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De libertinorum § III. Libertinorum autem status tripertitus antea fuerat : nam, qui manumittebantur, modo majorem et justam libertatem consequebantur, et fiebant cives Romani; modo' minorem, et Latini ex lege Junia Norbana fiebant; modo inferiorem, «t fiebant ex lege ./Elia Sentia Dedititii: sed quoniam Dedititiorum quidem pessima conditio, jam ex multis temporibus in desuetudinem abierat; Latinorum vero nomen non frequentabatur ; ideoque nostra pietas, omnia augere et in meliorem Btatum reducere desiderans, duabus constitutionibus hoc emendavit, et in pristinum statum reduxit: quia et a primis urbis Romae cunabulis una atque simplex libertas compctebat, id est, eadem,quam, habebat manumissor ;nisi quod, scilicet, libertinus sit, qui manumittitur, licet manumissor ingenuus sit: et Dedititios quidem per constitutionem nostram expulimus, quam promulgavimus inter nostras decisiones; per quas, suggerente nobis Triboniano viro excelso qusestore nostro, antiqui juris altercationes placavimus. Latincs autem Junianos, et oainem, qua; circa eos fuerat, observantiam,alia constitutione, per ejus-. dem quicstorcs suggestionem, correximus, qure inter imperiales radial sanctiones ; et omnes libertos, (nullo,nec aUatis manumissi, nee domini manumitttntis, nee in manumissionis modo, discrimine habito, sicuii antea obsarvabatur,) civitate Rjmand decernimus, mult*i3 nio

divis'onc sublata.

§ 3. Freedmen were formerly distinguished by a threefold division. Those, who were manumitted, sometimes obtained the greater liberty, and became Roman citizens; sometimes only the lesser, and became Latins, under the law Junia Norbana; and sometimes only the inferior liberty, and became Dedititii, by the law iElia Sentia. But, the condi* tion of the Dedititii differing but little from slavery, has been long disused; neither has the name of Latins been frequent. Our piety therefore, leading us to reduce all things into a better state, we have amended our laws by two constitutions, and re-established the antient usage ;for antientiy liberty was simple and undivided; that is, it was conferred upon the slave, as his manumittor possessedit; admitting this single difference, that the person manumitted became only a Freedman, although his manumittor was a Freeman.

We have abolished the Dedititii by a constitution published among our decisions, by which, at the instance of Tribonian, our ^ucestor, we have suppressed all disputes concerning the antient law. We have also, at his suggestion, altered the condition cfthe Latins, and corrected the laws, which related to them, by another constitution, conspicuous among the imperial sanctions: and we have made all thefreed-men in general citizens of Rome, regarding neither the age of the manumitted,nor of the manumittor, nor the antient forms of

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(lis addltis, per quoa possit libertas Servis cum civitate Komana, Cju.k •sola est in praesentjj prastari. / /

manumission. We have also inttb* duced many nexv methods,, by -which slaves may become Roman citizens f the only liberty that can now be lonferred.

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T1TULUS SEXTUS.

QUI ET EX QUIBUS CAUSIS, MANUMITTERE

NON POSSUNT.

D. xl. T.9. C.vii. T. 11.

Prius caput legis lfLX\?c Sentize, de manumittente in fraudem credit

torum. NON tamen cuicunque volenti Every master may not matiUmit at manumittere licet: nam is, qui in will:for if done -with intent to defraudem creditorum manumiuit, ni- fraud his creditors, it is void. The hil agit : quia lex ^Elia Sentia inipe- law iElia Sentia restraining this ditlibertatem. liberty.

De servo instituto cum libertate.

§ L Licet autem domino, qui sol- $ 1. A master, who is insolvent,

vendo non est, in testamento ser- may appoint a slave to be his heir

vum suum cum libertate lueredem xvith liberty, that thus the slave may

instituere, ut liber fiat, hsei'esque ei obtain his freedom, and become the

solus et necessarius, si modo ci ne* only and necessary heir of the testa

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lioe eo non faciente, creditores res h*reditarias servi nomine vendant, ne injuria defunctus afficiatur.

sary heir to satisfy creditors; of that the creditors should sell the hereditary effects in the name of the slave, lest the deceased skouldsitffer ignominy.

De servo institute» sir.c libertate.

§ II. Idemque juris est, ets'i § 2. A slave also becomes free by

sine libertate servus hseres institu- being instituted an heir, although

tus est; quod nostra constitutio non his freedom be not mentioned: far

solum in domino, qui solvendo non our constitution respects not only the

est, sed generaliter constituit, nova insolvent master, but, by a new act

human it at is ration.:; ut ex ipsa of humanity, it extends generally;

scripturi institutions etiam libertas so that the institution of an heir, im

ei competere videatur: cum. non plies the grant of liberty. For it

sit verisimile, eum, quern hseredem sibi elegit, si prstermiserit libtrtatis dationem, servum rcmanere voluisse, et neminem sibi haeredem fore.

is highly improbable, that 4testator9 although he has omitted to mention liberty in his will, could mean that the person instituted, should remain a slave, and himself be destitute of an heir.

