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suggerente concessimus, ut, si quis, in servili constitutes, consortio, liberum vel libercs habuerit, sive ex libera sive ex servilis conditionis muliere, vel contra, serva mulier ex libero vel servo habuerit liberos cujuscunque sexus, et, ad libertatem his pervenientibus, ii, qui ex servili ventre nati sunt, libertatem meruerint, vel, dun» mulieres libera erant, ipsi in servitute eos habuerint, et postea ad libertatem pervenerint, ut hi omnes ad successionem patris vel matris veniant, patronatds jure in hac parte sopito. Hos etenim liberos non solum in suorum parentum successionem, sed etiam alterum in alterius successionem mutuam, vocavimus; ex ilia lege specialiter eos vocantes, sive soli inveniantur, qui in servitute nati et postea manumissi sunt; sive una cum aliis, qui post libertatem parentum concepti sunt; sive ex eodcm patre, sive ex eadem matre, sive ex aliis nuptiis; ad similitudinem corum, qui ex justis nuptiis procreati sunt.

that, if a slave shall have a child, or children, either by a free-woman, or by a bond-woman, with whom he lives in contubernio, and, on the contrary, that, if a bond-woman shall have a child, or children, of either sex by a free-man, or by a slave, with -whom she so lives, and such father and mother are afterwards enfranchised, the children shall succeedto their father or mother, without regarding the right of patronage. We have not only called these children to succeed to their parents, but also mutually to each other, whether they are sole'in succession, as having all been born in servitude and afterwards manumitted, or whether they succeed with others, who were conceived after the infranchisement of their parents; and whether they are all by the same father and mother, or by a different father, or mother; and, that children born in slavery, but manumitted, should succeed in the same manner, as the issue of parents legally married.

Collatio ordinum et graduum.

$ I. Repetitis itaque omnibus, $ 1. From what hath been said,

quae jam tradidimus, apparet non it appears that those, who arc in an

semper eos, qui parem gradum cog- equal degree ©/"cognation, are not

nationis obtinent, pariter vocari: always called equally to the success

eoque amplius, ne eum quidem, sion; and farther, that even the

qui proximiore sit cognatus, sem- nearest ofkin,is not constantly to be

per potiorem esse. Cum enim pri- preferred. For, inasmuch as the

ma causa sit suorum haeredum, et first place is given to proper heirs,

eorum, quas inter suos lueredes and to those who are numbered with

enumeravimus, apparet, pronepo- proper heirs, it is apparent, that the

tem vel abnepotem defuncti potio- great-grandson, or great-great

rem esse, quam fratrem, aut patrem, aut niatrem defuncti: cum alioqui pater quidem et mater (ut supra quoque tradidimus) primum gradum cognationis obtineant, frater vero secundum, pronepos aur tern tertio gradu sit cognationis, et abnepos quarto: nee interest, in po^ testate morientis fuerit, an non, quod vel emancipatus, vel ex emancipato, aut foemineo sexu, propagatus est. Amotis quoque suis hxredibus, et quos inter suos haeredes vocari diximus, agnatus, qui integrum jus habet agnationis, etiamsi longissimo gradu sit, plerumque potior habetur, quam proximior cognatus: nam patrui nepos vel pronepos avunculo vel matertera prsefertur. Toties igitur dicimus, aut potiorem haberi eum, qui proximiorem gfadum cognationis obtiBct, aut pariter vocari eos, qui cognati sunt; quoties neque suorum IiEeredum, quique inter suos haeredes sunt, neque agnationis jure aliquis praeferri debeat, secundum ea, quse tradidimus: exceptis fratre et sorore emancipatis, qui ad successionem fratrum vel sororum vocantur; qui, etsi capite diminuti sunt, tamen praeferuntur caeteris ulterioris gradus agnatis.

