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Teluni autem, ut Cajus noster ex interpretaticne legum tiuodecim tab alarum scriptum reliquit, vulgo qiiidem id appellator, quod arcu mittitur; sed et nunc omne significat, quod manu cujusque jacitur. Sequitur ergo, ut lignum, et lapis, et ferrum, hoc nomine contineantur; dictum a'o eo, quod in longinquum mittitur, a Graeca voce mXtt figuratum. Et hanc significationem hivenire possumus et in Graeco nomine; nam, quod nos telum appellamus, illi /3a@^ appellant «wo tu /8«APi«e-^«i. Admonet nos Xenophon; nam ita scribit: K*i rx fitxn

irhHfn h ui Ai<«. Sicarii autem appellantur a sica, quod significat ferreum cultrum. Eadem lege et vencfici capite damnantur, qui artibus • odiosis, tam venenis, quam susurris magicis, homines, occiderint; vel mala mcdicamenta publice vendiderint.

De pan § VI. Alia deinde lex asperrimum crimen nova poena persequitur, qua: Pompeia de parricidiis vocatur; qua cavetur, ut, si quis parentis aut filii, aut omnino affectionis ejus, quus nuncupatione parentum continetur, fata praeparaverit, (sive clam, sive palam, id ausus fuerit,) nee non is, cujus dolo malo id factum est, vel conscius

The term telum, according to Caius's interpretation, commonly signifies an arrow made to be shot from a bow, but it is now used to denote any missile weapon, or ■whatever is thrown from the hand; hence a club, a stone, or a piece of iron, may be comprehended under that appellation. The word telum is evi- . dently derived from the Greek adverb nix*, procul, because thrown from a distance. And we may trace the same analogy in the Greek word BtXti -. for what we call telum, the Greeks term /3sa»«, from /scaaivssi to throw; and of this we are informed by Xenophon, who writes thus: Darts also were carried, spears, arrows, slings and a multitude of stones. Assassins and murderers are called sicarii from sica, which signifies a short crooked sword or ponyard. The same law also inflicts a capital punishment upon those, who practice odious arts, or sell pernicious medicaments, occasioni?ig the death of mankind, as well-by poison, as by magical incantations.


6. The law Pompeia inflicts a new punishment upon those who commit parricide, the most execrable ofall crimes. This law ordains that whoever, either publicly or privately, hastens the death of a parent or a child, or of any person comprized under the tye, or denomination of a parent, shall be punished as a parricide; and he also, who hath criminis existit, licet extraneus sit, poena parricidii puniatur: et neque gladio, neque ignibus, neque ulli solemni poena? subjiciatur, sed insutus culeo cum cane, et gallo gallinaceo, et vipera, et simia, et inter eas ferales angustias comprehensus, (secundum quod regionis qualitas tulerit,) vel in vicinum mare, vel in amnem projiciatur; ut omnium elementorum usu vivus carere incipiat, et ei cesium superstiti, et terra mortuo, auferatur. Si quis autem alias cognatione vel affinitate personas conjunctas necaverit, pocnam legis Cornelias de sicariis sustinebit.

advised, or been privy to the trans» action, although a stranger. A criminal, in this case, is not put to death by the sword, by Jire, nor by any ordinary punishment; the law directs, that he shall be sewed up in a sack, with a dqg, a cock, a vipert and an ape, and, being put up in this horrid inclosure, shall be thrown either into the sea, or an adjacent river, according to the situation of the place, where the punishment is inflicted: thus he is deprived of the very elements, while living; so that his living body is denied the bene' fits of the air, and his dead body the use of the earth. But, if a man be guilty of the murder of any other person, related to him, either by cognation or affinity, he is only subject the punishment inflicted by the law Cornelia de sicariis.

De falsis.

§ VII. Item lex Cornelia de falsis, quae etiam testamentaria vocatur, pocnam irrogat ei, qui testamentum vel aliud instrumentum falsum scripserit, signaverit, recitaverit, subjecerit, vel signum adulterinum fecerit, sculpserit, expresserit, sciens, dolo malo. Ejusque legis poena, in servos ultimum supplicium est; quod etiam in lege Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis servatur: in liberos verd deportatio.

§ 7. The law Cornelia de falsis, which is also called testamentaria, punishes those who fraudulently write, sign, recite, or clandestinely offer for signature a false will, or any other instrument; or make, engrave or stamp, or in any manner counterfeited the seal of another. The punishment by this law upon slaves is death; as it is by the law Cornelia concerning assassins and poisoners; upon freemen, deportation.

De vi. $ VIII." Item lex Julia de vi § 8. The law Julia, concerning

publica seu privata adversus eos exoritur, qui vim vel armatam, vel sine armis, commiserint; sed, siquidem armata vis arguatur, dcportatio ei ex lege Julia de vi publica irrogatur; si vero sine armis, in tertiam partem bonorum suorum publicatio imponitur. Sin autem per vim raptus virginis, vel vidua*, vel sanctimonialis, vel alterius, fuerit perpetratus, tunc et raptores, et ii, qui opem huic flagitio dederunt, capite puniuntur, secundum nostra; constitutionis definitionem, ex qua hoc apertius possibile est scire.

public and private force, take place) against all, who use force, whether armed or unarmed; but, if proof be made of an armed force, the punishment is deportation by that law r and, if the force be not accompanied with arms, the penalty is confiscation of one third part of the offend' er's goods: jievertheless, if a rape be committed upon a virgin, a wi~ dow, a nun, or upon any other person, both the ravishers and their accomplices are all equally subject to capital punishment, according to the decision of our constitution; from, which more may be known of this subject.

De peculatus. § IX. Item lex Julia peculates eos § 9. The law Julia de peculatu punit, qui publicam pccuniam, vel punishes those, who have been guilty

rem sacram, vel religiosam, furati fuerint. Sed, siquidem ipsi judices tempore administrationis publicas pecunias subtraxerint, capitali animadversione puniuntur; et non solum hi, sed etiam qui ministerium eis ad hoc exhibuerint, vel qui subtractas ab his susceperint. Alii vero, qui in hanc legem inciderint, poena* deportationis subjugentur.

of theft, in regard to public money, or any thing, which is sacred; but, if judges themselves, while in office commit a theft of this kind, their punishment is capital; and so is the punishment of all those, who assist in such a theft, or knowingly receive the money stolen. But all other persons, xvho offend against this law, are only subject to deportation.

De plagiariis. § X. Est et inter publica judicia § 10 lex Fabia de plagiariis, quse interdiim capitis poenam ex sacris constitutionibus irrogat, interdum leviorem.

The law Fabia against plagiaries, ranis also among public judgments; but by the imperial constitutions, offenders against this law, are sometimes punished with death, and sometimes by a milder punish*menu

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