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bent improbos intestabilesque esse, be admitted a witness to_ a testament.

possum in numerum testium adhi

beri.

De servo, qui liber existimabatur.

$ VII. Sed, cum aliquis ex tes- § 7. If a witness, was regarded

tibus, testamenti quidem faciendi as free at the time of attesting, but

tempore, liber existimabatur, pos- afterwards appeared to have teen

tea autem servus apparuit, tarn Divus Adrianus Catoru,quam postea Divi Severus et Antoninus rescripserunt, subvenire se ex sua liberalitate testamento, ujt sic habeatur finnum, ac si, ut oportebat, factum esset; cum, eo tempore, quo testamentum signaretur, omnium con

then a slave, the emperor Adrian, in his rescript to Cato, and afterwards, the emperors Severus and Antoninus by their rescript decreed, that they would aid such a defect in a testa-' merit, and confirm it equally as ifthf witness, at the time of seahng,was, in the estimation of all men, tolen to~~>

aensu hie testis liberi loco fuerit, be a free person, no one having made nee qui&quam esset, qui status ei a question of his condition* quxstiouem napveret.

* De pluribus testibus ex eudem domo. » ,

4 VIII. Pater, nee non is, qui in potestate ejus est: item duo fratres, qui in ejusdem patris potestate sunt, utique testes in uno testamento fieri possum : quia nihil noeet, ex una domo plures testes alieno negotio adhiberi.

§ 8. A father, and a son vmkr his power, or two brothers, under the power of tlie same fether, may be witnesses to a testament: for nothing prevents several persons of the same family, being witnesses to tlie transaction of another person.

De his, qui sunt in familia te&tatoris. $ IX. In testibus autem non de- $ 9. No person under power tf

bet esse is, qui in potestate testatori s est. Sed, si filiusfamilias de castrensi peculio post missionem faciat testamentum, nee pater ejus recte adhibetur testis, nee is, qui in potestate ejusdem patris est. Reprobatum est enim in ea re donjesticum testimonium.

the testator can witness—the testa» ment. And if the son of a family devise his military estate after his dismission from the army, neither his father, nor any one under power of his father, can be a witness to the will. For, in this case, the law does not allow of a domestic testimony..

De hasrede. § X. Sed neque haeres scriptus, § 10 neque is, qui in ejus potestate est, neque pater ejus, qui eumhabet in potestate, neque fratres, qui in ejusdem patris potestate sunt, testes adhiberi possunt; quia hoc totum negotium, quod agitur testamenti ordinandi gratia, creditur hodie inter testatorem et haeredem agi. Licet autem totum jus tale conturbatum

No heir nominated in the will, ner any person in subjection to him ; nor his father, under whose power he is; nor his brothers under power of the same father, can be admitted witnesses ;for the whole business -of completing a testament, is at this day considered as transacted between the testator, and the real heir. But formerly there was great confu

fuerat,' et veteres quidem familiae fusion ; for although the ancients

emptorem, et eos, qui per potestatem ei cpnjuncti fuerant, a testa-" mental iis testimoniis repellebant; hseredi autem, et iis, qui per potestatem ei conjuncti fuerant, concedebant testimonia in testamentis pr«stare : licet ii, qui id permittebant, hoc jure minime abuti, eos debere suadebant: tamen uos eandeni observationem corrigentes, et, quod ab illis suasum est, in legis necessitatem transferentes, ad imitationem pristini familiae emptoris, merito nee haeredi, qui imaginem vetustissimi familiae emptoris obtijiet, neque aliis personis, quae ei, (ut dictum est,) conjunctae sunt, licentiam concedimus sibi quodammodo testimonia praestar..: ide6que nee ejusmodi veteres constitutiones nostro codici inseri permisinaus.

would never admit the testimony of the emptor familiae, (nominalpurchaser) or the supposed heir, nor of any one allied to him by subjection, yet they admitted that of thereat heir, and of persons connected with him by -subjection; and the only precaution taken, was, to exhort those persons not to abuse their privilege. We have corrected this practice-; preventing by the coercion of law, that, which the ancient lawyers endeavoured to prevent by persuasion only : for we admit neither the real heir, 7vho represents the emptor familiae of the ancients, nor any person allied to him as a witness, to the testament, by which he is nominated. It is for this reason, that we have not suffered the old constitutions tt be inserted in our Code.

Dg legatariis et fideicommissariis, et his, qui sunt in eorum

familia. . •

§ XI. Legatariis autem et fidei- § 11. But we refuse not the tescommissariis, quia non juris sue- timony of legatees and trustees, or of cessorcs sunt, et aliis personis eis persons allied to them, because they conjunctis, testimonium non dene- are not successors by law: nay, by

gamus: imi in quadam nostra contitutione ethoc specialiter eis concessimus; et multo magis iis, qui ineorum potestate sunt, vel qui eos habent in potestate, hujusmodi licentiam damus.

our constitution, we have specially granted them this privilege; arte'we allow this still more readily to persons under their subjection, and to those, to whom they are subject.

De materia, in qua testamenta scribuntur.

§ XII. Nihil autemanterest, tes- § 12. It is immaterial, whether a

tamentum in tabulis, an chartis, testament be written upon a tablet of

membranisve, vel in alia materia wax, upon paper, parchment, or any

fiat. other substance.

De pluribus codicibus» § XIII. Sed etunum testamen- § 13. Any person may execute

tuna pluribus codicibus conficere quis potest, secundum obtinentem tamen observationem omnibus factis: quod interdum etiam necessariumest; veluti si quis navigaturus et secum ferre et domi relinquere judiciorum suorum contestationem velit: vel propter alias innumerabiles causas, quae humanis necessitatibus imminent.

