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sarentur, postea hoc constitutionibus principalibus emendatum est, ut, ad similitudinem filiorum filiarumque, et nepotes etneptes vocentur.

§ II. Sciendum autem est, hujusmodi successiones, quae ex Tertylliano et Orficiano senatus-con6ultis deferuntur, capitis diminutione non perimi, propter illam regulam, qua novae haereditates legitimes capitis diminutione non pereunt; sed illae sol», quae ex lege duodccim tabularum deferuntur.

timate succession of their grand-mother, the omission was afterwardssupplied, by the imperial constitutions: so that grand-sons and granddaughters were called to inherit, aswell as sons and daughters,

diminutione.

§ 2. But it must be observed, that those successions, which proceedfrom the Tertyllian and Orfician senatus» consulta, are not extinguished by diminution. For it is an established rule, that legitimate inheritances of late creation, are not destroyed by diminution; which affects those only that are founded on the law of the twelve tables.

De vulgo quaesitis. § III. Novissime sciendum est, § 3. It is lastly to be noted, that

etiam illos liberos, qui vulgo qusesiti sunt, ad matris hxreditatem ex senatus-consulto admitti.

even spurious children are admitted by the Orfician senatus-consultmfc to the inheritance of their mother.

De jure accrescendi inter legitimos hseredes.

§ VI. Si ex pluribus legitimis haeredibus quidam omiserinthsereditatem, vel morte, vel alia, causa, impediti fuerint, quominus adeant, reliquis, qui adierint, accrescit illorum portio; et, licet ante decesserint, ad haeredes tamen eorura pertinet.

§ 4. When there are many legitimate (legal) heirs, and some renounce the inheritance, or are prevented by death, or any other cause, then the portions of such persons fall by right of accretion to those, who accept the inheritance: and, although, the acceptors happen to die even before the refusal or the failure of their coheirs, yet the portions of such coheirs, will appertain to the heirs of The acceptors.

TITULUS QUINTUS. DE SUCCESSIONE COGNATORUM.

Te-tius ordo succedentium ab intestato.

POST suos haeredes, eosque, quos inter suos haeredes pre tor et constitutiones vocant, et post legitimos, (quorum numero sunt agnati, et hi, quos in locum agnatorum tarn supradicta senatus-consulta, quam nostra erexit constitutio,) proximos cognatos praetor vocat.

Qui vocantur in hoc ordine.

§ I. Qua parte naturalis cognatio spectatur. Nam agnati capite diminuti, quique ex his progeniti sunt, ex lege duodecim tabdlarum . inter legitimos non habentur, sed a prastore tertio ordine vocantur; exceptis solis tantummodo fratre et sorore emancipatis non etiam liberis eorum; quos lex Anastasi.ina rum fratribus integri juris constitutes vocat quidem ad legitimam fratris hasreditatem, sive sororis; non aquis tarn en partibus sed cum aliqua diminutione, quam facile est ex ipsius constitutionis verbis intelligere. Aliis vero agnatis inferioris gradus, licet capitis diminutionem passi non sunt, tamen anteponiteos, et procul dubio cognatis.

After the proper heirs and those, ■whom the praetor and the constitutions call to inherit with the proper heirs, andafter the legitimate heirs (among whom are the agnati, and those, whom the above mentionedsenatus>-consulta and our constitution have numbered with the agnati) Mr prcetor calls the nearest cognates.

. De a.enatis capite minutis.

§ 1. By the law of the twelve tables, neither the agnates, who have suffered diminution, nor their^issue, are esteemed legitimate heirs; but they are called by the prator in the third order of succession: but toe must except a brother and sister, (although) emancipated, but not their children; for the constitution of Anastasius calls an emancipated brother or sister to the succession of a brother or sister, together xvith. those, who having not been emancicipated, are integri juris .• but it does not call them to an equal share of the succession, as may easily be collected from the words of the constitution: which prefers an emancipated brother or sister to other agnates of inferior degree, although unemancipated; and consequently to all cognates»

De conjunctis per fteminas. § II. Eos etiam, qui per fcemini* § 2. Collateral relations by the/e»

ni sexus personas ex transverse» male line, are called by the pratot

cognationejunguntur, tertio gradu in the third order of succession, ac

proximitatis nomine, praetor ad sue- cording to their proximity. cessionem vocat.

De liberis datis in adoptionem.

$ III. Liberi quoque, qui in $ 3. Children, who are itt ail

adoptiva familia sunt, ad naturali- adoptive family, are likewise called

um parentum haereditatem hoc eo« in the third order of succession to

dem gradu vocantur. the inheritance of their natural pa

rents.

De vulgo qusesitis.