grand-son, is preferred to fie brother or even the father or mother of the deceased: although a father and Toother, (as we have before observed, J obtain the first degree of rekfr tion, a brother the second, a gretftr grand-son the third, and a greatgreat grand-sifif tfoe fourth y n either does it make any difference, whether such grand-children were under the power of the deceased, at the time of his death, or out of his power f either by being themselves emancipated, or by being the children of those who were so ; neither can it be objected, that they are descended by the female line. But, when there are no proper heirs, nor any of those, who are permitted to rank with them, then an agnate, who hath the full right of agnation in him, although ftp be in the most distant degree, is generally preferred to a cognate, who is in the nearest degree; thus the grand-son or great-grand-son of a paternal uncle Is preferred to a maternal uncle or aunt. Hence, when there are no proper heirs, nor any, who are numbered with them, nor any, who ought to be preferred by the right of agnation, (as we have before noted, J then the nearest In degree of cognation, is called to the succession; and if there be many in the same degree, they are all called equally. But a brother and sister, although emancipated, are yet called to the succession of brothers and sisters s for, although they have suffered diminution, they are nevertheless preferred to all agnates of a more remote degree.


D. xxxviii. T. 2.
Qui succedunt. De lege duodecim tabularum.

NUNC de libertorum bonis videamus. Olim itaque licebat liberto patronum suum impune testamento praeterire: nam ita demum lex duodecim tabularum ad hiereditatem liberti vocabat patronum, si intestatus mortuus esset libertus, haerede suo nullo relicto. Itaque, intestato mortuo liberto, si is suum haeredem reliquisset, patrono nihil in bonis ejus juris erat. Et, siquidem ex naturalibus liberis aliquem suum haeredem reliquisset, nulla videbatur querela; si vero adoptivus filius fuisset, aperte iniquum erat, nihil juris patrono superesse.

Let us now treat of the succession, of Jreed-men. A Jreed-man might formerly, with impunity, omit in his testament any mention of his patron: for the law cf the twelve tables called the patron to the inheritance, only when the freed-man died intestate without proper heirs; therefore, though he had died intestate, yet, if he had left a proper heir, the patron would have received no benefit: and indeed, when the natural and legitimate children of the deceased became his heirs, there seemed no cause of complaint; butt when the freed-man left only an adopted son, it was Manifestly injurious, that the patron should have no claim.

De jure prsetorio.

§ I. Qua de causa, postea, prsetoris edicto haec juris iniquitas emendata est. Sive enim faciebat testamentum libertus, jubebatur ita testari, ut patrono partem dimidiam bonorum suorum relinqueret; et, si aut nihil aut minus parte dimidia reliquerat, dabatur patrono, contra tabulas testamenti, partis dimidiae bonorum possessio: sive intestatus moriebatur, suohrercde relicto filio adoptivo, dabatur auque patrono


§ 1. The law was therefore afterwards amended by the edict of the praetor: for every freed-man, who made his testament, was commanded so to dispose of his effects, as to leave a moieUjto his patron: and, if the testator left nothing, or less than a moiety, then the possession of half was given to the patron contra tabulas, i. e. contrary to the dis/wsition of the testament. And, if a freedman died intestate, leaving an adopta

contra hunc suum haredem partis dimidire bonorum possessio. Prodesse autem liberto solcbant, ad excludendum patronum, naturales libcri, non solum quos in potestate mortis tempore habeat, sed etiam emancipati, et in adoptionem dati, si modo ex aliqua parte scripti hav redes erant, aut pneteriti contra tabulas bonorum possessionem ex edicto prstorio petierant. Nam exhaeredati nullo modo repellebant patronum.

ed son his heir, the possession of a moiety was given to the patron not' withstanding: yet, not only the natural and lawful children of a jreedman, whom he had under his power at the time of his death, excluded the patron, but those children also, wh» were emancipated, and given in adoption, if they were written heirs for any part, or even, although they were omitted, if they had requested the possession Contra Tabulas, by virtue of the pra-torian edict. But disinherited children by no meansrepelled the patron.

