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equal to 1 dollar. 5+7=12 ; read 5 and 7 added together are 12.

Questions. 8+3=how many

?
6+8=how many ? 8+12=how many

? 7+6=how many 31-6=how many 5+12=how many 9+4=how many

4+7=how many ? 11+10=how many 5+6=how many ? 5+8=how many

2+1l=how many ? 7+2=how many

? 6+5=how many 4+ll=how many 11+7=how many 9+9=how many

6+ 7=how many 12+6=how many ? 6+7=how many ? 10+ 7=how many 10+9=how many ? 9+6=how many ? 4+1)=how many ?

SUBTRACTION TABLE.

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2 from 2 leave o 2 from 3 leave 1 2 from 4 leave 2 2 from 5 leave 3 2 from 6 leave 4 2 from 7 leave 5 2 from 8 leave 6 2 from 9 leave 7 2 from 10 leave 8 2 from ll leave 9 5 from 5 leave 0 5 from 6 leave 1 5 from 7 leave 2 5 from 8 leave 3 5 from 9 leave 4 5 from 10 leave 5 5 from ll leave 6 5 from 12 leave 7 5 from 13 leave 8 5 from 14 leave 9 8 from 8 leave 0 8 from 9 leave 1 8 from 10 leave 2 8 from 11 leave 3 8 from 12 leave 4 8 from 13 leave 5 8 from 14 leave 6 8 from 15 leave 7 8 from 16 leave 8 8 from 17 leave 9

3 from 3 leave 0
3 from 4 leave 1
3 from 5 leave 2
3 from 6 leave 3
3 from 7 leave 4
3 from 8 leave 5
3 from 9 leave 6
3 from 10 leave 7
3 from 11 leave 8
3 from 12 leave 9
6 from 6 leave 0
6 from 7 leave 1
6 from 8 leave 2
6 from 9 leave 3
6 from 10 leave 4
6 from 11 leave 5
6 from 12 leave 6
6 from 13 leave 7
6 from 14 leave 8
6 from 15 leave 9
9 from 9 leave 0
9 from 10 leave i
9 from 11 leave 2
9 from 12 leave 3
9 from 13 leave 4
9 from 14 leave 5
9 from 15 leave 6
9 from 16 leave 7
9 from 17 leave 8
9 from 18 leave 9

4 from 4 leave 0 4 from 5 leave 1 4 from 6 leave 2 4 from 7 leave 3 4 from 8 leave 4 4 from 9 leave 5 4 from 10 leave 6 4 from 11 leave 7 4 from 12 leave 8 4 from 13 leave 9 7 from 7 leave o 7 from 8 leave 1 7 from 9 leave 2 7 from 10 leave 3 7 from 11 leave 4 7 from 12 leave 5 7 from 13 leave 6 ng from 14 leave in 7 froin 15 leave 8 7 from 16 leave 9 10 from 10 leave 0 10 from 11 leave 1 10 from 12 leave 2 10 from 13 leave 3 10 from 14 leave 4 10 from 15 leave 5 10 from 16 leave 6 10 from 17 leave 7 10 from 18 leave 8 10 from 19 leave 9

Sign. A short horizontal line -, is the sign of subtraction ; it is.usually read minus, which is a Latin word signifying less. It shows that the number after it is to be taken from the number before it ; thus, 6-2=4, read 6 less 2 is equal to 4, or 2 subtracted from 6 leaves 4.

1 are

30

8 times 6 are so I

Questions. 6-2=how many ? 10--T=how many ?

18–9=how many ? 7-4-how many ? 13— 8=how many ?

16–7=how many ? 9-5=how many ? 15- 9=how many ?

11-5=how many ? 9-6=how many ? 11– 6=how many ?

9–4=how many 5—3=how many

?
13- 9=how many

7—3=how many 8–4=how many ?

15-10=how many ? 12–5=how many ?

MULTIPLICATION 'TABLE.
2 times
2 3 times

1 are
3
4 times l are

4 2 times 2 are 4 3 times 2 are 6

4 times 2 are 8 2 times 3 are

3 times 3 are 9 4 times 3 are 12 2 times 4 are

8
3 times 4 are

12 4 times 4 are 16 2 times 5 are 10 3 times 5 are

15 4 times 5 are 20 2 times 6 are 12 3 times 6 are 18 4 times 6 are 24 2 times 7 are 14 3 times 7 are 21 4 times 7 are 28 2 times 8 are 16 3 times 8 are 24

4 times 8 are 32 2 times 9 are 18 3 times 9 are

27 4 times 9 are 36 2 times 10 are 20 3 times 10 are

4 times 10 are 40 2 times ll are 22 3 times ll are

33 4 times ll are 44 2 times 12 are 24 3 times 12 are 36 4 times 12 are 48 5 times l are 5 6 times 1 are

