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endi, imroittendive: istae quoque actiones in rem sunt, sed negativac; quod genus actionis in controversiis rerum corporalium proditum non est; nam in his is agit, qui non possidet; ei verd, qui possidet, non est actio prodita, per quam nejet rem actoris esse. Sane non uno casu, qui possidet, nihilominus is actoris partes obtinet; sicut in latioribus digestorum libris opportunius apparebit.

adversary is not intitled Id the usufruct of a particular ground, of to the right of passage, &c. &o These actions are also real, but are negative in their nature, and cannot therefore be Used in controversies respecting things corporeal, where the agent, or plaintiff, is the person out of possession: for a possessor can bring no action: there are however, many cases, in which a possessor may be obliged to act the part of a plaintiff; but we refer the reader to the books of the digests.

De actionibus praetoriis realibus. $ III. Sedistas quidem actiones, $ 3. The actions just mentioned

quarum mentionem habuimus, et si quae sunt similes, ex legitimis et civilibus causis descendunt. Aliae autem sunt, quas prstor ex sua jurisdictione comparatas habet, tarn in rem, quam in personam; quas

and those of a similar nature, art derived from the civil law; but tkt prator, by virtue of his jurisdiction, hath introduced other actions, both real and personal, of which it will be necessary to give Some exam

et ipsas necessarium est exemplis pies: for he often permits a real asostendere : ut ecce, plerumque ita tion to be brought, either by allow

permittit prsetor in rem agere, ut vel actor dicat, se quasi usuccpisse, quod non usuceperit, vel ex diverso possessor dicat, adversarium

ing the demandant to alledge, that he hath acquired by prescription, what he hath not so acquired; or, on the contrary, by permitting a former

suum nofi usueepisae, quod usuce- possessor to alledge, that his adverperit. sary hath not acquired by prescript

tion, xvhat, in reality, he hath so ac


Ec Publiciana.

§ IV. Namqtie, si cui ex justa causa res aliqua tradita fuerit, (veluti ex causa emptionis, aut donationis, aut dotis, aut legatorum,) et necdum ejus rci dominus eftectus est, si is ejus rei possessionem casu

§4. If any thing should be delivered to or deposited with a man in trust upon some just account, as by reason of a purchase, a gift, a marri* age, or a bequest, and the trustee should lose the possession, brfote he amiserit, nullam habet in rem directum actionem ad earn persequendam: quippc ita proditc sunt jure civili actioncs, ut quis dominium suum viudicet. Sed, quia sane durum erat, eo casu deficere actionem, inventa est a pranore actio, in qua dicit is, qui possessionem* amisit, earn rem se usucepisse, quamusunon cepit, et ita vindicat suam esse: quae actio Publiciana appsllatur, quoniam primum a Publicio praetore in edicto proposita est.

hath gained a property in the thing' possessed, he could have no direct action for the recovery of it,- mas'much as real actions are given by law jor the re-vindication of those things only, in -which a man hath a vested property or dominion. Btitt it being hard, that an action should be wanting in such a case, the preetor hath supplied one, in which the person, who hath lost his possession^ is allowed to prescribe to the thing in question, although he did not obtain it by prescription, and he may thus recover. This action is called actio Publiciana, because it was first instituted by the edict of Publicius the prat or.

Dc rescissoria»

$ V. Rursus ex diverso, si quis» cum reipublicaa causa abesset, vel m hostium potestate esset, rem ejus, qui in civitate esset, usuceperit, permittitur domino, si possessor reipublicae causa abesse desierit, tunc intra annum rescissa usucapione earn rem peterc, id est, ita petere, ut dicat, possessorum usu non cepisse, et ob id suam rem esse. Quod genus actionis quibusdam et aliis simili xquitate motus praetor accommodat; sicut ex latiora digestorum seu pandectarum volumine intelligere licet*

§ 5. On the Contrary, if any man; while abroad in the service of his country, or a prisoner in the hands of the enemy, should gain a prescriptive title to a thing, which belongs to another person resident at home, theii the former proprietor is permitted within a year after the return of the possessor from public service^ to bring an action against him, the prescriptive title being rescinded; and may alledge, that the possessor hath not effectually prescribed, so that the thing in litigation is his own. Under the same motive of equity the prator hath adapted this specie* of action to certain other persons, as we may learn more at large from thi digests.

U u

De Pauliana.

§ VI. Item, si quis in fraudem creditorum rem suaru alicui tradiderii, bonis ejus a creditoribus possessis ex sententia praesidis, permittitur ipsis creditoribus, rescissa

$ 6. If a debtor deliver any thing to some person in order to defraud his creditors, they are permitted, notwithstanding the delivery, to bring an action for the thing, if the

traditione, earn rem petere; id est, possession hath been previously addicere earn vein traditani non esse, judged to them by an order of court: et ob id in bonis debitoris mansis- that is, they arc allowed to plead, se. that the thing was not delivered, and

of course, that it continues to be a part of their debtor sgoods.

De Serviana et quasi-Serviana, scu hypothecary.

