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DE HIS, QUI SUI VEL ALIENI JURIS SUNT-
Altera divisio SEQ.UITUR de jure personarlim alia diviso; nam qu?edam persons sui juris sunt, qusdam alieno juri subject». Rursus earum, qua alieno juri subjects sunt, alia? sunt In potestate parentum, alia in potestate dominorum. Videamus itaque de his, qua alieno juri subjects sunt j nam, si cognoverimus, qusnam ists persons sunt, simul intelligemus, qus sui juris sunt; ac prius inspiciamus de his, qus iu potestate dominorum sunt.
We now proceed to another divi-> sion of persons ; for some are independent, and some are subject to the power of others. Of those, who are subject to others, some are in the power of parents, others of their masters. Let us then inquire, rv/tij are in subjection to others ,-for, when we shall ascertain these, we shall at the same time discover, who are independent. And first of those, wh» are in the power of masters.
De jure gentium in servos.
§ I. In potestate itaque domino- § 1. All slaves are in the pow
rum sunt servi, quae quidem potes- er of their masters, a power deri-
tas juris gentium est; nam apud ved from the law of nations : for
omnes persque gentes animadver- it is observable among all nations,
tere possumus, dominis in servos that masters have always had the
vitas necisque potestatem fuisse : et, power of life and death over their
quodcunque per servum acquiri- slaves, and that whatever the slave ac
tur, id domino acquiri. quires, is acquired for the master.
De jure civium Romanorum in servos § II. Sec hoc tempore nullis ho- § 2. All our subjects are nowfar
minibus, qui sub imperio nostro sunt, licet, sine causa legibus cognita, in servos suos supra modum ssvire. Nam, ex constitutione di vi Antonini, qui sine causa servum
bidden to inflict any extraordinary punishment upon their slaves, with' out legal cause. For, by a constitution of Antoninus, whoever causelessly iills his own slave, is to be
suum occiderit, non minus puniri punished equally as if he had killed jubetur, quam si alienum servum the slave of another. The too great Qccideritt Sed et major asperitas severity of masters is also restrained
dominonrm, ejusdem principis constitutions, coercetur: nam Antoninus, consultus a quibusdam praesidibus provinciarum de his servis, qui ad aedem sacram vel statuam principum confugiunt, praecepit, ut, siintolcrabilis vidcatur ssevitia dominorum, cogantur servos suos bonis conditionibus vendere, ut pretium dominis daretur; et recte: expedit ttrim reipublica, ne sua re quis male utatur. Cujus rescripti, ad jElium Martianum missi, verba «unt haec. Diminornm quidem potestatem in servos illibatam esse oportet, nee cuiquam hominum jus sttum detrahi. Sedet dominonim interest, ne auxilium contra scevitiam, vel famem, vel intolerabilem injuriam, denegetur iis, qui juste deprecantur. Jdeoque cognosce de querelis corum, qui exfamilia Julii Sabini ad sacram statuam confugerunt; et, si vel ditrv/s habitos, quam aquum est, vel infami injuria affectos esse, cognoveris, venire jule; ita ut in potestatern domini non revertantur: quod it meat constitution\fraudemfecerit, tciat, me hoc admissum adversits se tfvtrhts executurunu
by another constitution rf Antoninus zvho being consulted by certain govcrnors of provinces concerning.• laves, who take sanctuary either in temples, or at the statues of the em~ perors. Ordained, that if the severity of masters should appear excessive, they might be compelled to make sale of their slaves upon equitable terms, so that the masters might re, ceive the value; and properly; Wr asmuch as it is for the public good, that no one should be permitted to misuse even his oxvn property. The •words of this rescript, sent to iEiius Martianus, are these.—The power of masters over their slaves ought to be protected: no/ ought any man to be deprived of his just right. But it is for the interest of all masters, that relief against cruelties, the denial of sustenance, or any other insufferable injury, should be granted to those who justly implore it. Therefore look into the complaints made by the family of Julius Sabinus, whose slaves took sanctuary at the sacred statue; and, if proof be made that they have been too hardly treated, or greatly injured, order them to be forthwith sold, so that they be no longer subject to their former master : and, if Julius Sabinus attempt to evade our constitution, let him know, that I shall put it'in force against him with more severity.
C.viii. T. 47,
i Summa tituli.
IN potestate nostra sunt liberi Our children, begotten in lawful nostri, quos ex justis nuptiis pro wedlock, are under our power-. Creavimus.
§ I. Nuptiae autern, sive matri- § 1. Matrimony is a connection
monium, est, viri et mulieris con- between a man and woman, imply
junctio, individuam vitae consuetu- ing a mutual and exclusive cohabi
dinem continens. tation during life.
Qui habent in potest te.
§ II. Jus autem potestatis, quod in liberos habemus, proprium est civium Romanorum; nulli enim alii sunt homines, qui talem in liberos habeant potestatem, qualem nos habemus.
Qui sunt in § III. Qui igitur ex te et uxore tua nascitur, in tua potestate est. Item qui ex filio tuo et uxore ejus nascitur, id est, nepos tuus et neptis, «que in tua sunt potestate: pronepos, et proneptis, et deinceps cseteri. Qui autem ex filia tua nascuntur, in potestate tua non sunt; .sed in patris eorum.
