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The white bear seems the only animal, that by being placed in the coldest chimate, grows larger than those that live in the temperate zones.* All other species of animated nature diminish as they approach the poles, and seem contracted in their size by the rigours of the ambient atmosphere, but the bear, being unmolested in these desolate climates, and meeting no animal but what he can easily conquer, finding also a sufficient supply of fishy provisions, he grows to an enormous size; and as the lion is the tyrant of an African forest, so the bear remains undisputed master of the icy mountains in
(The Polar Bear.)
Polar Bear.-In the arctic regions consequently was the only one admitted into where the vegetable kingdom is feebly repre- his catalogue of species. sented by lichens and mosses, but where, on This species ranks among the larger prothe contrary, the ocean teems with myriads ductions of the animated creation; but it of small mollusca, and at the same time ex- must be observed that in the accounts of the hibits animal life under its bulkiest forms,- okler navigators its size has been greatly exhere the polar bear is found laying wait for aggerated. Those seen by the naturalists and combating the walrus and the seal ; pur- who accompanied Captain Parry in the northsuing and overtaking in its own element the eru expeditions, did not in general exceed swift salmon; employing stratagem to sur- seven or eight feet in length. Captain Lyon prise the smaller quadrupeds and birds which has given the dimensions of one which was in summer-time visit the higher latitudes; considered to be unusually large, being 8 feet less delicate also in his appetites than the 772 inches long, and weighing 1,600 lbs. A inore strictly carnivorous quadrupeds, this spe- female which was attended by two cubs, was cies does not disdain to feast on the stranded killed on the 31st of August, 1822, and was so carcass of the whale; and being of a slothful small that two or three men were able to lift disposition, he prefers this more easy and more her into a boat; yet she must have attained abundant sustenance to that which demands the period at which she was capable of propafrom him more active predatory exertions. gating her kind un or before the autumn of
In the tropical regions, on the contrary, the preceding year. where vegetation is exhibited under the most In its choice of habitation the polar bear luxuriant forms and in the greatest profusion, differs most from the rest of the species. In. the bears live almost exclusively on vegetable stead of seeking concealment in the depths matter; and it is interesting to observe that of forests, it prefers the floating iceberg and these species are the smallest of the genus, the open sta, its powers of swimming pecuand are consequently best fitted for climbing; liarly adapting it to that sphere of existence. whilst the bears inhabiting the wilds of Sibe. It rarely frequents the coasts of the Frozen ria, the Rocky Mountains of North America, Ocean, and does not descend to the eastern and the arctic icebergs, attain that superior boundary of Siberia, nor to Kamtschatka : and size and strength which enable them to exe- although it is met with on the north coast of cute the acts of destruction necessary for America and in Hudson's Bay, it does not their own support and existence.
inhabit the islands between America and Besides differences in size and colour, Siberia. They resort to Spitzbergen in great there are few characteristics by which the numbers, and sometimes are transported on species can be distinguished from each other; the ice to the coasts of Iceland and Norway; and these marks of distinction are by no but the inhabitants of these places destroy means prominent or easily perceived. Lin. them as soon as they are detected. The part næus, who had never had an opportunity of of Siberia where they are found to be most exainining the polar bear, doubted even its numerous is at the mouths of the rivers Lena specific diffurence from the brown bear, which and Janissea.
Spitzbergen and Greenland. When our mariners land upon those ehores, in such parts as have not been frequented before, the white bears come down to view them with an awkward curiosity; they approach slowly, seeming undetermined whether to advance or retreat, and being naturally a timorous animal, they are only urged on by the conscious experience of their former victories ; however, when they are shot at, or wounded, they endeavour to fly, or finding that impracticable, they make a fierce and desperate resistance till they die. As they live upon fish and seals, their flesh is too strong for food, and the captors have nothing but the skin, to reward them for the dangers incurred in the engagement.
The number of these animals that are found about the north pole, if we consider the scarcity thereof, of all other terrestrial creatures, is very amazing. They are not only seen at land, but often on ice-floats several leagues at sea. They are often transported in this manner to the very shores of Iceland, where they no sooner land but all the natives are in arms to receive them. It often happens, that when a Greenlander and his wife are paddling out at sea, by coming too near an ice-float, a white bear unexpectedly jumps into their boat, and if he does not overset it, sits calmly where he first came down, and like a passenger suffers himself to be rowed along. It is probable the poor little Greenlander is not very fond of his new guest, however he makes a virtue of necessity, and hospitably rows him to shore.
