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circa fructus interveniunt, quae diximus intervenire de singularum rerum petilione. Illorum autem fructuum quos culpa sua possessor non perceperit, sive illorum, quos perceperit, in utraque actione eadera ratio pene habetur, si prscdo fiu-rit. Si vero bona; fidci possessor fuerit, nan hahetur ratio neque con6uptorum, neque noa perceptorum. Post inchoatam autem petitionem etiam illorum fructuum ratio habetur, qui culpa possessoris percepti non aunt, vel percepti consumpti sunt.

of the condemnation and costs of suit, if he should fail to male restitution within the time appointed. And, if an inheritance be sued far, a judge ought to determine in the same man* ner as to the profits, as he would in a suit for some particular thing only ; for, if the defendant appear to have been a possessor maid fide, then almost the same reasoning prevails in both actions as to the profits, -whether they were taken or neglected by the possessor : but, if the defendant be a possessor bona fide, then no account is expected,-either of produce consumed or not collected before the suit. But all produce must be ac^countedfor from the date of the action, whether used or neglected.

De actione ad exhibendum.

§ III. Si ad exhibendum ac- $ 3. If a man proceed by an action turn fuerit, non sufficit, si exhibeat ad exhibendum, it is not sufficient, rem is, cum quo actum est; sed that the defendant should exhibit the opus est, ut etiam rei causam de- thing in question, but he must also be beat exhibere, id est, ut earn cau- answerable for all profits and emosam habeat actor, quam habiturus luments accruing from it; that the esset, si, cum primum ad exhiben- plaintiff may be in the same state, dum egisset, exhibits res fuisset: as if his property had been restored ideoque, si inter moras exhibendi, to him when he frst brought his usucapta sit res a possessore, nihi- action : and therefore, if the posseslominus condemnabitur. Prstterea sor, during his delay to surrender fructuum medii temporis, id est, the thing in dispute, shall gain a ejus, quod post acceptum ad exhi- prescriptive title to it, he shall Habendum judicium, ante rem judica- vcrtheless be condemned to restilvtam, intercesserit, rationem ha- tion. Morcver it is the duty of the bere debet judi.-x. Quod si neget judge to take an account of the metreus, cum quo ad exhibendum ac- neprofit* accrving between the suit rum est, in prsesenti se exhib-.-re and the sentence. But, when the drposse, et tempus exhibendi causa fendant declares^ that he is not abU

petat, idque sine frustratione postulare videatur, dari ei debet, ut tamen caveat, se restituturum. "Quod si neque statim jussu judicisrem exhibeat, neque postea se exhibiturum caveat, condemnandus sit in id, quod actoris intererat, si ab initio res exhibita esset.

instantly to produce the thing adjudged, and prays a farther time, without apparent affectation of delay, time should be allowed, on kit giving security for restitution. But, if he neither obey the command of the magistrate by instantly producing the thing adjudged, nor in giving sufficient security for the production of it at a future day, he must be condemned in the full damages, which the plaintiff hath sustained by not having the article delivered to him at the commencement of the suit.

Families erciscundae.

§ IV. Si familiae erciscunda? ju>- § When a suit is commenced for dicio actum sit, singulas res singu- • the partition of an inheritance, the lis haeredibus adjudicare debet; et, judge must decree to each heir his

si in alterius persona praegravare videatur adjudicatio, debet hunc invicem cohseredi certa pecunia (sicuti jam dictum est) condemnare. Eo quoque nomine cohseredi quis

respective portion; and, if the partition, when made, be more advantageous to the one than to the other, the judge ought as we have before observed, to oblige him,who has the largest

que suo condemnandus est, quod part, to make a full recompense in solus fructus hsereditarii fundi per- money to his co-heir: it therefore ceperit, autrem haereditariam cor- follows, that every co-heir, -who hath

ruperit, aut consumpserit. Quae quidem similiter inter plures quoque quam duos cohasredes subsequuntur.

taken the profits of an inheritance to his sole use, and consumed them, is liable to be compelled to make restitution. And this is the law whether there are two heirs, or many.

'. Communi dividundo.

§ V. Eadem interveniunt, etsi § 5. The law is the same, when

communi dividundo de pluribus a suit is brought communi dividun

rebus actum sit. Quod si de una do, for one particular, thing only,

re, veluti de fundo; siquidem iste it being but a part or parcel of an

fundus commode regionibus divi- inheritance, as afield, or any piece

sionem recipiat, partes ejus singulis adjudicare debet: et, si unius pars pr*gravare videtur, is invicem certi pecunia alteri condemnandus est. Quod si commode dividi non possit, vel si homo forte aut mulus erit, de quo actum sit, tunc totus uni adjudicandus est, et is invicem alteri certi pecunia condemnandus est*

of ground, which, if it can be conveniently divided, ought to be adjudged to each claimant in equal portions; and if the share of one be larger than the others, the party having the largest portion, must be condemned to make a recompense in money. But, if the thing sued for be of such a nature, that it cannot be divided, as a slave, or a horse, it must be given entirely to one of the co-partners, who must be ordered to make satisfaction in money to the other.

