a natural relation to us. Thus the son of a father's sister is related to you not by agnation, but cognation; and you arc also related to him by cognation;

for the children of a father's sister.

follow the family of their father, and not that of their mother.

G

§ II. Quod autem lex duodecim tabularum ab intestate vocat ad tutelam agnatos, non hanc habet significationcm, si omnino non fecerit testamentum is, qui poterat tutores dare; sed si, quantum ad tutelam pertinet, intestatus decesserit: quod tunc quoque accidere intelligitur, cum is qui datus est tutor, vivo testatore decesserit.

Quib is mcdis agnntio, § III. Sed agnationis quidem jus omnibus modis capitis diminutione perumque perimitur: nam agnatio juris civilis nomen est; cognationis verb jus non omnibus modis commutatur: quia civilis ratio, civilia quidem juracorrumpere potest, naturalia vero, non utique.

§ 2. The law of the twelve tables, in calling the agnati to tutelage in case of intestacy, relates not solely to persons altogether intestate, who might have appointed a tutor, but also to those, who are intestate only in respect of tutelage; and this may happen, if a tutor, nominated by testament, should die in the lifetime of the testator.

vel cognatio, finitur.

$ 3. The right of agnation is taken away by almost every diminution, or change of state; for agnation is but a name given by the civil law; but the right of cognation is not thus altered; for although civil policy may extinguish civil rights, yet over natural rights it has no such power*

TITULUS DECIMUS-SEXTUS.

DE CAPITIS DIMINUTIONE.

D. iv. T. S.

Definitio et divisio.

EST autcni capitis diminutio prioris status nmtatio; eaque tribus modis accidit: nam aut maxima est capitis diminutio, aut minor, (quam quidam mediam vocant,) aut minima.

Diminution is the change of a man's former condition; and this is threefold, the greater, the less, and the least.

De maxima, capitis diminntione. § I. Maxima capitis diminutio $ 1. The greater diminution is, est, cum aliquis simul et civitatem when a man loses both the right of a et libertatcm amittit; quod accidit citizen and his liberty; as they do.

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De mutatione dignitatis. § V. Quibus autem dignitas § 5. Those, whose dignity is raraagis quam status permutatur, ca- ther changed than their state, do not pite non minuuntur; et ide6, a se- suffer diminution; hence it is not natu motos capite non minui, con- diminution to be removed from the stat. senatorial dignity.

Interprctatio & ult. sup. tit. prox.

§ VI. Quod autem dictum est, manere cognationis jus etiam post capitis diminutioncm, hoc ita est, si minima capitis diminutio interveniat: manet enim cognatio. Nam, si maxima capitis diminutio interveniat, jus quoque cognationis perit, ut puta servitute alicujus cognuti; et ne quidem, si manumissus fuerit, recipit cognationem. Sed et si in insulam quis deporlatus sit, cognatio solvitur.

§ 6. We have said, that the right of cognation remains after diminution, but this relates only to the least diminution. For, by the greater diminution, as by servitude, the right of cognation is wholly destroyed, even so as not to be recovered by manumission. The right of cognation is also lost by the less or mesne diminution, as by deportation into an island.

Ad quos agnatos tutela pertinet. § VII. Cum autem ad agnatos § 7. Although the right of tute

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TITULUS DECIMUS-SEPTIMUS.

DE LEGITIMA PATRONORUM TUTELA.

D. xxvi. T. 4-. C. v. T. 30.

Ratio, ob quam patronoru EX eadem lege duodechn tabularum, libertorum et libertarum tutela ad patronos liberosque eorum pertinet, quae et ipsa legitima tutela vocatur;. non quia nominatim in ea lege de hac tutela caveatur; sed quia perinde accepta est per interpretationem, ac si verbis legis hi

nt tutela dicitur legitima.

By the same law of the twelve tables, the tutelage offreed-men and freed-toomen, belongs to their patrons, and to the children of such patrons ; and this is tutelage by operation of law, although it exists not nominally in the law; but it is as firmly established by interpretation, as if it

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