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The laws published by Justinian were still successful in the west; where, even in the life-time of the emperor, they were not received universally; and, after the Lombard invasion, they became so totally neglected, that both the code and the pandects were lost, till the 12th century; when it is said, that the pandects wore accidentally recovered at Amalphi, and the code at Ravenna. But, as if fortune would make an atonement for her former severity, they have since been the study of the wisest men, and revered, as law, by the politest nations.

was put to the eastern empire in the year of Christ, 1453.

After the Lombard invasion.] The Laniards entered Italy under Alboinut about the year of Christ 568, in the reign of Justin the second, successor to Justinian.

. At Amalphi.'] " Eo tempore (anno Dom. 1130) " injustis perturbatisque comi iis, la"cerarat ecclesiam falsus poutifex Petrus "Leonis, Anacletut secundus nuncvipatus ab "sua factione; cuj us dux erat Rogerius A pu"lis ac Sicilix comes, Regis nomine a fal*' so pontincc donatus. Adversus Anade"turn creatus rite ac solenniter fuerat la"noccntius secundus, cui favebat imperator «' Lotharius Saxo, summit virtute atque pru"dentia princeps; quo bellum gerente ad"versus Rogerium, Amalphi, urbe Salerno "proxima, (quam perperam aliqui locant "in Apulia, Melpliiam cum Amalphi confun"denies,) inopinato reperti fuerunt digesto"' rum libri; quos 1'isani, qui classe Lotha"rium contra Rogerium adjuverant, prae"mio bene navatx operx sibi exorarunt. "Pisis vero post lungam obsidionem a Co

"pernio mi litis duce strenuo expugnatis, "translati fuere Florentiam; ubi, pro Au"gusta Medicex domus magnificentia, in "museo m:igni ducis conservantur. Hinc "promiscua Pisanarura et Florentinarum "apud scriptores pandectarum appellatio. "Iisdem temporihus repertum Ravennie fuit "constitutionum imperialium volumen, "quod codex appellatui'; indeque cxteros li"bros juris, imo et digestorum aliudexem. "plar in lucem aliqui rediisse putant: nee "minim, cum ea urbs longo tempore Ro'■' manis legibus vixerit, et orientali Roma"norum imperio diu obtemperavit. No"vellae vero constitutiones etiam antea per '' Italiam vagabantur; utque mea fert opi'' nio, multi juris civilis libri, postquam in"cessit homines cupido recipiendi Romani "juris, agniti potius fuere, quam reperti: "nam, et aliquot ante Lotharium. annis,jus ''civile Justiniani cominemoravit Ivo Car"notensis, et libros pandectarum; cum an"tea, si occurrerent, forsan socordia etob"livione prxtermitterentur." vid. Gravuue orig. jur. civ. lib. 1. cap. 140. et Hem. hitt.jur. civ. lib. 1. $ 412.

De . . ;.

Confirmatione Institutionum.

* t ., * ■ ■•

a

IN NOMINE DOMINI NOSTRI JESU CHRIST!

Imperator, CiCSAR FLAVIUS JUSTINIANUS, Alemam:co8, Goti

THicua, Fr Ancicus, Gkrm Amcus, Anticus, Alanicus, V And A Li

cus, Africanus, Pius, Felix, Inclytus, Victor Ac Triumph»

ATOR, SEMPER AUGUSTUS—-CUPID* LEGUM JUVENTUTI S.

De usu armorum et legiim.

IMPERATORIAM majesta- The imperial dignity should not tern non solum armis decoratam, - only be supported by arm», but guardted etiam legibus oportet esse arm- ed by laws, that the people may be atam;, ut utrumque tempus et bel- properly governed in time of peace lorum et pacis recti possit guber- as well as war; jbr a Roman empe* nari: et princeps Romanus non so- ror ought not tidy to be victorious lum in hostilibus pradiis victor exis- in the hostile field, but should take tat, sed etiam per legitimos tramites every legal course to expel the iiii* calumniantium iniquitates expellat: qu'ities of men regardless of lawg et fiat tam juris riligiosissimus, and become equally renowned for quam, victis hostibus, triumphator a religious observance of justice, as magnificus. for warlike triumphs.

De bellis et legibus Jusfiniani.

$1. Quorum utramque viam cum § 1. By our incessant labor», and

Bummis vigiliis, summaque provi- the assistance of divine providence^

dentii, annuente Deo, perfecimus: we have pursued this double path t

et bellicos quidem sudores nostro9 the Barbarian nations have acinow

barbaricae gentes, 'sub juga nostra ledged our prowess and submitted ta

redact», cognoscunt: et tam Afri- our yoke; even Africa and many

ca, quam ali<e innumene provincise, other provinces, after so long an in*

post tanta temporum spatia, nostris terval, are again added to the Roman

victoriis a ccelesti numine preestitis, empire: and yet this vast people art

iterum ditioni Roman*, nostroque governea by laws, either originally

additas imperio, protestantur. Om- enacted, or promulgated anew, under

nes vero populi legibus tam a nobis our authority. 'promulgates, quam compositis, reguntur.

