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De responsis

§ VIlL Besponsa prudentum Sunt sentential et opiniones eorura, quibus permissum erat de jure resgondere: nam antiquittis consututum ej;at, u^essent, qui jura publice interpretarentur, quibus a Caesare jus resppndendi datum est, qui juris-consulti appellabantur: quorum omnium sententise et opiniones earn auctoritatem tenebant, ut judici recpdere a responsis eorum non liceret,ut est constilutum.


§ 8. The answers of the lawyers are the opinions of persons authorised to give answers an matters of law. For antiently, public Interpreters of the law were licenced by the emperors and were called jurisconsulti; and their opinions obtained so great a?i authority, that it was not in the power of a judge to recede1 from them.

'• Dc jure ncn scripto.

§ IX. Sine scripto jus venit, §^9. The unwritten law is that, quod usus approbavit; nam diutur- which usage has approve': for daily «i morfs, consensu utentium com- customs, established by the consent ■probati, legem imitantur. of those who use them, put on the

character of law.


'' Ra'io supericris divisionis.

§ X. Et non hieleganter in duas § 10. Nor is it an inelegant divispecies jus civile distributum esse sion of the law, into written andunvidetur; nam origo ejus ab institu- written: which seems to have takert tis duarum civitatum, Athensrum rise from the peculiar customs of the scilicet et Lacedaemoniovum, flux- Athenians and Lacedemonians. For

isse videtur. In his enim civitatibus, ita agi solitum erat, ut Lacedamonii quidem ea, qus pro legibus observabant, memoriae mandarent,: Athenienses vero ea, qua; in legibus scripta comprehendisaent, custodirent.

the Lacedemonians trusted chiefly to memory, for the preservation of their laws; but the laws of the Athenians were committed to writing.

Divisio juris in irrnnutubile et mutablle. § XI. Sed naturalia quidem jura, §11. The laws of nature, observed by anas apud omnes gentes peraque all nations, inasmuch as they rye the observantur, divina quadam provi- appointment of divine providence, reder,tia constituta, semper firma at- main fxed and immutable. But the que immutabilia permanent. Ea laws, which every city has exacted

vcro, qua ipsa sibi quasque civitas for itself, suffer frequent changes,

«onstituit, saepe mutari sclent, vel either by tacit consent of the people,

tacito consensu populi, vel alia pos- or by some .subsequent law, -> tea lege lata. ^**"

De objectis juris.

§ XII. Omne autem jus, quo § 12. All laws, relate to persons, utimur, vel ad personas pertinet, vel ad res, vel ad actiones. Et prius de parsonis videaraus: nam parum est jus nosse, si persons, quarum causa constitutum est, ig»orentur.

things, or actions. First then of persons; for it would be of little purpose to study the law, while ignoranf of persons, for whose sake the law was constituted.




> D. 1. T. 5.

Prima divisio personarum. SUMMA itaque divisio de jure The first general division of per' personarum hsc est: quod omnes sons, in respect to their rights, * inhomines aut liberi sunt, aut servi. to freemen and slaves.

Definitio libertatis.

S I. Et libertas quidem (ex qui etiam liberi vocantur) est naturalis facultas ejus, quod cuique facere libet, nisi quid vi aut jure prohibe» tur.

§ 1. Freedom, from which we are denominated free, is the natural power of acting as we please, unless prevented by force, or by the law.

Definitio servitutis.

$ II. Servitus autem est constitUtio juris gentium, qua quis dominio alierio contra naturam subjifcltur.

§ 2. Slavery, is when one man is subjected to the dombiion of another^ according to the law of nation$t though contrary to natural right.

Servi et mancipii etymologia.

§ III. Servi autem ex eo appel- § 3. Slaves are denominated servr^

lati sunt, quod imperatores capti- from the J?ractice of our laterals

vos vendere, ac per hoc servare, to sell their captives, and thus pre

nec occidere solent; qui etiam serve, (servare) and not slay them.

mancipia dicti sunt;. eo, quod ab Slaves are also called mancipia in.

hostibus manu capiantur. that they are taken from the enemy

by hand (manucapti.)

Quibus modis servi constituuntur. $ IV. Servi autem aut nascun- § 4. Slaves are born such, or betur, aut fiunt. Nascuntur ex ancil- come so. They arc born such of lisnostris: fiunt aut jure gentium, bond-women: they become so either by id est, ex captivitate; aut jure ci- the law of nations, that is, by capvili, cum liber homo, major viginti thity; or by the civil law; as when a ennis, ad pretium participandum free person, above the age §f twenty, eese venundari passus est. suffers himself to be sold, for the sake

of sharing the price given for him.

De liberorum et servorum divisione..

§ V. In servorum conditione § 5. In the condition of slave» nulla est differentia; in liberis au- there is no diversity ; but among free tern multre: aut enim sunt ingenui, persons, there are many; thus, some aut libertini. t are ingenui, or Freemen; others lir

bertini or Freed Mm,

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C. vii. T. 14.