Finium regundorum.

$ VI. Si finium regundorum actum fuerit, dispicere debet judex, an necessaria sit adjudicatio; qua: sane uno casu necessaria est, si evidentioribus finihus distingui agros commodius sit, quam olim fuissent distincti: nam tunc necesse est, ex alterius agro partem aliquam alterius agri domino adjudicari; quo casu conveniens est, ut is alteri certi pecunia debeat condemnari. Eo quoque nomine condemnandus est quisque hoc judicio, quod forte circa fines aliquid malitiose commisit; verbi gratia, quia lapides finales furatus est, vel arbores finales excidit. Contumacise quoque nomine quisque eo judicio condem


§ 6. When the action finium regundorum is broughtfor the determination of boundaries, the judge ought frst to examine, whether it be absolutely requisite to proceed to aitadjudication; in one case, it is undoubtedly so; viz. when it becomes expedient, that grounds should be divided by more conspicuous boundaries than formerly; for necessity then requires, that a part of one man's ground should be adjudged to another, in which case it is incumbent upon a judge to condemn him9 whose estate is enlarged, to pay art equivalent to the other, whose estate is diminished. By this action, that any one may be prosecuted, who hath D

nat'ur ; veluti si quis jubenie judice committed fraud in relation to bounmctiri agros passus non fuerit. daries, either by removing stones^

or cutting down trees, which were landmarks. The same action ruili also subject any man to condemnation on account of contumacy, if he refuse to suffer his lands to be measured at the command of a judge,

De adjudicatione. § VII. Quod autem istisjudiciis § 7. Whatever is adjudged to m alicui adjudicatum fuerit, id statim party in any of these actions, in«jus fitj cui adjudicatum est. stantly becomes the property oj him.,

to whom it xvas adjudged.



De differentia a. privatis.

PUBLICA judicia neque per Public judgments etre not intra

actiones ordinantur; neque omni- duced by actions; nor are they in

no quicquam simile habent cum any tiling similar to the judgments^

ceteris judiciis, de quibus locuti of which we have been treating.

6umus: magnaque divi rsitas to- They alto differ greatly from one

rum est et in instituendo et in excr- another in the manner of being in

cendo. stituted and prosecuted.

. Etymologia. § I. Publica autem dicta sunt, § 1. They me called public, hequod cuivis ex populo executio eo- cause they way be sued to execution rum plerunique datur. by any of the people.

Divisio. § II. Publicorum judiciorum § 2. Of these judgments some are edam capitalia sunt, qurdam non capital, others not. We term those italia. Capitalia dicimus, quae capital, by which a criminal is pro

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ultimo supplicio afficiunt homines, vel- etiam aqua; et ignis interdictions, vel deportatione, vel metallo. Caetera, si quam infamiam irrogant cum damno pecuniario, ha;c publica qu idem sunt, sed non capitalia.

Excmpln. De

§ III. Publicaautemjudiciahac sunt. Lex Julia majestatis, qua? in eos, qui contra imperatorem vel rempublicam aliquid moliti sunt, suum vigorem extendit. Cujus poena animse amissionem sustinet, et memoria rei etiam post mortem damnatur.

hibited from fire and water, or condemned to death, to banishment, or to the mines. Others,by-rohich men are fined and rendered infamous, are public indeed, but not capital.

aesa majestate.

§ 3. The following are public judgments. The law Julia majestatis extends its force against those, -who have undertaken any entcrprize against the emperor or the republic. The penalty is the loss of life, and the memory of the offender- becomes infamous after his death.

De adulteriis.

§ IV. Item lex Julia de adulteriis coercendis, qua; non solum temeratores alienarum nuptiarum gladio punit, sed et eos, qui cum masculis nefandam libidinem exercere audent. Sed eadem. lege etiam stupri flagitium punitur, cum quis sine vi vel virginem vel vlduam honeste viventem stupraverit. Poenam autem eadem lex irrogat stupratoribus; si honesli sunt, publicationem partis dimidiae bonorum; si humiles, corporis coercitionem cum relegatione.

§ 4. The law Julia, for the suppression of adulteries, not only punishes with death those who violate the marriage bed of others, but those also, who commit acts of detestable lexudness with persons of their own sex. It also inflicts punishment upon all who are guilty of the critne called stuprum: that is, the debauching a virgin, or a widow of honest fame, without force. The punishment of this crime in persons of condition is the confiscation of a moiety of their possessions; offenders of low degree, undergo corporal chas* tisement with relegation*

De sicariis.

§ V. Item lex Cornelia de sicariis, qua: homicidas ultore ferro pcrsequitur, vel eos, qui hominis occidendi causa cum telo ambulant.

$ 5. The law Cornelia de sicariis punishes those, who commit murder, wrth death, and those also, who carry weapons, with intent to kilk

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