6 7 times I are 7 5 times 2 are 10 6 times 2 are 12 7 times 2 are 14 5 times 3 are 15 6 times 3 are 18 7 times 3 are 21 5 times 4 are 20 6 times 4 are 24 7 times 4 are 28 5 times 5 are 25 6 times

5 are

30 7 times 5 are 35 5 times 6 are 30 6 times

6 are
36

times 6 are 42 5 times 7 are 35 6 times my are 42 7 times 7 are 49 5 times 8 are 40 6 times

48 7 times 8 are 56 5 times 9 are 45 6 times 9 are 54 7 times 9 are 63 5 times 10 are 50 6 times 10 are 60 7 times 10 are 70 5 times ll are 55 6 times 11 are 66 ng times ]l are 77 5 times 12 are 60

6 times 12 are

72 7 times 12 are 84 8 times 8 9 times

1 are
9 10 times

10 8 times 2 are 16

9 times 2 are

18 10 times 2 are 20 8 times 3 are 24 9 times 3 are

27
10 times 3 are

30 8 times 4 are 32 9 times 4 are 36

10 times 4 are

40 9 times 5 are 45 10 times

5 are

50 9 times 6 are 54 10 times

6 are

60 8 times 7 are 56 9 times 7 are

10 times

70 8 times 8 are 64 9 times 8 are

72 10 times 8 are 80 8 times 9 are 72 9 times 9 are 81 10 times 9 are 8 times 10 are 80 9 times 10 are 90 10 times 10 are 100 8 times ll are 88 9 times II are

99 10 times ll are 110 8 times 12 are 96 9 times 12 are 108 10 times 12 are 120 11 times I are 11 11 times 9 are 99 12 times

5 are

60 11 times 2 are 22 11 times 10 are 110 12 times 6 are

72 11 times 3 are 33 11 times ll are 121 12 times 7 are 84 11 times 4 are 44 11 times 12 are 132 12 times

96 11 times 5 are 55 12 times

I are

12 times 9 are 108 11 times 6 are 66 12 times 2 are 24

12 times 10 are 120 11 times 7 are 77 12 times 3 are

36

12 times ll are 132 11 times 8 are 88 12 times

4 are 48

12 times 12 are 144

8 are

1 are

1 are

63

7 are

90

8 are

12

Sign. Two short lines crossing each other in the form of the letter X, are the sign of multiplication ; thus, 4x3=12, signifies that 4 multiplied by 3 is equal to 12.

Questions. 8x2=how many ? 2x 8=how many ? 10x 8=how many ? 7x3=how many ?

8x 6=how many

? 12x 9=how many ? 5X4=how many

?
5x 3=how many

12 X 7=how many 6x5=how many ? 4X 7=how many

11x 6=how many ? 9x6=how many ? 8x 6=how many ? 10x 6=how many ? 5x3=how many

? 9x 3=how many 12x1l=how many ? 4x6=how many ? 7x10=how many ? 12x12=how many ?

?

?

DIVISION TABLE:

2 in 2, 1 time 3 in 3, 1 time 4 in 4, 1 time 5 in 5, i time 2 in 4; 2 times 3 in 6, 2 times 4 in 8, 2 times 5 in 10, 2 times 2 in 6; 3 times 3 in 9, 3 times 4 in 12, 3 times 5 in 15, 3 times 2 in 8, 4 times 3 in 12, 4 times 4 in 16, 4 times 5 in 20, 4 times 2 in 10, 5 times 3 in 15, 5 times 4 in 20, 5 times 5 in 25, 5 times 2 in 12, 6 times 3 in 18, 6 times 4 in 24, 6 times 5 in 30, 6 times 2 in 14, 7 times 3 in 21, 7 times 4 in 28, 7 times 5 in 35, 7 times 2 in 16, 8 times 3 in 24, 8 times 4 in 32, 8 times 5 in 40, 8 times 2 in 18, times! 3 in 27, 9 times! 4 in 36, 9 times 5 in 45, 9 times 6 in 6, 1 time 7 in 7, 1 time 8 in 8, 1 time 9 in 9, 1 time 6 in 12, 2 times 7 in 14, 2 times 8 in 16, 2 times 9 in 18, 2 times 6 in 18, 3 times 7 in 21, 3 times 8 in 24, 3 times 9 in 27, 3 times 6 in 24, 4 times 7 in 28, 4 times 8 in 32, 4 times 9 in 36, 4 times 6 in 30, 5 times 7 in 35, 5 times 8 in 40, 5 times 9 in 45, 5 times 6 in 36, 6 times 7 in 42, 6 times 8 in 48, 6 times 9 in 54, 6 times 6 in 42, 7 times 7 in 49, 7 times 8 in 56, 7 times 9 in 63, 7 times 6 in 48, 8 times 7 in 56, 8 times 8 in 64, 8 times 9 in 72, 8 times 6 in 54, 9 times 7 in 63, 9 times! 3 in 72, 9 times 9 in 81, 9 times 10 in 10, 1 time 11 in 11, 1 time 12 in 12, 1 time 10 in 20, 2 times 11 in 22, 2 times 12 in 24, 2 times 10 in 30, 3 times 11 in 33, 3 times 12 in 36, 3 times 10 in 40, 4 times 11 in 44, 4 times 12 in 48, 4 times 10 in 50, 5 times 11 in 55, 5 times 12 in 60, 5 times 10 in 60, 6 times 11 in 66, 6 times 12 in 72, 6 timés 10 in 70, 7 times 11 in 77, 7 times 12 in 84, 7 times 10 in 80, 8 times 11 in 88, 8 times 12 in 96, 8 times 10 in 90, 9 times 11 in 99, 9 times 12 in 108, 9 times