Quid sit in fraurlem creditorum manirnittere. $ III. In fraudem autem credi- § 3. Manumission is in fraud of torum manumittere videtur, qui vcl creditors, if the master is insolvenft

jam eo tempore, quo manumittit, solvendo non est; vel qui, datis libertatibus, desiturus est solvendo esse. Prevaluisse tamen videtur, tiisi animum quoque fraudandi

when he manumits, or becomes so by manumitting. It is however the prevailing opinion, that liberty, when granted, is not impeached, unless the manumittor meant to defraud, almanumissor habuerit, non impediri though his gmds are insufficient for libertatem, quamvis bona tjus ere- the payment of his creditors; for ditoribus non sufficiant: s.fpe enim menjrequenthj hope better,than their de facultatibus suis amplius, quam circumstances really are. We therein his est, sperant homint s. Itaque fore understand liberty to be then tunc intelligimus impediri liberta- only impeded, when creditors are tem, cum utroquc modo fraudantur doxtbly defrauded: by the intention creditores; id est, et cor.siiio manu- of the manumittor, and in reality» mittentis, et ipsa re; eo quod bona ejus non sunt suffecura cr.c'itoribasv

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Altcrum caput legis JE iae Sentia; dc mincre viginti annis. § IV. Eadem lege .<£lia Sentia, § 4. By the same law iElia Sendomino minori viginti annis non tia, amaster, under the age of twenaliter manumittcre permittitur, ty years, cannot manumit, unless for quam si vindict» apud consilium, some good reason, to be approved justa causa manumissionis appro- by a council; and then by the vinbata, fuerint manumissi. dicta.

Qua; sunt justre caisse manumissio: is.

§ V. Justae autem causne manu- § 5. Just reasons for manumis

missionis sunt: veluti si quia pat- sion, are that the person to bemanu

rem aut mairem, filium nliunrv?, mitted isfather or mother to the ma

aut fratres, sororcsve naturales, aut numittor, his son or daughter, his

paedagogum, autnutricem, autedu- brother or sister, his preceptor, his catorem, aut alumnum aiumnamverfriurse, his foster child, or his foster

aut colkfelaneum manumittat; aut brother; or to constitute him his

servum, procurators habendi gra- proctor; or his bond-woman, with

tia; aut ancillam, matrimonii ha- an intent to marry her, provided the

bendi causa; dum tamen infra sex marriage is performed within six

menses in uxoreni ducatur, nisi months. But a slave who is to be

justa causa impediat: et servus, constituted proctor, cannot be manu

qui manumittilur, procuiatoris ha- mitted for that purpose, if under se

bendi gratia, non minor decern et venteen. septem annis manuniittatur.

De cat:sa seme! probata. § VI. Scmel autem causa ap- § 6. A reason once admitted in probata, sive vera sit, sive falsa, favor of liberty, be it true or false, non retractatur. cannot be recalled.

Abrogatio posteriori'- capitis legis /Eliae Sentiae.

§ VII- Cum ergo certus modus § 7. When certain bounds were

inanumitttndi minoribus viginti an- prescribedby the law -ALlia Sentia

nis dominis per legem ./Eliain Sen- all minors under twenty, with regard

tiam constitutus esset, evenitbat, ut, to manumission, it was observed, that

qui quatuordecem annos expleverat, any person, who hadcompleatedfour

licet testamentum facere, et in eo teenyears,mightmakeatestament,in

sibi h-credem instituere, legataque sttutean heir, and bequeath legacies,

relinquere, posset, tamen, si adhuc and yet that no person, under twenty,

minor esset viginti annis, liberty- could confer liberty; which was not

tern S( rvo dare non posset; quod longer to be tolerated: for can any

non erat ferendum: nam, cui toto- just cause be assigned, why a man,

rum suorum bonoriim in testamento dispositio data erat, quare non similiter ei, qucmadmodum alias res, ita et de* servis suis in ultima voluntate disponere, quemadmodum voluerit, permittimus, ut et libertatem eis possit praestare? S ->d cum libertas infestimabilis res sit, et propter hoc ante vigesimum -Etatis annum antiquitas libertatem servo dare prohibebat; ideo nos, mediae quodammodo viam eligentes, non aliter minori viginti annis libertatem in testamento dare servo suo concedimus, nisi septemdecimum annum impleverit, et octodecimum attigerit. Cum enim antiquitas hujusmodi aetati et pro aliis postulare concesserit, cur non etiam sui judicii stabilitas ita eos adjuvare credatur, ut ad libertatem dandam ■servis suis possint pervenire?

permitted to dispose of all his effectst by testament, should be debar red from enfranchising his slaves? But liberty being of inestimable value, and our ancient laws prohibiting any person to make agrant of it, who is under twenty years of age, we therefore make choice of a middle. way, and permit all, who have attain» . t ed their eighteenth year, to confer'Ti* berty by testament. For since, by former practice, persons at eighteen years of agexvere permitted to plead for their clients, there is no reason, why the same stability cf judgment, which qualifies them to assist others, should not enable them to be ofser» vice to themselves also, by having the liberty of enfranchising their oiv?i slaves.

TITULUS SEPTIMUS. DE LEGE FUSIA CANINIA TOLLENDA,

C. vii. LEGE Fusia Caninia, certus modus constitutus erat in servis testamento manumittendis; quam, quasi libertates impedientem et quodammodo invidam, tollendatn esse censuimus: cum satis fuerat inhumanum, vivos quidem licentiam habere totam suam familiam libertatem donare, nisi alia causa impediat libertatem; morientibns autem hujusmodi licentiam adiraere.

T. 3.

By the law Fusia Caninia, was» ters were limited in manumitting by testament; we have thought pro> per to abrogate this law as odious and destructive of liberty; judging it inhuman, that persons in health, should have power to manumit a whole family, if no just cause forbid, and that the dying should be prohi* bitcd from diing the scire..

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