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in venditionibus nobis placuerit, non improper that the same law should
est absurdum et in locationibus et prevail, in letting and hireing.
in conductionibus trahere.

In quibus pretium consistat. Differentia emptionis et
permutationis.

$ II. Item pretium in numerata pecunia consistere debet; nam in ceteris rebus, an pretium esse posset, valde quaerebatur; veluti, an homo, aut fundus, aut toga, alterius rei pretium esse possit. Et Sabinus et Cassius etiam in alia re putabant pretium posse consistere; unde illud, quod vulgd dicebatur, permutatione rerum emptionem et venditionem coatrahi; eamque speciem emptionis et venditicmis vetustissimam esse. Argumentoque utebantur Graeco poeta Homero, qui aliquam partem exercitus Achivorum vinum sibi comparasse ait, permutatis quibusdam rebus, his verbis.

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Hoc est.

Naves autem e Lemno appulerunt vinum vehentes:

Illinc vinum emebant Achivi comantes caput,

Alii quidem cere, alii autem ferro nigra,

Alii pellibus, alii ipsis bobus,

Alii etiam mancipiis.

Iliad VII.

§ 2. The price of an article bought, should be cash, or money told; for it hath been much doubted^ ■whether the price of goods can be said to be paid, if any thing be given for them but money; as, whether a slave, a piece of ground, or a robe, can be paid as the price of a thing* The lawyers Sabinus and Cassius thought, that a price might consist of any thing, and from hence it has been commonly said, that emptiovenditio, or buying and selling, is contracted by (barter J commutation t and that this species of buying and selling is the most ancient. The advocates for this side of the question quote Homer, who relates in the following lines, that a part of the Grecian army bought wine by giving other things in exchange for it.

Wine the rest purchased at theix

proper cost, And well the plenteous freight

supplied the host: Each in exchange proportion'd

treasures gave, Some brass or iron, some an ox

or slave. Pope*

Bat the lawyers of a different sect maintained that commutation was one thing, anrfemptio-venditio another ; for otherwise said they, in the

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Divers» scholae auctores contra sentiebant; aliudque esse existimabant permutationem rerum, aliud emptionem et venditionem; alioqui non posse rem expediri, permutatis rebus, qua videatur res vamisse, et quse pretii nomine data esse; nam, utramque videri et vaenisse et pretii nomine datam esse, rationem non pati. Sed Proculi sententia, dicentis, permutationem propriam esse speciem contractus a venditione separatam, merito praevaluit; cum et aliis Homericis versibus adjuvabatur, et validioribus rationibus argumentabatur: quod et anteriores Divi Principes admiserunt, et in nostris Digestis latius significatur.

commutation of any two things it can never appear, which has been sold, and which has been given, as the price of the thing sold; and it is contrary to reason, that each should appear to have been sold, and that each also should appear to have beengiven, as the price of the other. The opinion of Proculus, who maintained, that commutation is a species of contract, separate from vendition, hath deservedly prevailed: for he is supported by other verses from Homer, and has enforced his opinion with strong arguments; and this is the doctrine, which our predecessors, the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian, have admitted, as ap* pears more at large in our Digests.

De perlculo et commodo rei venditae.

§111. Cum autem emptio et venditio contracta sit, (quod effici diximus simul atque de pretio convenerit, cum sin« scriptura res agitur,) periculum rei venditae statim ad emptorem pertinet, tametsi adhuc ea res emptori tradita non sit. Itaque, si homo mortuus sit, vel aliqua parte corporis laesus fuerit, aut aedes tot», vel aliqua ex parte, incendio consumptae fuerint, aut fundus vi fluminis totus vel aliqua ex parte ablatus sit, sive etiam inundatione aquae, aut arboribus turbine dejectis, longe minor aut deterior esse cceperit, emptoris damnum est; cui necesse est, licet rem non fuerit nactus, pretium solvere. Quicquid enim sine dolo et culpa venditoris accidit, in eo ven

§ 3. When emption and vendition are once contracted, (xvhich is so soon as the price is agreed on, when the covenant is not in writing,) the buyer becomes liable to the risque of the thing sold, although it be not yet delivered. Therefore, if a slave should die, or be hurt, or if a building, or part of it should be consumed by fire, or if lands sold, or any part of them, should be washed away by a torrent, or damaged by an inundation, or by a storm, which may destroy' the trees, the loss must be sustained by the buyer, who must pay the price agreed on, although he never had possession of the thing; for whatever the accident be, if it happen neither by the fraud, nor fauk of the seller, he is secure. On the jther

ditor seeurus est: sed et, si post emptionem fundo aliquid per alluvionem accesserit, ad emptoris commodum pertinet; nam et commodum ejus esse debet, cujus periculura est. Quod si fugerit home, qui v«niit,aut surreptus fuerit, ita ut neque dolus, neque culpa venditoris intervenerit, animadvertendum erit, an custodium ejus usque ad traditionem venditor susceperit j sane enim si susceperit, ad ipsius periculum is casus pertinet; si non susceperit, seeurus est. Idem et in cxteris animalibus cxterisque rebus intelligimus. Utique tamen vindicationem rei et condictionem exhibere debebit emptori; quia sane, qui nondum rem emptori tradidit, adbuc ipse dominus est. Idem etiam est de furti et de damni -Injuriae actione.

hand, if, after sale, the lands should be increased by alluvion, this increase becomes the gain of the buyers for it is just, that he should receive the profit, who must have sustained the loss. But, if a slave who is sold, should run away or be stolen, and no fraud or negligence can be imputed to the seller, it must be inquired, whether the seller undertook the safe custody of the slave, until delivery should be made; if he did, he is answerable, if not, he is secure» The same law taies place in regard to all other animals and things. But, the seller should make over his right of vindication and condiction to the buyer ; for he, who has not delivered the thing sold, is still considered as the proprietor of it. Actions also of theft, or damage done, must be transferred by the seller to the buyer, ("when the thing sold is stolen, or damaged before delivery. J

De emptione conditional!.

