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vum, (quia eo modo dominus fit,) proprietor, if he be a slave. But a

ex omnibus causis per eum sibi ac- bona fide possessor, who hath gained

quLrcre potest. Fructuarius vero a slave by usucaption or prescription^.

usucapere non potest: primum (inasmuch as he thus becomes the ab

quia non possidet, sed habct jus solute proprietor,) can acquire by

utendi", fruendi: deindc, quia scit, means of such slave, by alt manner

s'ervum alienum esse. Non solum of ways. But an usufructuary mas

autein propvietas per eos servos, in ter can not prescribe ; frst, because

quibus usumfructum habetis, vel he can not be strictly said to possess,

quos bona fide possidetis, aut per having only the power of using: and

iiberam personam, qua bona fide because he knows, the slave belongs

vobis servit, vobis acquiritur, sed to another. We nevertheless may ac

etiam possessio. Loquimur autem quire not only property, but also

in utriusque persona secundum dis- possession, by means of slaves,*

tinctionem,qu"am proximo exposui- whom we possess bona fide, or by

mus, ii est, si quam possessionem ex re vestri vel ex suis operis, adeptifuerirrt.

De rdiquis seu $ VI. Ex"1iis itaque apparet, per liberos homines quos neque vestro jori subjectos habetis, neque bona fide possidetis, item per alienos servos, in quibus neque usumfractum habetis, neque possessionem justam, nulla ex causa vobis acquiri posse. Et hoc est, quod dicitur, per extraneam personam nihil acquiri posse; excepto eo, quod per liberam personam (velutl per procuratorem) placet non solum scientibus, sed et ignorantibus, vobis acquiri possessionem, secundum Divi Severi constitutionem; et per hanc possessionem etiam dominium, si dominus fueri t, qui tradidit; vel usucapionem aut longi temporis prascriptionem, si dominu6 non sit.

usufruct; and even by a free person, of whom we have bona fide possession. But, in saying this, toe adhere to the distinction, before explained, and speak of those things only, of which a slave may acquire the possession, either through the goods of his master, or by his own industry.

extraneis personis.

*$ 6. Hence it appears that you can not acquire by means of free persons, not under your subjection, or possessed by you bona fide; nor by the slave of another, of whom you have neither the usufruct, nor the just possession, "find this is meant, wKen it is said, that nothing can be acquired by means of a stranger; except indeed according to the constitution of the emperor Severus, that t possession may be acquired for you \ by a free person, as by a proctor, not I only with, but even without your; knowledge; and, by this possession, the property may be gained, if the delivery were made by the proprietor; and an usvaption or prescription may be acquired, although the delivery were-made by one, who was not the proprietor.

Transitu).

$ VII. Hactenustantisperadmonuisse sufficiat, quemadmodum singulis res vobis acquirantur: nam legatorum jus, quo et ipso singula res vobis acquiruntur, item fideieommissorum, uhi singula res vobi* reiinquuntur opportunius inferi*re loco refereraus. Vidcamus ita

§ 7. The observations already made, concermng the acquisition of things, may suffice for the present; for we shall treat more opportunely hereafter concerning the rights of legacies end trusts. Vfe now proceed to shew, how things may be acquired per unh-ersitatem, thM is, wholly

I

que nunc, quibus modis per universitatem res vobis acquirantur. Si cui ergo haeredes facti sitis, sive cujus bonorum possessionem petieritis,vel si quern adrogaveritis, vel si cujus bona, libertatura conservandarum causa, vobis addicta fucrint, ejus res omnes, ad vos transeunt. Ac prius de haereditatibus dispiciamus, quarum duplex conditio est; nam vel ex testamento, vel ab intestato, ad vos pertinent. Et prius est, ut de his dispiciamus, quae ex testamento vobis obveniunt; qua in re necessarium est, initium de tesfamentis ordinandis exponere.

and in gross by one single acquisition : for example; if you are nominated heir, or seek possession of the goods of another, or arrogate one as your son, or if goods are adjudged to you for preserving the liberty of slaves; in all these cases, the entire inheritance passes to you. Let us therefore inquire into inheritances, which are twofold; for they proceed cither from a testacy, or an intestacy. And first of those, which come by testament; and herein it will be necessary to begin by explaining the manner of making testaments.