§ VII. Item Serviana, et quasi Servian», (qua etiam hypothecaria vocatur,) ex ipsius pratoris jurisdictione substantiam capiunt. Serviana autem expcritur quis de rebus coloni, quae pignoris jure pro Biercedibus fundi ei tenentur. Quasi. Serviana autem est, qua creditores pignora hypothtcasve persequuntur. Inter pignus autem et hypothecam, (quantum ad actionem hypothecariam attinet,) nihil interest; nam de qua re inter creditorem et debitorem convenerit, ut sit pro debito obligate, uiraque hac appellatione continent; sed in aliis differentia est: , nam pignoris appellatione earn proprie rem contineri dicimus, qua simul etiam traditur creditori, maxinie si mobilis sit: at earn, quae sine traditione nuda conventione tenetur, proprie hypothecs appellatione contineri dicimus.

§ 7. Also the action Serviana, and the action quasi - Serviana, (which is also called hypothecary,) take their rise from the preetor^s jurisdiction. By the action Serviana, a suit may be commenced for the property of a farmer, bound for rent. The action quasi-Serviana is that, by which a creditor may sue for a. thing pledged or hypothecated to him; and, in regard to this action, there is no difference between a pledge and an hypotheque; though in other respects they differ; far, by the term pledge, is meant that, which hath actually been delivered to a creditor, especially if the thing was a moveable; hypothecation means the making any thing liable to a creditor by a nude agreement only, without delivery.

De actionibus praetoriis personalibus. § VIII. In personam quoque § 8. Personal actions have also actionem ex sua jurisdictione propo- been introduced by the prators, in

positas habet praetor, veluti de pecunia constituta; cui similis videbatur receptitia. Sed ex nostra constitutione, (cum, et si quid plenius habebat, hoc in actionem pecuniae constitute transfusum est,) ct ea quasi supervacua jussa est cum sua auctoritate a nostris legibus, recedere. Item praetor proposuit actionem de peculio servorum, nliorumque familiarum; et earn, ex qua quaeritur, an actor juraverit; et alias complures.

consequence of their authority; as the action de pecunii constituta; which much resembles that called receptitia, now taken away by our constitution, as unnecessary; and ■whatever advantageous matter it contained, we have comprized in the action de pecunia constituta. The prators have likewise introduced the action concerning the peculium of slaves, and the sons of families; and also the action wherein the question is, whether the plaintiff hath made oath of his debt; and many others.

De constituta pecunia.
De constituta autem pe- § 9. A suit may be brought de

§ IX

cunia cum omnibus agitur, quicunque vel pro se, vel pro alio, soluturos se constituerint, nulla scilicet stipulatione interposita: nam alioqui, si stipulanti promiserint, jure civili tenentur.

pecunia constituta, against any per' son who hath engaged to pay money, either for himself or another, without stipulation ; but, when there is a stipulation, the promise may be inforced by the civil law.

De peculio.

§ X. Actiones autem de peculio' ideo adversus patrem dominumve com par a vi* praetor, quia licet ex contractu filiorum servorumve ipso jure non teneantur; requum tamen est, peculio tenus, (quod veluti patrimonium est filiorum filiarumque, item servoram,) condemnari eos.

§ 10. The prcetor hath also given actions de ptculio against fathers and masters, who although they are not legally bound by the contracts of their children and slaves, ought in equity to be bound to the extent of a peculium, which is, as it were, the patrimony, and separate estate of a son, a daughter, or a slave*

De actione in factum ex jurejurando. § XI. Item, si quis postulante § 11. Also if any man, called upadversario juraverit, deberi sibi pe- on by the adverse party, make cuniam, quam pcteret, neque ei sol- oath, that the debt, -which he sues for\ yatur, justissime accoinmodat eita- is due and unpaid, the proctor most lem actionem, per quam non illud justly indulges him with an action quaeritur, an ei pecunia debeatur, upon the fact; in which no inquiry ■ed an jurayerit. is made, whether the debt be due, but

whether the oath hath been taken.

De actionibus pcenalibus.

§ XII, Poenales quoque actiones praetor pene multas ex sua jurisdio tione introduxit; veluti adversus eum, qui quid ex albo ejus corru* pisset} et in eum, qui patronum velparentem in jus vocasset, cum id non impetrassct; item adversus eum, qui vi exemerit eum, qui in jus vocaretur, cujusve dolo alius exemerit; et alias innumerabiles,

$12. The proctors have also introduced many penal actions, by virtue of their authority. Thus, they have provided an action against him, who hath wilfully damaged or erased an edict; against an emancipated son, or a freed-man, who hath commence edsuit against his parent or patron, without previous permission from the proper magistrate; also against any person, who by force or fraud hath hindered another from appearing to the process of a court of justice i and many others.

De praejudicialibus actionibus,

§ XIII. Praejudiciales acticnes § 13. Prejudicial actions are also

in rem videntur; quales sunt, real; such are those, by which it is

per quas quaeritur, an aliquis Jiber, inquired, whether a man is born

an libertus sit, vel servus, vel de free, or made free; whether he be a

partu agnoscendp. Ex quibus k- slave, or a bastard. But of these,

re una ilia legitimam causam habet, that only arises from the civil law,

per quam quaeritur, an aliquis liber by which it is inquired, whether a cajferx ex ipsius practoris jurisr man be free born: the rest originate

gictiqne substantiam capiunt, from the proctor's jurisdiction.

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