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libertis. Aliter enim scnatoris et parentis patronique, aliter extranei et humilis persona, injuria sestiniatur. Nonnunquam et locus vulncris atrocem injuriam facit, veluti si in oculo quis percussus fuerit. Parvi autem refert, utrum patri-familias, an filio-familias, talis injuria facta ait: nam et haec atrox injuria aestimabitur.

one of mean conditionya parent from his child, or a patron from hit freedman ; for these cases demand a heavier punishment, than where ah injury is done to a stranger, 0Y a person of low degree. Also the part injured, may constitute an injury atrocious-; as if a man should be wounded in his eye; but it is of little consequence whether such an injury be done to the father of a family, or to the son of a family; for ■such an injury will be considered as atrocious.

De judicio civili et criminali.
In summa sciendum est, do , $ 10. In fine, it must be observed


omni injuria eum, qui passus est, posse vel criminaliter agere, vel civiliter: et, si quidem civiliter agatur, xstimatione facta, secundum quod dictum est, pcena reo imponitur; sin autem criminaliter, officio judicis extraordinaria posna reo irrogatur. Hoc videlicet observando, quod Zenoniana constitutio introduxit, ut viri illustres, quique super eos sunt, et per procuratores possint actionem injuriarum criminaliter vel persequi vel suspicere, secundum ejus tenorem, qui ex ipsa manifestius apparet.

concerning every injury, that the party injured may sue either criminally or civilly. If civilly, the damage must be estima'ed, and the penalty awarded as we have befcre noticed: but, if he sue critrinally, it is the duty of the judge to inflict, an extraordinarv punishment upon the offender; observing the constitution of Zeno, which permits illustrious persons, and those ivh-o enjoy a superior title, either to pursue or defend criminally any action of injury by their proctors; but the tenot of this law will more fully apppear by a perusal of the ordinance itself *

Qui tcnentur injurirmim.

$ XI. Nori solilm autem is in- § 11. An action of Injury lies not

Juriarum tenetur, qui fecit injuri- only against him, who hath dnne an

am, id est, qui pcrcussit; verum injury, by giving a blow, ft?c. but

ille quoque tenetur, qui dolo fecit also against him, who by craft, op

injuriam, vel qui procuravit, ut cui by persuasion hath caused the injvs

mala pugno percut^>-e^"r. ry to be done.

Quomodo tollitur base actio. § XII. Hxc actio dissimula-. § 12. All riff fit to an action of

tionc aboletur; et ided, si quis in- injury may be lost by suppression;

juriam dercliquerit, hoc est, sta- therefore, if a man takes no notice of

titn passus ad animum suum non qn injury at the time, when he re*

revocaverit, postea ex pcenitentia ceives it, he cannot afterwards re-t

remissam injuriam nop poterit re- pent of his forbearance and bring

folere, suit.

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D. xlvji, T< 5. C. ix, T.' 3.

Si judex litem 511am fecerit.

SI judex litem suam fecerit, non If a judge make a suit his own,

uroprie ex maleficio obtfgatus vide-, by giving an unjust determination,

fUr: sed quia neque ex maleficio, an action of mal-feasance will not

neque ex contractu obljgatus est, et properly lie against him: but,

«tique peccasse aliquid intelligitur, granting he is not subject to an action

licet per imprudentiam, ideo videtur quas\ ex maleficio teneri; et, in quantum tie ea re sequum judicantis, videbitur, penani ■:ustinebit.

of malfeasance, or of contract, yet, as he hath certainly committed a fault, although not by design, but through imprudence and want of skill, he may be sued by an action of qu.a.s\-?nal-feasanee; and must suffer such penalty, as seems equitable to the conscience of a superior judge.

Dc dejectis vel effusis, et pos'ttis airt suspensis.

§ I. Item is, cujus ex ctcnaculo, § 1. The occupier of a chamber,

velproprio ipsius, vel conducto, vel from whence any thing hath been

in quo gratis habitat, dejectum effu- thrown or spilt, whereby damage is

fumye aliquid est, ita ut alicui no- done, 'S liable to an action o/"quasi

'^eret, quasi ex maleficio obligatus. mal-fcasancc; and it is. not material.

inteljigitur. Ided autem non proprie ex maleficio obligatus intelligitur, quia plerumque ob alterius culpam tenetur, aut servj aut liberi. Cui similis est is, qui ea parte, qua vulgo jter fieri solet, id positum aut suspensum habet, quod potest, si ceciderit, alicui nocere; quo casu poena decern aureorum constjtuta est. De eo vero, qupd dejectum effusumve est, dupli, quantum damni datum sit, constituta est actio. Ob hominem vero liberum occisum, quinquaginta aureorum pcena constituitur. Si vero vivat, nocitumque ei esse dicatnr, quantum ob earn rem aquum judici videtur, actio datur. Judex enim computare debet mercedes medicis pnestitas, cseteraque impendia, qua in curatione facta suntj prauerea operas, quibus caruit aut cariturus est, ob id, quod inutilis est factus.

De filio-farnilhs, seor

§ II. Si filius-familias seorsum a patre habitaverit, et quid ex ccsnaculo ejus dejectum efFusumve fuerit, sive quid positum suspensumve habuerit, cujus casus periculosus est, Juliano placuit, in patrem nullum esse actionem, sed cum ipso filio agendum esse. Quod et in filio-famitfas judice observandum est, qui jitem suam feccrit.