De lege § II. Postea vero lege Papia adaucta sunt jura patronorum, qui locupletiores libertos habebant. Cautum enim est, ut ex bonis ejus, qui sestertium centum millium patrimonium reliquerat, et pauciores quam trcs liberos habebat, sive is tesltimcnto facto, sive intesiatns mortuus erat, virilis pars patrono deberetur. Itaque, cum unum quidc-m filium filiamve hasredeni reliquerat libertus, perinde pars dimidia debebatur patrono, ac si is sine ullo filio filiave intestatus decessisset: cum vero duos duasvc hxtedes reliquerat, tertia pars debebatur patrono: si tres reliquerat, repellebatur patronus.

Papia. $ 2. But afterwards the rights of patrons, who had wealthy freed-men were inlarged by the Papian law .which provides that he shall have a man's share out of the effects of his freed-man, whether dying testate or intestate, who hath left a patrimony of an hundred thousand sestertii and fewer than three children: so that, when a freed-man hath left only one son or daughter, a moiety is due t$ the patron, as if the deceased had died testate without either son or daughter. But, rvhen there are two heirs, male or female, a third part only is due to the patron; and, when there are three, the patron is wholly excluded.

De constitutione Justinian!.

$ III. Sed nostra constitutio, §3. But out constitution,Cpublish(quam pro omni natione gnsca lin- ed in a compendious form, in the «gua compendioso tractatu habito Greek language, for the benefit of

composuimus,) itahujusmodi cau- all nations,) ordained, that, if a samdefiniviti ut, siquidem libertus freed-man, orfreed-iv;man, die posvel liberta minores centcnariis sint, sessed of less than an hundred aurei,

id est, minus centum aureis habeant substantiam, (sic enim legis Fapise summam interpretati sumus, ut pro mi lie sestertiis unus aureus computetur,) nullum locum habeat patronus in eorum successione, si tamen testamentum fecerint; sin autem intestati decesserint, nullo libeTorum relicto, tunc patronatus jus, quod erat ex lege duodecim tabularum, integrum reservavit. Cum vero majores centenariis sint, si

(Jor thus have we interpreted the sum mentioned in the Papian law, counting one aureus for a thousand sestertii,^ the patron shall not be intitled to any share in a testate succession. But, -where a freed-man, or woman, dies intestate, and -without children, vie have reserved the right of patronage intire, as it formerly* was, according to the law of the twelve tables. But, if a freed person die worth more than an hun

haeredes vel bonorum possessores dred aurei, and leave one child, or liberos habeant, sive unum, sive many, of either sex or any degree* plures, cujuscunque sexus vel gra- as the heirs and possessors of his dus, ad eos successiones parentum goods, we have permitted, that such deduximus, patronis omnibus mo- child or children shall succeed their dis cum sua progenie semotis. Sin parent to the intire exclusion of the autem sine liberis decesserint, si- patron and his heirs: and if any quidem intestati, ad omnem ha:re- freed-persons die without children ditatem patronos patronasque voca- and intestate, we have called their

patrons or patronesses to their whole inheritances. And if any freed-person, worth more than an hundred aurei, hath made a testament, omitted his patron, and left no children, or hath disinherited them; or if a mother, or maternal grand-father* being freed-persons, have omitted to mention their children in their wills,

vimus. Si vero testamentum quidem fecerint, patronos autem aut patronas prseterierint, cum nullos liberos haberent, vel habentes eos exhxredaverint, vel mater sive avus maternus eos praeterierint, ita quod non possint argui inofficiosa eorum testamenta, tunc ex nostra constitutionc per bonorum possessionem

contra tabulas, non dimidiam, ut so thai such wills can not be proved

antea, sed tertiam partem bonorum to be inofficious, then, by virtue of

liberticonscquantur; vel quod deest our constitution, the patron shall

_ eis, ex constitutione nostrarepleatur, succeed, not to a moiety a* formerly

si quando minus tertia parte bono- but to the third part of the estate

im suorum libeftus vel liberta eis the deceased, by possession co

eliquerit: ita sine oncre, ut nee tabulas: and, when freedy

l^Jjbcris liberti libertseve ex ea parte .eaveless than the third i

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