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TITULUS DECIMUS.

DE TESTAMENTIS ORDINANDIS.

D. xxviii. T. 1. C. vi. T. 23. Nov. 66. 119.

Etymologia.

TESTAMENTUM ex eo ap- A testament is so called from tespellatur, quod testatio mentis sit. tatio; because it testifies the determination of the mind.

De antiquis modis

§ I. Sed, ut nihil antiquitatis penitus ignoretur, sciendum est, olim quidem duo genera testamentorum in usu fuisse; quorum altero in pace et otio utebantur, quod calatis comitiis appellabant; altero, «um in praelium exituri essent, quod procinetum dicebatuc Accessit de

testandi civilibus.

§ 1. But, lest ancient usage should be forgotten, it is necessary to observe, that formerly there were two kinds of testaments; one practiced in times of peace, and named calatis comitiis; because made in a full assembly of the people; and the other, when the people were going forth

inde tertium genus testamentorum, quod dicebatur per as et libram, scilicet quod per emancipationem, id est, imaginariara quandam venditionenTagebatur, quinque testibus et tibripetidE", civibus Romanis puberibus, prssentibus, et eo, qui familiae emptor dicebatur. Sed ilia quictem priora duo genera testamentorum ex veteribus temporibus in desuetudinem abierunt: quod vero per ses et libram fiebat, licet diutius permanserit, attamen partim et hoc in usu esse desiit.

to battle, and this was the procinctum testamentum. A third species ■was afterwards added, called per «es et libram, being ejected by emancipation; which was an alienation, made by an imaginary sale in the presence of Jive witnesses, and the libripens or balance-holder, all citizens of Rome, above the age of fourteen: and also in the presence of him, who was called the emptor familiae, or purchaser. The two former kinds of testaments, have been disusedfof many ages; and that', which was made per aes et libram, although it continued longer in practice, hath now ceased in part to be observed.

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to praetoris, signacula testamentis imponerentur: namhocjustripcrtitum esse videatur: et testes quidem, eorumque praesentia, uno contextu, testament! celebrandi gratia, a jure civili descendant: subscriptiones antem testatoris et testium ex sacrarum constitutionctn observation adhibeantur: signacula autcm et testium nunu rus ex edicto prxtoris.

by the witnesses, in obedience to the constitutions. Thus the law of tes* tament seems to be tripartite: Jor the civil law requires witnesses to make a testament valid, who must all be present at the same time without interval; the sacred constitutions ordain, that every testament must be subscribed by the testator and the ■witnesses; and the praetorian edict requires sealing, and settles the number of witnesses.

Solemnitas addita a Justi.iiano. § IV. Sed his omnibus a nostra § 4. To all these solemnities,we eonstitutione propter tcstamento- have enacted in additional security of mm sinceritatem, ut nulla fraus ad- testaments, and for the prevention of hibeatur, hoc aditum est, ut, per frauds, that the name of the heir shall in aims testatoris vel testium, no- be expressed, by the hand-writing, men hseredis exprimatur, ct omnia cither of the testator, or of the witsecundum illius constitutionis te- nesses; and that every thing shall norem procedant. be done in conformity to the taior of

our constitution.

Dc annulis, qu'bus § V. Possunt autcm omnes testes ct uno annulo signare testamentum ; (quid enim si septem annuli tina sculptura fuerint?) secundum quod Papiniano visum est. Sed et alieno quoque annulo, licet signare testamentum.

testamenta signantur.

§ 5. Every witness to a testament, according to Fapinian, may use the same signet: for otherwise, what must be the consequence, if seven seals should happen all to bear the same device? It is also allowable to sealwiththe signet of another.

i VI. Testss possunt ii, cum qu^us_testamenti factioest. Sedneque mulier, neque jmpubes, 'neque servus, neque furiosus, neque mutus, neque surdus, neque is, cui bonis interdictum est, neque ii, quos leges ju

Qui testes esse possunt.

antem adhiberi §6. Those persons are good witnesses, who can legally take by testament: but no woman or minor under puberty, or slave; no person, rnaa\ mute, or deaf; no interdicted prodigal; nor any, whom the laws, have reprobated and rendered bites table, can

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