De ingenui definitione. INGENUUS est is, qui statim, A Freeman is one who h born ut natus est, liber est; sive ex free, by being born in matrimony, duobus ingenuis matrimonio editus of parents, who are both free, est, sive ex libertinis duobus, sive or both freed; or of parents, one free, ex altero libertino, et altero ingenuo. the otherfrfed. But one born (fafree

Sed et, si quis ex matre nascitur libera, patre vero servo, ingenuus nihilominus nascitur: quemadmodum, qui ex matre libera et incerto patre natus est: quoniam vulgo conceptus est. Sufficit autem, liberam fuisse matrem eo tempore, quo nascitur, licet ant ilia conceperit: et, e contrario, si libera conceperit, deinde ancilla facta pariat, placuit eum, qui nascitur, liberum nasci: quia non debet calamitas matris ei nocere, qui in ventre est. Ex his tUud quxsitum est, si ancilla praegnans manumissa sit, deinde ancilla postea facta pepererit, liberum an servum pariat? Et Martianus probat, liberum nasci: sufficit enim ei, qui in utero est, liberam matrem vel medio tempore habuisse, ut liber nascatur; quod et verum est.

mother, altho' the•father be a slave, of* unknown, is free: notwithstanding he rvus conceived discreditably. And if the mother is free at the time ofth» birth, although a bond-woman when she conceived, the infant will be free. Also if a woman, free at conception, becomes a slave and is delivered, her child, is nevertheless free born; for the misfortune of the mother ought not to prejudice her unborn infant. R has been a question, -whether the childof a woman, -who is made Jree during pregnancy, but becomes bond before delivery, would be free born f Martianus proves the affirmative i for, he deems it sufficient to the unborn child, if the mother hath been free at any time between conception and delivery; and this is true.

De erronea ingenui manumissione.

§ I. Cum autem ingenuus ali- § 1. It will not injure a man born

quis natus sit, non officit ei, in 3er- free to have been in servitude,

vitute fuisse, et postea manumis and afterwards manumitted t for it

sum esse: sa:pissime enim consti- hath been often settled that manu*

tutum est, natalibus non officere ma- viission shall not prejudice free birth,

numissionem. &



Definitio et origo libertinorum et manu mission Vs. LIBERTINI sunt, qui ex justa Freed men are those, who have servitute manumissi sunt. Manu- been manumitted from just servitude. nussio autem est de manu datio i Manumission, luanu-datio, implies Ubi et quando manumitti potest.

quamdiu aliquis in servitute est, manui et potestati suppositus est : ct manumissus liberatur a doinini po-estate: qua: res a jure gentium oriinem sumpsit ; utpote cum jure na* rali omnes liberi nascerentur; - essetnota manumissio, cum ser% us esset incognita. Sed, postquamjure '. ._rvitusingenuitatem ' .vasit, s^cutum est berieficium manumissionis: et, cum uno communi nomine omnes homines appellarejitur, jure gentium tria hominuni genera esse coeperunt: liberi; et his contrarium, servi; et tertium genus, libertini ; qui desierant esse servn

the giving of liberty ; for whoever in servitude, is subject to the hand and power of another ; but whoever is. manumitted, is free from both. Manumission took its rise from the law of nations; for all men by the law of nature are born free; nor was manumission heard of while servitude was unknown. But when servitude, under sanction of the law of nations, invaded liberty, the benefit of manumission became then a consequence. For all men at first were denominated by one common dp* pellation, ''till, by the law of nations, they began to be divided into three classes, viz» into liberi, or freemen, servi, or slaves, and libertini, freed* men- who have ceased to be slaves.

Quibus modis $ I. Multis autem modis manumissio procedit: aut enim ex sacris constitutionibus in sacrosanctis ecclesiis, aut vindicta, aut inter amicos, aut per epistolam, aut per testifc nientum, aut per aliam quamlibft uliimam voluntajem. Sed et aliis multis modis libertas servo comnetere potest, qui tarn ex veteribus, quam ex nostris constitutionibus, introducti sunt.


§ 1. Manumission is effected by various ways; either in the face of the church, according to the imperial constitutions, or by the vindicta, or in the presence of friends, or by leU ter, or by testament, or by any other last will. Liberty may aCso be con* ferred upon a slave by diverse other methods, some of which -were introduced by former laws, and others by our own.

§ II. Servi vero a dominis semper manumitti solent, adeo ut vel in transitu manumittantur; veluti cum prastor, aut prases, aut proconsul, in balneum, vel in theatrum «sunt.

§ 2. Slaves may be. manumitted by their masters at any time; even on the way, as while the pro-tor, the governor of a province, or the proconsul in going to the baths, or to the theatre.

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