De testamento $ XIV» Sed haec quidem de testamentis, quae scriptis conficiuntur, aufficiunt. Si quis autem sine scriptis voluerit ordinare jure civili testamentum, septem testibus adhibitis, et sua voluntate coram eis nuncupate, sciat, hoc perfectissimum testamentum jure civili firmumque constitutum.

counter-parts of the same testament observing the prescribed forms. This is sometimes necessary; as when a man going a voyage, is desirous to carry his xvill with him, and to leave a counter-part at home for his better security. Innumerable other reasons for doing this may arise, according to the various necessities of mankind.

nuncupativo.

§ 14. Thus much mai) suffice concerning written testaments. Iiitif a man wishes to dispose ofh'rs effects by a nuncupative or unwritten testament, he mail do so, if in the presence of seven witnesses, he verhalUj declares his will, and this will be a valid testament according to the civil law.

TITULUS UNDECIMUS.
I)E MILITARJ TE5TAMENT0.

D. xxix. T. 1. C. vi. T. 21.

In militiiiu testamentis SUPRADICTA diligens observstio in ordiuandis testamentis militibus, propter nimiam imperitiam corum, constitutionibus principalis bus remissa est. Nam, quamvis ii neque legitimum numerum testium adhibuerint, neque aliam testainentorum solemniiatem observaverint, recte nihilominus testantur, videlicet cum in expeditionibus occupati sunt: quod merit" nostra constitute introduxit. Quoquo enim modo voluntas ejus suprema inveniatur, sive scripta, sive sine scriptura, valet testamentum ex voluntate ejus. IHis autem temporibus, per qua», citra expeditionum necessitatem, in aliis locis, vel suis jedibus, ■degunt, minime ad vindicandum tale privilegium adjuvantur. Sed testari quidem, etsi filii-familiarura sint, propter militiam conceduntur: jure tamen communi, eadem observatione et in eorum testamentis adhibenda, quam in testamentis paganorum proxiine exposuimus.

solemnita'es remissae.

The before-mentioned strict observance of formalities, in the ionstruction of testaments, is dispensed ivith by the imperial constitutions,, in favour of all military persons, on account of their unsiilfulness in these matters. For, although they should neither call the legal number of wit' ncsses, nor observe any other solemnity, yet they may make a good testament, if they are in actual service» This was introduced by our own ordinance with good reason; so thai in whatever manner the testament of a military person is conceived, -whether in writing, or not, it prevails according to his intention: but, -when soldiers are not upon an expedition, and live in their own houses or elsewhere, tJiey are by no means intitlej-to claim this privilege; but a soldier, on account of his profession is allowed to make a testament, although he is the son of a family : observing however, according to the general law, all the formalizes, which are required of others in this respect.

Rescriptum Divi Trajani. $ I. Plane dc testamentis mili- § 1. The emperor Trajan wrote, turn Divus Trajanus Catilio Severo as follows, in hi- rescript to Catilius ita rescripsit. Id privilegium, quod Sevcrus concerning military testamilitnntikus datum est, ut quoquo ments. The privilege, given to modo facta ab his teslamenta rata military persons, that their testa

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tint, ate intelligi debet, ut utiqtteprlus constare debeat, testamentum factum esse: quod et sine scriptura, et a non militantibus quoque, fieri potest. Si ergo miles, de cujus bonis apud te quoeritur, convocatis ad hoc hominibus, ut voluntatem suam testaretur, ita locutus est, ut declararet quern vellet sibi hccredem esse, et cui libertatem tribueret; potest videri aine scripto hoc modo esse testatus, et voluntas ejus rata habenda est. Ctetiernm, si (ut plerumque sermonibus Jieri soletj dixit alicui, ego te haeredem facio, aut, bona mea tibi relinquo, non oportet hoc pro testamento ebservari. Nee ullorum mag-is interest, quam ipsorum, quibus id priviIcgium datum est,ejusmodi exemplum non admitti. Alioqui non difficulter post mortem alicujus militis testes existerent, qui affirmarent, se audisse dicentcm aliquem rclinqucre se bona, cui visum sit: et per hoc vera judicia subvertercntur.

ments, in whatever manner made, shall be valid, must be thus under* stood; it ought first to be apparent, that a testament was made in some manner: for a testament may be made without writing, by persona not military. And therefore, if it appear, that the soldier, concerning whose goods question is now made before you, did, in the presence of witnesses, purposely called, declare what person should be his heir, and to what slaves he would give liberty, he shall be reputed to have made his testament without writing, and his will shall be ratified. But, if it is only proved, that he said to some one, as it often happens in discourse, / appoint you my heir— or—/ leave you all my estate, such words do not amount to a testament. Nor are any persons more interested than the soldiery, that words so spoken should not amount to a will; otherwise, witnesses might without difficulty be produced after the death of any military man, who would affirm, that they had heard him bequeath his estate, to whomever they please ; -and the true intentions might be defeated.

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De surdo et muto. y II. Quinimo et mutus et sur- § 2. A soldier though mute and Aus miles testamentum facere po- deaf, may yet make a testament. test.

De militibus ct veteranis.

$ III. Sed hactenus hoc illis a § 3. This privilege was granted

principalibus constitutionibus con- by the imperial constitutions to mi

ceditur, quatenus militant et in cas- litary men, to be enjoyed only'during

trn deguat. Post missionem vtro actual service, and -while they lived

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