$ IV. Vulgo qusesitos nullos ha- § 4. It is manifest, that spurious

bere agnatos, manifestum est; cum children have no agnates; inas*

agnatio apatre sit, cognatio a ma- much a* agnation proceeds from the

tre : hi autem nullum patrem ha- father, cognation from the mother t

bere intelligantur. Eadem ratione, and such children are looked upon as

ne inter se quidem possunt videri having- no father. And, for the

consanguine! esse ; quia consanguinitatis jus, species est agnationis. Tantum ergo cognati sunt sibi, sicut et matri cognati sunt. Itaquc omnibus istis. ex ea parte competit bonorum possessio, qua proximitatis nomine cognati vocantur.

same reason, consanguinity cannot be said to subsist between the bas* tard children of the same woman; because consanguinity is a species of agnation. They can therefore only be allied to each other as they are related to their mother, that is, by Cognation; and it is for this reason) that all such children are called to the possession of goods by that part of the praetorian edict, by which cognates are called by the right oftheit proximity.

i Rx quoto gradu vel agnati vol cognati succedunt.

§ V. Hoc loco et illud necessa- § 5. Here it will be proper to ob' rio admonendi sumus agnationis serve, that any person by right of quidem jure admitti aliquem ad agnation may be admitted to inhe* haereditatem, etsi decimo gradu sit; rit, although he be in the tenth derive de lege duodecim tabularum gree ,• this is allowed both by the law

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TITULUS SEXTUS.

DE GRADIBUS COGNATIONUM.

D. xxxviii. T. 10.

Continuatio, et cognationis divisio.

HOC loco necessarium est ex- It is here necessary to explain hoxu

ponere, quemadmodumgradusc'og- degrees of cognation are to be com

nationis numerentur. Quare in puted; and first we must observe,

primis admonendi sumus, cognatio- that there is one species of cognation

nem aliam supra numerari, aliam infra, aliam ex transverso, quae etiam a latere dicitur. Superior cognatio estparentum: inferior liberorum: ex transverso fratrum sororumve, et eorum, qui quaeve ex his gr-nerantur; et convenknterpatrui, amite, avunculi, matertene. Et superior quidem et inferior cogna

which relates to ascendants, another to descendants, and a third, to collaterals. Thefrst andsuperior cognation is that relation, which a man bears to his parents; the second, or inferior, is that, which he bears to his children; the third is that relation which he bears to his brothers and sisters, and their issue; and also to

tio a primo gradu incipit; at ea, quae his uncles and aunts, whether pater

ex transverso numeratur, a secundo.

nal or maternal. The superior and inferior cognation commence at the first degree; but the transverse or collateral cognation commences at the second.

De primo, secundo, et tertio gradu.

J'l. Primo gradu est supra pater, mater: infra filius, filia.. Secundo gradu supra avus, avia: infra nepos, nepti3 : ex transverso frater, soror. Tertio gradu supra proavus, proavia: infra pronepos, pro

$ 1. A father, or a mother, is in the first degree in the right line ascending: and a son, or a daughter, is also in the first degree in the right line descending. A grand-father, or a grand-mother, is in the second de

neptis: ex transverso fratris soro- gree in the right line ascending r risque filius, filia: et convenienter and a grand-son or grand-daughter, patruus, amita, avunculus, mater- is in the second degree in the right tera. Patruus est patris frater, qui line descending: and a brother or a "Grxcis T*!/»^*»^ - appellatur. A- sister, is also in the second degree in vunculus est frater matris, qui grace the colluteral line. A great-grar.dtuTf<t£t*q>& dicitur: et uterque father, or a great-grand-mother, is promiscue Sn®' appellatur. Amita in the third degree in the right line est patris soror, quae grace varg*- ascending: and a great-grand-son, ft\$t, appellatur; matertera vero or great-grand-daughter, is in the matris soror, quae grace rmtpatofi thirddegree in the righ' line descenddicitur: et utraque promiscue $»« ing; and the son or daughter of a appellatur: brother or sister is also in the third

degree-in the collateral line; and by a parity of reasoning an uncle, or an aunt, whether paternal or maternal, is also in the third degree. A paternal uncle, called patruus, is a fa- . ther s brother; a maternal uncle, calledavunculus, is a mother's brother; a paternal aunt, called amita, is a father's sister; and a maternal aunt, called matertera,?* a mother's sister. Andeach of these persons is called in Greek 3-«®- or 9mi promiscuously.

Quartus $ II. Quarto gradu supra abavus abavia: infra abnepos, abneptis: ex transverso fratris sororisque nepos neptisve : et convenienter patruus magnus, amita magna, id est, avi frater et soror; item avunculus mag

gradus. ,. >

§ 2. A great-great-grand-father, or a great-great-grand-mother, is in the fourth degree in the right line ascending; and a great-great-grandson, or a great-great-grand-dut/ghta\, is in the fourth degree in the

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