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locum habebat, quae Italicae fuerant, et alienationes inhibebat, quae invita muliere fiebant, hypothecas autem earum rerum etiam volente ea utrique re medium imposuimus, ut etiam in eas res, quae in provinciali solo posits sunt, interdicta sit alienatio vel obligatio, ut neutrum eorum neque consentientibus mulieribus procedat: ne sc.xus muliebris fragilitas, in perniciem substantias earum con vert at ur.

ted in Italy, and although it inhibits the husband to mortgage such pos~ sessions, even with the consent of his wife, yet it permits him, with her consent to alienate, we have provided a remedy for both cases; so that now, no husband can alien or mortgage, even with consent of his wife, any property provincial, or Italian, obtained with her, as a marriage portion; lest the frailty of women! should occasion the ruin, of their fortunes.

De creditore, qui, licet non sit dominus, tamen alienare pignus


§ I. Contra autem creditor pignus, ex pactione, quamvis ejus ea res non sit, alienare potest. Sed hoc forsitan ideo videtur fieri, quod voluntatc debitoris intelligitur pignus alienari, qui ab initio contractus pactus est, ut liceret creditcri pignus vendere, si pecuniaifon solvatur. Sed, ne creditores jus suum persequi impedirentur, neque debitores temere suarum rerum doji minium amittere viderentur, nostra constitutione consultum est, et certus modus impositus est, per quem, pignorum distractio possit procedere; cujus tenore utrique parti, creditorum et debitorum satis abundeque provisum est.

§ 1. But a creditor, may by compact alien a pledge, although not his ownproperty; yet this seems no otherwise allowable, than because the pledge is understood to be aliened bij consent oj the debtor, who covenanted at the commencement of the contract, that the creditor might sell the pledge, if the loan was not repaid. But, lest creditors should be impeded from prosecuting their just claims, and debtors too hastily deprived of their property, it is provided for in our ordinance, and a certain method appointed, by which the sale of pledges may be made: and, ample care hath been taken, in respect both of creditors and debtors.

De pupillo, qui, licet dominus, non tamen sine tutoris auctoritate

alienare potest.

§11. Nunc .jidmonendi sumus, §2. It must now be observed, that

neque pupillum, neque pupillam, ul- no pupil, male or female, can alien

lam rem sine tutoris auctoritate any thing without the authority of

alienare posse : ideoque, si mutu- a tutor: and therefore, if a pupil,


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Continuatio. § III. At ex contrario nmues $ 3. On the contrary, property

res pupillo et pupilhe sine tutoris auctoritaie recte dari possunt; id*> flque, si debitor pupillo solvat, necessaria est debitori tutoris auctoritas; alioqui non liberabiiur. Sed hoc etiam evidentissima rationc fitatutum est in constitutione, quam ad Gesarienses advocatos e$ Buggestione Tribonjani, viri eminentissimi, quae&tofis socri palatii nos*ri, promulgavimus: qua dispositum eat, ita Hcere tutori vel curatori dtbitorom pupillarem solvere, lit prius judicialis seotentia 6ine omni damno celehrata, hoc permittat: quo sabsecuto, si et judex pronunciavcrit, et debitor solvent, sequatur hujusmodi solucionem ple

tnay be transferred to pupils, male o r female, without the authority of their tutors: yet, if a debtor make pay' tnent to. a pupil, he should be warranted by the authority of the tutor, otherwise he will not be acquitted of the debt: and this, for an evident reason', was ordained by a eonstHution, which we promulgedta tMe advocates o/Xssarea, at the suggestion of that most eminent man Tri* banian, thequestor of our sacred pa» lace: whereby it is enacted, that the debtor of a minor may pay over the tutor or curator, under a judicial decree, permitting the payment previously obtained without expense to the minor: for, when the debt is

nissima seeuritas. Sin autem ali- paid wider the decree of a judge, it

ter quam disposuimus, solutio facta fuerit, pecuniam autem salvam Jiabeat pupillus, nut ex ea locuplelior sit, et adhuc eandem pecunia: sumniam petat, per exceptionem

is attended with the fullest security. But, although money hath been paid to a pupil, otherwise than we have ordained, yet, if he be really enriched by tlie payment, and hath pre

doli niali potent submoveri. Quod served the money, and shaidd after

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si.Baolt; consumpset it, aut furto aut wards require, that it should be revi amiserk, nihil proderit debitori paid, he might be barred by an uxdoli mali exceptio, sed nihilominiis ception of fraud. But, if the puondemnabitur: quia teraere sine pil hath squandered the money, or tutoeis auctoritate, et non secun- lost it by theft or violence, an exception nastram dispositionem, solve- lion of fraud will be of no benefit ta nk. Sed ex diverso, pupilli vel the debtor, who -will be compelled to pupiU» solvere sine tuCqris aucto- make a second payment; because the Mtate non possunt: quia idr quod first was made inconsiderately wit/tsolvunt, non fit aceipieatis-; cum out the authority of the tutor, and scilicet nulljuR rei alienatio eis sine not according to our ordinance

tutoris auctoritate esneessa ait.