Signs. A horizontal line with a dot above and below it, • , is the sign of division. It shows that the number before it is to be divided by the number after it ; thus, 12--4=3 signifies that 12 divided by 4 is equal to 3. Al60, thedivis or placed under the dividend with a line be

12

is the sign of division.

tween,

49 =how

?

7

Questions. 4+2=how many ? 77:11=how many ?

many

1 9:3=how many ? 35; 7=how many 8:7=how many 66; 8=how many

54 =how many? 42:-6=how many

84:-12=how many 54:-9=how many ? 99:11=how many

72=how many ? 63:9=how many

81= 9=how many ? 32:-8=how many ? 108+12=how many ?

36 =how many ? Note. The scholar should perfectly understand the signs,

6

8

?

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Troy Weight. By Troy weight are weighed Gold, Silver, Jewels, and all liquors. 24 grains (grs.) make 1 pennyweight, marked pwt.

make 1 ounce, 12 ounces make 1 pound,

Ib.

20 pwts.

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Apothecaries Weight. Apothecaries weight is used in compounding medicines, but not in selling them. 20 grains (grs.) make 1 scruple,

marked
3 scruples make 1 dram,

3
8 drams
make 1 ounce,

Z 12 ounces make 1 pound,

Ib. Avoirdupoise Weight. Avoirdupoise weight is the common weight, used in weighing all coarse and drossy goods, grocery-wares, and all metals except gold and silver.

* The fineness of Gold is tried by fire, and is reckoned in carats, by which is understood the 24th part of any quantity. If it lose nothing in the trial, it is call. ed 24 carats fine : if it lose 2 carats, it is called 22 carats fine, which is the stand ard of gold coin.

Silver which loses nothing in trial, is accounted 12 ounces fine. The standard for silver coin is 11 oz. 2 pwts. of fine silver and 18 pwts. of copper melted to. gether

66

66

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66

16 E.F.

16 drams (dr.) make 1 ounce,

marked oz. 16 ounces make 1 pound

lb. 28 pounds make 1 quarter of a hund. weight, qr.

4 quarters make 1 hundred weight, marked cwt. 20 cwt. make 1 Ton,

T. Note. By this Table it will be perceived that a hundred weight is 112 pounds ; but in many places, especially in seaports, traders buy and sell by the 100 lbs. which is also established by law in several states.

Cloth Measure. Cloth measure is used in measuring all kinds of cloth, laçe, &c. 24 inches (in.) make 1 nail,

marked na. 4 nails make 1 quarter of a yard,

qr. 4 quarters make 1 yard,

yd. 3 quarters make 1 Ell Flemish,

16 E.Fi. 5 quarters make 1 Ell English,

66 E.E. 6 quarters

make 1 El French,

Dry Measure. Dry measure is used in measuring grain, salt, fruit, coal, roots, seeds, oysters, &c.

2 pints (pt.) make 1 quart,
8 quarts
make 1 peck,

pk. 4 pecks make 1 bushel,

bu. Note. A gallon, dry measure, contains 2684 cubic inches ; a bushel contains 2150 cubic inches.

Wine Measure. Wine measure is used in measuring all spirituous liquors, molasses, vinegar, oil, &c. 231 cubic inches make a gallon. 4 gills (gi.) make 1 pint,

marked pt. 2 pints

make 1 quart, 4 quarts make 1 gallon,

gal. 31} gallons make 1 barrel,

bl. 42 gallons make 1 tierce,

tier. 63 gallons make 1 hogshead,

hhd.

P. 2 hogsheads make 1 pipe, 2 pipes make 1 ton,

T.

marked qt.

qt.

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