$ 2. The pozver which we have over our children is peculiar to the citizens of Rome ; for no other people have the same power over their children, which we have over ours.
§ 3. The child of you and your wife, is under your power. The issue of your son and son's wife, that is, your grand-sons or grand-daughters are equally so; so are your great grand-children, Ef?c. But children born of a daughter are not in youn power, but in the power of their Jitther, or grand father, .
D. xxiii. T. 2. C. v. T. 4. Nov. 74.
Qui possunt nuptias contraherc. JUST AS autem nuptias inter se The citizens of Rome contract cives Romani contrahunt, qui se- valid matrimony, when they folcundum prpecepta legum coeunt, low the precepu of the law; males, masculi quidem puberes, femina when they arrive at puberty, and autem viri potentes; sive patres fa- females, when they attain to a marmiliarum sint; sive filii familiarum; riageable age. The males, whether dum tamen, si filii familiarum patres familiarum, fathers of a fasint, consensum habeant parentum, mily, or filii familiarum, sons of quorum in potestate sunt: nam, a family; hit, if they are sonshoc fieri debere, et civilis et natu- of a family, they must first obtain ralis ratio suadet, in tantum, ut the consent of the parents, under jussus parcniis pnccedere debeat. whose power they are. For reaUnde quresitum est, an furiosi filia son, both natural and civil, convinces nubere, aut furiosi filius uxorem du- us, that the consent of parents should cere, possit? Cumque super filio precede marriage; hence arose the variabatur, nostra processit decisio, question, whether the son of a madqui permissum est ad exemplum fil'uc furiosi, filium quoque furiosi posse, et sine patris intervtntu, matrimonium sibi copulare, secundum datum ex nostra constitutions intervention of the father, provided modum. the rules of our constitution are ob
man could contract matrimony? But opinions being various, we decided that the son, as well as the daughter of a madman, may marry without
Quae uxorcs duci possimt vel non. De cognatis, ac primum de
parentibus et libcris.
§ I. Ergo non omnes nobis uxo- § 1. We may not marry any wares ducere licet: nam a quarundam man; for with some, marriage is nuptiis abstinendum est: inter eas forbidden. Matrimony must not be enim personas, qua; parentum iibe- contracted between parents and their
rorumve locum inter se obtinent, contraili nuptise non possunt; veluti interpatrcm ctfiliam, vel avum et ncptem, vel matrem et (ilium, vel a
children, as between a father and daughter, a grandfather and his grand-daughter, a mother and her son, a grand-mother and her grand
viam et nopntem, et usque in infinitum : et, si tales persona inter se coiercnt, nefarias atque incestas tiuptias contraxisse dicuntur: et liaec adeo vera sunt, ut, quamvis per adoptionem parentum liberorumve loco sibi esse cceperint, nonpossunt inter se matrimonio jungi; in tantum, ut etiam, dissoluta adoptione, idem juris maneat. Itaque earn, quae tibi per adoptionem filia vcl neptis esse ccperit, non poteris uxorem ducere, quamvis earn eman«ipaveris.
§ II. Inter eas quoque personas, quae ex transverso gradu cognationis junguntur, est qu*dam similis observatio, sed non tanta. Sane enim inter fratrem sororemqme nuptiae prohibffce sunt, sive ab eodem patre eademque matre nati fuerint, sive ab altaro eorum. Sed, si qua per adoptionem soror tibi esse coeperit, quamdiu quidem constat adoptio, sane inter tc et earn nuptia: consistere non possunt; cum vero per emancipations» adeptio sitdissoluta, poteris earn uxorem ducere: sed et si tu emancipatus fueris, nihil est impedimento nuptiis. Et ideo constat, si quis generum adoptare velit, debere eum antea filiam suam emancipare: et si quis, velit nurum adoptare, debere eum antca filium suum emancipare.
son;ajid so on (in a right tine J hi' infinitum. And, if such persons cohabit, they are truly said to have contracted a criminal and incestuous marriage; inasmuch as those, who only hold the place of parents and children by adoption, cannot intermarry ; and the same law remains even after the adoption is dissolved. You cannot therefore take to wife one who hath been either your adopted daughter or granddaughter, although you may have emancipated herl
§ 2. Matrimony is also prohibited between collaterals, but not so extensively. A brother and sister are forbidden to marry, whether they are the children of the same father and mother, or of either. And, if a woman becomes your sister by adoption, so long as that subsistst no marriage may be contracted between you. But, when the adoption is destroyed by emancipation, you may take her to wife. Also, if you should be emancipated, there will then remain no impediment, although your sister by adoption is not so. Hence if a man would adopt his son-in-law, he should first emancipateJiis daughter, and whoever would adopt his daughter-in-law, should previously emancipate his son*
De fratris ct sororis filia vel nepte. § III. Fratris vero vcl sororis § 3. It is unlawful to marry the filiam uxorem ducere non licet: sed daughter or grand-daughter of n.