Pupils may not pay money without the authority of their tutors; it doe» not vest as the property of the receiver : for without such authority, a pupil can alien nothing:


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C IV. T, 2T.

Summa. ACQUIRITUR vobis non so- Things may be acquired Hot only

lum per vosmetipsos, sed etiam per by ourselves, but also by those, who

eos, quos inpotestate habetis: are under our power ; also by slaves,

item per servos, in quibus usum- of whom we have the usufruct; by

fructum habetis: item per homines free-men ; and by the slaves of others

iibcros, et per servos alienos, qiu>3 whom we possess bona fide- Let

bona fide possidetis: de quibus us diligently investigate each of

singulis diligentius dispiciamus. these cases.

De libciis in potcstate. , a

$ I. Igiturliberivestriutriusque § 1. Anciently whatever came ta sexus, quos in potestate habetis, children, male or f-male, under paw-rtim quidem nuicquid ad eos per- cr of their parents, was acquired

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venerat, (exceptis videlicet castrensibus peculiis,) hoc parentibus suis acquirebant sine ulla distinctione: et hoc ita parentum fiebat, ut etiam esset iis licentia quod per unum vel unam eorum acquisitum esset, alii filio, vel extraneo donare, vel vendere, vel, quocumque modo voluerant, applicare: quod nobi's inhumanum visum est: et generali constitutione emissa, et liberis pepercimus, et parentibus honorem debitum reservavimus: sancitum etenim a nobis est, ut, si quid ex re patris ei obveniat, hoc secundum antiquam observationem totum parenti acquiratur: Qua» enim invidia est, quod ex patris occasione profectum est, hoc ad eum reverti? Quod autem ex alia causa sibi filiusfamilias acquisivit, hujus usumfructum patri quidem acquirat, dominium autem apud eum remaneat: ne, quodei suis laboribus vel prosperi fortuna accesserit, hoc, in alium perveniens, luctuosum ei procqdat.

for the parents without any distinction, if we except the peculium castrense : and this so absolutely, that what was acquired by one child, the parent might have given to another, or to a stranger > or sold it, or applied it in what manner he thought proper: this seemed to be inhuman; and we have therefore, by a general constitution, mitigated the law as it respects children, and at the same time, supported that honour, which is due to parents; having ordained, that, if any thing accrue to the son by means of the father's fortune, the whole shall be acquired for the father, according to ancient practice: (for can it be unjust, that the wealth, which the son hath obtained, by means of the father, should revert to the father f) but that the acquisitions of the son by any other means, shall remain in the son; and that the father shall be entitled only to the usufruct of such acquisition ,• lest that, jtthich hath accrued to a man from his labour or goodfortune, being transferred to another, should affect him as a hardship. ■. > . .

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ua parte defraudaretur; et, quod honoris ei ex emancipatione additum erat, quod sui juris effectus esset, hoc per rerum diminutionem decresceret. Ideoque statuimus, u£ parens pro tenia parte dominii, quam retinere poterat, dimidistn non dominii rerum, sed ususfructus, retineat. Ita etenim res intactae apud filium remanebunt, et pater ampliore summa fruetur, pro tertia, dimidii potiturus.

his property, and that the honour, which he had obtained by becoming independent, should be decreased by the diminution of his estate: we have therefore decreed, that the parent instead of the third part of the property, which he formerly might have retained, shall now be entitled to an half-share, not of the property, but of the usufruct,- so that the property will remain rntire to the son, and the father will enjoy a greater share; namely, half instead of a third part.

De servis nostris.

§ III. Item vobis acquiritur, quod servi vestri ex traditione nanciscuntur, sive quid stipulentur, sive ex donatione, vel ex legato, vel ex qualibet alia causa, acquirant. Hoc enim vobis et ignoranti bus et invitis obvenit; ipse enim servus, qui in po^ testate alterius est, nihil suum habere potest. Sed, si haeres institutes sit, non alias, nisi vestro jussu, haereditatem adire potest, et, si vobis jubentibus adierit, vobis hareditas acquiritur, perinde ac si vos ipsi hxredes instituti essetis: et convenienter scilicet vobis legatum per eos acquiritur. Non solum autem proprietas per eos, quos in .potestate habetis, vobis acquiritur, sed etiam possessio: cujuscunque enim rei possessionem adepti fuerint, id vos possidere videmini. Unde etiam per cos usucapio, vel longi temporis possessio, vobis accidit,

$ 3. Whatever your slaves have at any time acquired, whether by delivery, stipulation, donation, bequest, or any other means, is acquired by you; although you may be ignorant of, or evejj, averse to, the acquisition; for he, who is a slave, can have no I property. And, if a slave be made heir, he cannot otherwise take upon himself the inheritance, than at the command of his master; but, if commanded so to do, the inheritance is as fully acquired by the master, as if he had been himself made heir; and consequently a legacy, left to a slave, is acquired by his master. Moreover, masters acquire by their slaves not only the property of things, but also the possession ; for whatever is possessed by a slave, is deemed to be possessed by his master; who may found a prescription to it, by means of his slave.

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