■whether the chamber be his property; whether he rents it; or inhabits it gratis: and the reason, why such occupier is not suable for a direct mal-feasance, is, because he is generally sued for the fault of another. Any man is also subject to the same action, who hath hung or placed any thing in a public road, so as to endanger passengers by the fall of it; in which case, a penalty of ten aurei is appointed: but, when any thing hath been thrown or spilt, the action is always for double the actual damage. If a freeman be killed by accident, the penalty is fifty aurei; but, if he only receive some hurt, the quantum of the damage is at the discretion of the judge, who ought to take into account the fees of the physician and all other expences attendant upon the cure, over and above the time, which the patient hath lost in his illness, or may lose by being unable to pursue his business.

sum habitante a patre.

§ 2. If the son of a family live separate from his father, and any thing is cither throxvn, or spilt, from his apartment, or so hung, or placed, that the fall of it may be dangerous, it is the opinio?! of Julian, that no action will lie against the father, and that the son only can be sued. The same rule of law is aho to be observed, in regard to the son of a family, who hath given as a judge, an unjust decision.

De damno aut furto, quod in navi, aut caupona, aut stabulo,

factum est.

§111. Item exercitor navis, aut §3. Themasterofaship,tavern,

caupona, aut stabuli, de damno aut or inn, is liable to be sued for a quasi

furto, quod in navi, aut caupona, malfeasance, on account of every

aut stabulo, factum erit, quasi ex damage, or theft, done or committed

maleficio teneri vidctur; si modo in any of these places, by himself or

ipsius nullum est maleficium, sed his servants: fcr although no ac

alicujus corum, quorum opera na- tion, either of direct malfeasance^

vem, aut cauponam, aut 6tabulum, or of contract,can be brought against

exercet. Cum enim neque ex male- the master, yet, as he has, in some.

ficio, neque ex contractu, sit adver- measure, been guilty of a fault in

sus eum constituta hie actio, et ali- employing dishonest persons as his

quatenus culpse reus est, quod opera servants, he is therefore subject to a

malorum hominum uteretur, ideo suit for a qaasi-mal-feasance. But,

quasi ex male ficio teneri videtur. in all these cases, the action given

In his autem casibus in factum ac- is an action upon the fact, which

tio competit; qua hsrecli quidem may be brought in favour of an heir^

datur, adversus haeredem autem non but not against hint' competit»



D. xliv. T. 7. C. iv. T. 10.

Continuatio, et Definitio. STJPEREST, ut de actionibus It now remains, that we treat of Ioquamur. Actio nihil aliud est, actions. An action is nothing quam jus persequendi in judicio, more, than the right of suing in tr quod sibi debetur. court of law for our just demands.

Divisio prima. § I. Omnium autem aetionum, §1. All actions whatever be thesubquibus inter aliquos apud judices ject matter of them whether determiarbitrosve de quacunque re quaeri- nable before judges or referrees may

tat, aumma divisio in duo genera deducitur: aut enim in rem sunt, aut in personam: namque agit unUsquisque aut cum eo, qui ei obligates est, vel ex contractu, vel ex maleficio; quo casu proditae sunt actiones in personam, per quas intendit, adversarium ei dare aut facere oportere, et aliis quibusdam ntodis: aut cum eo agit, qui nullo jure ei obligatus est, movet tamen alicui de aliqua re controversiam; quo casu proditie actiones in rem sunt: veluti si rem corporalem possideat quis, quam Titius suam esse afiirmet, possessor autem, dominum ejus se esse, dicat; nam, si Titius suam esse intendat, in rem actio est.

be divided into real andpersonal; for the plaintiff" mutt sue the defendant, either because the defendant is obligated to him by contract, or hath been guilty of some malfeasance; and, in this case, the action must be personal, in which the plaintiff alledges, that his adversary is bound to give, or to do something for his benefit; or some other matter, as the occasion requires: or otherwise, the plaintiff must sue the defendant, on account of some corporeal thing, when there is no obligation s in which case the action must be real: as for example, if a man possess land, which Titius affirms to be his property, the other denying it, Titius must bring a real action for the recovery.

De actione cqnfessoria, et regatoria. § IL iEque, si agat quis, jus si- § 2. Also, if any man sue, a Hedging, that he has a right to the usufruct of a field, or house, or a right of driving his cattle, or of drawing water in the land of his neighbour, this is a real

bi esse fundo forte, vel adibus utendi fruendi, vel per fundum vicini eundi agendi, vel ex fundo vicini aquam ducendi, in rem actio est

"Ejusdem generis est actio de jure action. And an action relating

praediorum urbanorum; veluti, si the rights of houses or city estates,

quis agat, jus sibi esse altius ades which rights are called services, is

suas tollendi, prospiciendive, vel also of the same kind; as when a

projiciendi aliquid, vel immittendi tignum in vicini »des. Contra • quoque de usufructu, et de servitutibus pradiorum rusticorum, item praediorum urbanorum, invicem quoque prodita sunt actiones; ut

man commences a suit, and alledges, that he has a right of prospect, a right to raise his house, a right of making apart of it project, or of laying the beams of his building upon his neighbour's -walls. There are alsr

si quis intendat, jus non esse adver- actions different from these, which

sario utendi fruendi, eundi agendi, relate to usufructs, and Hie rights

aquamve ducendi; item altius tol- of country and city estates; as when

lendi, prospiciendive, vel projici- the complainant alledges, that his

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