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De captivitate § V. Si ab hostibus captus fuerit parens, quatnvis servus hostium fiat, tamen pendet jus liberorum, propter jus postliminii: quia hi, qui ab hostibus capti sunt, si reversi fuerint, omnia pristina jura recipiunt: idcirco reversus etiam liberos habebit inpotestate : quia postliminium fingit eum, qui captus est, in civitate semper fuisse. Si vero ibi decesserit, exinde, ex quo captus ■ est pater, filius sui juris fuisse videtur. Ipse quoque filius, neposve, si ab hostibus captus fuerit, similiter dicimus, propter jus postliminii, jus quoque potestatis parentis in suspenso esse. Dictum autem est postliminium a limine et post. Unde eum, qui ab hostibus captus est, et in fines nostros postea pervenit, postliminio reversum recte dicimus. Nam limina sicut in domo finem quendam faciunt, sic et imperii finem esse limen veteres voluerunt. Hinc et limen dictum est, quasi finis quidam et terminus. Ab eo postliminium dictum est, quia ad idem limen revertebatur, quod amiserat. Sed et, qui captus victis hostibus recuperatur, postliminio rediisse existimatur.

De emancipatione, item dc § VI. Prxterea, emancipatione quoque desinunt liberi in potestate parentum esse. Sed emancipatio antca quidem vel per antiquam legis observationcm procedebat, qua: per imaginarias venditiones et intercedentes manumfesiones celcbraba

et postliminio. '•.

§ 5. Ifa parent is taken prisoner, although he become a slave, he loses not his paternal power, which' remains in suspense by reason of a privilege granted to all prisoners, namely, the right of return : for captives, when they obtain their liberty, are repossessed of all their former rights, in which paternal power is of course included; and, at their return, they are supposed, by a fiction of law, never to have been absent. If a prisoner dies captive, the son'sindependence is reckoned from the commencement of his father's captivity. Also, if a son, or grand-son, becomes aprisoner, the power of the parentis said, for the reason before assigned, to be only in suspense. The term postliminium is derived from post and limen. We therefore aptly use the expression reversus postliminio, when a person, who was a captive, returns xvithin our own confines*

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modis et cffectibus ejusdem.

§ 6. Children also cease to be under the power of their parents by emancipation. Emancipation was effected according to our ancient law, cither In/ imaginary sales and intervening manumissions, or by imperial rescript; but it has been our care tur, vel ex imperiali rescripto. 'Nostra autem providentia etiam hoc in melius per constitutionem reformavit ; ut, fictione pristina explosa, recta via ad competentes judices, vel magistratus, parentes intrent, et filios suos vel Alias, vel nepotes vel neptes, ac deinceps, a sua manu dimittant. Et tunc, ex edicto prxtoris, in bonis ejusmodi filii vel filiae, vel nepotis vel neptis qui quaeve a parente manumissus vel manumissa fuerit, eadem jura praestantur parenti, quae tribuuntur patrono in bonis liberti. Et praeterea, si impubes sit filius, vel filia, vel caeteri, ipse parens ex manumissione tutelam ejus nansciscitur.

Si alii emancipentur, alii

§ VII. Admonendi autem sumus, liberum arbitrium esse ei, qui filium, et ex eo nepotem, vel neptem, in potestate habet, filium quidem de potestate dimittere, nepotem vero vel neptem retinere : et, e converso, filium quidem in potestate retinere, nepotem vero vel neptem manumittere : vel omnes sui juris efficere. Eadem et de pronepote et pronepte dicta esse intelliguntur.

to reform these ceremonies by an express constitution, so' that parents may now have immediate recourse, to the proper judge or magistrate, and emancipate their children, grand-children, fcfc. of both sexes. And also, by a pratorian edict, the parent is allowed to have the same right in the goods of those, whom he emancipates, as a patron has in the goods of his freed-man. And farther, if the children emancipated are within the age of puberty, the parent, by whom they were emancipated, obtains the right of wardship or tutelage, by the emancipation.

retineantur in potestate.

§ 7. A parent liaving a son under his power, and by that son a grand-son or grand-daughter, may emancipate his son, and retain his grand-son or grand-daughter in subjection. He inay also emancipate his grand-son or grand-daughter,and retain his son; or, he may make them all independent. And the same may be said of a great-grand-son, or a grcat-grand-daughter.

De adoptione. § VIII. Sed et, si pater filium, § 8. If a father gives his son in

adoption to the natural grand-father or great-grand-father of such son, adhering to our constitutions for that purpose enacted, which enjoin the parent to declare intention before a com

quem in potestate habet, avo, vel proavo naturali, secundum nostras constitutiones super his habitas, in adoptionem dederk, id est, si hoc ipsum actis intervenientibus apud

competentemjudicem manifestave- petent judge, in the presence of the rit, prssente eo, qui adoptatur, et person to be adopted, and also in the An parcntcs cogi possunt liberos suos de potestate dimittere?

non contradicente, nee non eo praesente, qui adoptat, solvitur quidem jus potestatis patris naturalis; transit autem m hujusmodi parentem adoptivum; in cujus persona et adoptionemesse plenissimam antea diximus.