>*"'-'' •■■' •■ . . '....-"

Dc compositione Codicis et Pandectarum.

§ II. Et cum sacratissimas con«titutiones, antca confusas, in luculentam ereximus consonantiam, tunc nostram extendimus curam ad immensa veteris prudentiae volumina; et opus desperatum, quasi per medium profundum euntes, ccelesti favore jam adimplevimus.

§ 2. When we had arranged and brought into lucid harmony the hitherto confused mass of imperial constitutions, we then extended our care to the numerous volumes of ancient law; and have now completed* through the favour of heaven {wading as it were through a vast ocean) a work that might have been despaired of.

De tempore, auctoritatibus, fine et Militate compositionis
Institutionum.

§ III. Cumque hoc, Deo propi

tio, peracturo est, Triboniano, viro

niagnifico, magistro, et exqusestore

sacri palatii nostri, et exconsule,

. nee non Theophilo et Dorothco, vi

§ 3. So soon as by the blessing of God this was accomplished, we summoned Tribonian, our former chancellor, with Theopilusern</Dorotheus, men of known learning and tried

ris illustribusjantecessoribus, (quo- fidelity, whom we enjoined by our rum omnium solertiani, et legum authority to compose the following

ecientiam, et circa nostras jussiones fidem, jam ex multis rerum argumentis accepimus,) convocatis,mandavimus spccialiter, ut ipsi nostra

Institutes, that the rudiments of'law might be more effectually learned, by the sole means of our imperial authority; and that your minds for the

auctoritate, nostrisque suasionibus, future should not be burdened with Institutiones componerent; ut liceat obsolete and unprofitable doctrines,

vobis prima legum cunabula non ab antiquis fabulis discere, sed ab imperial! splendore appetere: et tam aures, quant animi vestri, nihil inutile, nihilque perperam positum, sed quod in ipsis rerum obtinet arguments, accipiant: et quod priore tempore vix post quadriennium priOribus contingebat, ut tunc consti

but instructed in those laws only, which are allowed of and practiced .and, whereas Students formerly could scarcely sit doivn to the imperial constitutions under four years previous study, they may now, {having been thought worthy of our princely care, to which they are indebted for the beginning and end of their legal

DE CONFIRMATIONS INST1TUTIONUM.

erudition J apply thems$lves immedi* atehj to that course of reading.

uitiones imperatorias legerent, hoc
Tos a primordio ingrediamini, digni
tanto honore, tantaque reperti feli-
citate, ut et initium vobis, et finis
legum eruditionis, a voce principal! *
proccdut.

Diviso Institutionum. $ IV. Igiturpostlibrosquinqua- §4. When therefore, by the assis

ginta Digestorum, seu Pandectarum, (in quibus omne jus antiquum collectum est, quod per eundem virum excelsum Tribonianum, nee non carteros viros illustres et facundissimos, confecimus,) in quatuor libros easdem Institutiones partiri jussimus, ut sint totius legitime scientix prima elementa.

tance o/"Tribonian and other iUuatrU ous persons, we had compiled the fifty books, called Digests or Pandects, we directed that the Institutes should be divided into four books, which serve as elements of the science of law.

Quid in Institutionibus contineatur.

§ V. In quibus breviter expositum est, et quod an tea obtinebat, et quod postea, desuetudine inumbratura, imperiali remedio illuminatum est.

§ 5. Wherein are briefly setfortfr the laws formerly in use, and those also, which having been overshoe dowedby disuse, are now brought tp light by our princely care.

Ex quibus libris compositse sunt Institutiones, atque earura
recognitio, et confirmatio.

$ VI. Quas, ex omnibus antiquorum Institutionibus, et praecipue ex commentariis Caii nostri, tarn institutionum, quam rerum quotidianarum, aliisque multis commentariis compositas, cum tres viri prudentes prsedicti nobis obtulerunt, et legimus, et recognovimus, et plenissimum nostrarum constitutionum robur cis accommodavimus.

§ 6. The four books of Institutes thus compiled by Tribonian, Theo» philus,anrfDorotheus,yrom all the institutions of the ancient law, but chiefly from the commentaries, institutions, and other writings of Caius, being presented to us, we read and diligently examined their contents; and, in testimony of our approbation^ we have now given them our fullest constitutional authority.

Adhortatio ad studium "tk

§ VII. Sumtna itaque ope, et alacri studio, has leges nostras accipite: et vosmetipsos sic eruditos ostendite, ut spes vos pulcherrima foveat, toto legitimo open- perfecto, posse etiam nostram rempublicam, in partibus ejus vobis credendis, gubernari.

$ 7. Receive therefore andstudy these our laws with diligence and alacrity; and show yourselves so competent therein, that when your studies shall be finished, you may entertain a cheering hope of having apart of the government committed to your

charge. D.CP. XL Kalend. Decemb. D. Jubtiniano PP. A. III. COS.

Given at Constantinople on the eleventh day before the calends of December, in the third consulate of the Emperor Justinian, always august. (21st Nov. 533.)

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