$ IV. Emptio tam sub conditione quam pure contrahi potest: sub conditione, veluti, si Stichus intra certum diem tibi placuerit, erit fibi emptus aureis tot.

De emptione rei, quaj $ V. Loca tacra, vel religiosa, item publica, (veluti forum, basilieam,) frustra quis sciens emit; quae tamen, si pro profanis vel privatis deceptus a venditore quis emerit, habebit actionem ex empto, quod ■on habere ei liceat, ut consequatur,

§ 4. A sale may be contracted conditionally, as well as purely t as when the seller agrees; if within a certain time you shall approve of the slave Stichus, he shall bs your's for so many Aurej.

non est in commercio.

? 5. Whoever knowingly purchases a sacred, religious, or pullit place, -such as a Forum, or Court <>f justice, it is void. But, if he purchased them as profane or private^ being im dosed upon by the seller, then such purchaser, not being abts quod sua interest, cum deceptum non esse. Idem juris est, si iiominem liberumpro servo emerit.

to obtain possession, may have an action ex empto against the seller, and recover damage for the deceit. The law is the same, if any person should mistakenly buy a freeman instead of a slave.

TITULUS VIGESIMUS-QUINTUS.

DE LOCATIONE ET CONDUCTIONE.

D. xix. T. 2. C. iv. TJ 65. C. ii. T. 70.

Collato emptionis, et locationis LOCATIO et conductio proxima est emptioni et venditioni, iisdemque juris regulis consistit. Nam ut emptio et venditio ita contrahitur, si de pretio convenerit, sic et locatio et conductio ita contrahi intelligitur, si merces constituta sit: et competit locatori qui

De mercedis conventione.

Location and conduction, *• e. letting and hireing, are nearly allied to emption and vendition, i. e. buying and selling; and are governed by the same rules ; for as the latter takes place so soon as the price is agreed upon, Scl the former are contracted, when the hire is once

dem locati actio, conductori verd fixed by the parties. The locator, tonducti. or persoy who lets, is intitled if ag

grieved, to an actio locati, and the conductor or hirer may have his actio conducti, against the locator.

De mercede collata $ I. Et, quae supra diximus, si elicno arbitrio pretium permissum fuerit, eadem etde locatione et de conductione dicta esse intelligimus •3 alieno arbitrio merces permissa fuerit. Qua de causa, si fulloni poliendo curandave, aut sarcinatori earcienda, vestimenta quis dederit, nulla statim mercede constitute, sed

in arbitrium alienum.

§ 1. What has been said beforerespecting sales, when the price is referred to a third person, may also be understood of location and conduction, when the hire is left to arbitration. Therefore, if a man send his cloaths to a fuller to be scoured, or a taylor to be mended, and do not previously agree upon

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any price, in this case location and conduction are not understood to be properly contracted; but an action on the case may be brought by either party, prsescriptis verbis, i. e. in words adapted to the1 circumstances.

merces consistat.

§ 2. As it ivas formerly a ques* tion, xvhether emption and vendition could be contracted by exchange, so it hath also been doubted, whether location and conduction takes place when one man lends another a particular thing for his use; and receives in return some other thing, of which he is also per milted to have the use; and it has been determined, that this exchange does not constitutelocation and conduction, but a distinct species of contract: for example, if two neighbours have each of them an ox, and each agrees to lend his ox to the other alternately for ten days to labour, and the ox of the one should die in possession of the other, in this case, he, who has lost his ox, can neither bring the action locati, nor conducti, nor even the action commodati; for the ox was not lent gratuitously: but he may sue prascriptis verbis; i, e. by ait action upon the case.

De Emphyteusi.

$ III. Adeo autem aliquam fa- -,§ 3. Buying and selling, and let

miliaritatem inter se videntur ha- ting and hireing, are so nearly con

bere emptio et venditio, item loca- nected, that, in some cases, it has

tio et .conductio, ut in quibusdam. been difficult to distinguish the one

eausis quseri soleat, utrum emptio from the other; as when lands have

postea tantum daturas, quantum inter eos convenerit, non proprie locatio et conductio contrahi intelligitur; sed eo nomine actioproescriptis verbis datur.

In quibus rebus § II. Prseterea, sicut vulgo qiuerebatur, an permututis rebus emptio et venditio contraheretur, ita quari solebat de locatione et conductione, si forte rem aliquam utendam sive fruendam tibi aliquis dederit, et invicem a te utendam sive fruendam aliam rem acceperit. Et placuit, non esse locationem et conductionem, sed proprium genus contractus; veluti, si, cum unum bovem quis haberet, et vicinus ejus item unum, placuerit inter eos, ut per denos dies invicem boves commodarent, ut opus facerent, et apud alteram alterius bos perierit; neque locati, neque conducti, neque commodati competit actio: quia non fuit commodatum gratuitum: verum prascriptis verbis agendum est.

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