< De nepote nato post

§ IX. Iflud scire oportet, quod si minis tua ex filio tuo conceperit, et filium tuum emancipaveris, vel in adoptionem dederis, praegnante mini tua, nihilominus, quod ex ei nascitur, in potestate tua nascitur. Quod si post emancipationem vel adoptionem conceprus fuerit, patris sui emancipati, vel avi adoptivi, potestati subjicitur.

presence of the adopter, then doe* the right of paternal power pass •wholly from the natural father to the adoptive, in whose person, as we have before observed, adoption has itsjullest extent.

filium emancipatum.

$ 9. It is necessary to be known, that, if a sorts wife hath conceived, and you afterwards emancipate that son or give him in adoption, his wife being pregnant, the child will be born under your paternal authority. But if the conception be subsequent to the emancipation or adoption, the child becomes subject at his birth, either to his emancipated father, or his adoptive grand-father.

§ X» Et quidem nequenatu rales § 10. Children, either natural or liberi, neque adoptivi, ullo pene mo- adopted, can rarely compel their pado possunt cogere parentes de po- rents by any method to dismiss them testate sua eos dimittere. from subjection.

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tenentur. Videamus ergo de his, qu» in tutela vel curatione sunt: ita enim intelligemus cxteras pcrsonas, quae neutro jure tenentur. Ac prius dispiciamus dc his, qui in tutela sunt.

us enquire then, -what persons are under tutelage andcuration ; for thus we shall ascertain, who are not subject to either. And first of persons under tutelage.

Tutelas definitio. § I. Est autem tutela (ut Servius § 1. Tutelage, as Servius has dcdefinivit) vis ac potestas in capite fined it, is an authority and power, libero, ad tuendum eum, qui per given and permitted by the civil law, setatem se defendere nequit, jure over such independent persons, as are civili data ac permissa. unable, by reason of their youth, to

protect themselves.

Definitio et etymologia tutoris.

§ II. Tutores autem sunt, qui earn vim ac potestatem habent; exque ipsa re nomen acceperunt. Itaque appellantur tutores, quasi tuitores atque defensores; sicutaeditui dicuntur, qui sdes tuentur.

§ 2. Tutors are those, who have this authority and power,- and they take their name from the nature of their office. For they are called tutors, quasi tuitores defenders; as those, who have the care of the sacred buildings, are called aeditui, quod seeks tueantur.

Quibus testaments tutor datur: etprimum, dc liberis in potestate.

§ III. Permissum est itaque parcntibus liberis impuberibus, quos in potestate habent, testamento tutores dare: et hoc in filios filiasque procedit omnimod<5: nepotibus vero neptibusque ita demum parentes possunt testamento tutores dare, si post mortem eorum in potestatem patris sui non sunt recasuri. Ita

§ 3. Parents may assign tutors by testament to such of their children as are not arrived at puberty, and are under their power. And this privilege extends without exception over sons and daughters. But grand-fathers can only give tutors to their grand-children, when these cannot fall under the power of their

que, si Alius tuus, mortis tua: tem- father, after the death of their grandpore in potestate tua sit, nepotes ex father. Hence, if your son is in your eo non poterunt ex testamento tuo power at the time of your death, your tutores habere, quamvis in potes- grand-children by that son can not

receive tutors by your testament, although they were actually in your power; because at your decease they will become subject to their father.

tate tua fuerint: scilicet, quia, mortuo te, in potestatem patris sui re<casuri sunt.

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TITULUS DECIMUS-QUARTUS.

QUI TESTAMENTO TUTORES DARI POSSUNT.

D. xxvi. T. 2. C. v. T. 28.

Qui tutores dari possunt. DARI autem tutor potest testa- Not only the father of a family mento non solum pater-familias, may be appointed tutor by testament, sed vtiam fil*ds-familias. but also the son of a family.

De servo.

$ I. Sed et servus proprius, testamento cum libertate recte tutor dari potest: sed sciendum est, et sine libertate tutorem datum tacite libertatem directam accepisse videri; et per hoc recte tutorem esse: plane, si per errorem, quasi liber, tutor datus sit, aliud dicendum est.

§ 1. A man may by testament assign his own slave to be a tutor with liberty. But note, that if a slave be appointed tutor by testament without mentioning liberty, he seems tacitly to be enfranchised, and is thus legally constituted a tutor; yet, if a testator through error, imagining his

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