As this animal lives chiefly upon fish, seals, and dead whales, it seldom removes far from the shore. When forced by hunger, it often ventures into the deep, swims after seals, and devours whatever it can seize; it is however but a bad swimmer, and it is often hunted in this manner by boats, till it is fatigued, and at last destroyed. It often happens that a batile ensues between a bear and a morse or a whale; as the latter are more expert in their own element, they generally prove victorious. However, when the bear can find a youu. Yale, it repays bim for the danger he incurs of meeting with the parent
The females go with young six or seven active in climbing; frequently when not months, and are supposed to bring forth in more than a month old, a cub will ascend to the month of March. The number of their the shoulders of his keeper with great ease, young is generally two, which follow their and descend again stern foremost with equal dam everywhere, subsisting on her milk until adroitness. They are of a most sanguinary the winter that succeeds their birth. It is disposition, and will chew and suck at a limb said that the mother carries them on her till it be a perfect pulp. They do not bite back when she swims from iceberg to ice- away the flesh like most beasts of prey, but berg. Nothing precisely is kvowu of the prefer extracting the blood and juices by suclongevity of the polar bear. It is hunted tion. While stationed at Dacca, I went with principally for its hide and fur, which from a party several times to the great house at the soitness of its texture is more esteemed Tergong, distant about five miles from the than that of the brown bear.-ZOOLOGICAL town. I had on several occasions seen bears MAGAZINE
among the wild mango tops, and did not con* BEAR IN INDIA.--Many persons have sider them as being so dangerous, until one disputed the existence of the bear in India. day as I was returning with a friend from Facts, however, impose a silence on all at. hunting some hog.deer, we heard a most tempts at reasoning on this point, as to its lamentable outcry in the cover through which heavy coat of hair, and the heat of the coun- we had to pass. Having our spears, and try; for to the great annoyance of the villa- being provided with guns, we alighted, not gers, bears not only exist in India. but do doubting but a leopard had attacked some much mischief to the crops, and occasionally poor woodcutter. We met a woman whose devour many of the inhabitants.
fears had deprived her of speech, and whose The Bengal bear is distinguished by the senses were just Aitting. She, however, col. deep black colour of his hair, and by a cres. lected herself sufficiently to pronounce the cent of white hair like a gorget on his breast. word bauloo, which signifies a bear. She led The hind legs are shorter, and the paws flat- us with caution to a spot vot more than fifty ter and longer than those of European breed; yards distant, where we found her husband his pace is more shuffling, awkward, and extended on the ground, his hands and feet laboured, though quick enough to overtake a as I before observed, sucked and chewed into inan on foot; and his hair is long, and thinly a perfect pulp, the teguments of the limbs in scattered over his body. He is remarkably general drawn from under the skin, and the skull mostly laid bare, the skin of it hanging Fortunately the gentleman succeeded, and down in long strips, obviously effected by after receiving many desperate wounds, throttheir talons. What was most singular, was, tled the bear. When the contest was over that the unhappy man retained his senses the bearers returned, and after overwhelming sufficiently to describe that he had been at their master with compliments, bore him on tacked by several bears - the woman said his journey. On their arrival at the next stage, seven-one of which embraced him while the the bearers were all taken into custody; and others clawed him about the head, and bit at the magistrate, according to the laudable cus. his arms and legs, seemingly in competition tom prevalent in India, where offences are for the booty. We conveyed the wretched punished without very nicely examining the object to the house, where, in a few hours, exact spot and hour of perpetration, bestowed death relieved him from a state in which no on each of the critics a hearty chastisement human being could afford the smallest assis- in the market-place; while the applauding tance. These merciless brutes dash from the crowd of spectators did not fail, at each turn covers, both single and in numbers, to attack of the instrument, to repeat “ Sawbash sa. passengers. As to escaping into trees, that heb!” and when pain induced the culprits to would be poor evasion; for the bear climbs writhe, in hopes to evade the whip, others with astonishing ease. Among the many would ironically exclaim, " Sawbash bauloo !” anecdotes related of this animal, the follow. -ORIENTAL FIELD SPORTS. ing, which I believe to be true, is perhaps as Ring Bears. -- Bears have occasionally whimsical as any that could be adduced. white rings round their necks. At this very
A gentleman, who was proceeding post to time, indeed, I have two of these animals in Mednapore, found his palankeen suddenly my possession, whose mother I shot in the put down, or rather dropped, without much Scandinavian forests. They are male and ceremony or regard to its contents, by the female: the female has that peculiar markbearers, who as abruptly took to their heels in the male, however, is without it: this contra. various directions. On putting his head out dicts the commonly received opinion that the to ascertain the cause of so unpleasant a cir- ring is confined to the male bears. On this cumstance, the gentleman discovered a half- subject, Mr. Nilsson, who has recently pube grown bear smelling about the machine. lished a work on Scandinavian Zoology, obBruin no sooner saw the traveller than he serves, that “ bears usually lose the ring after boldly entered at one side ; and, as the palan. the second or third year; some few, however, keen was of the old fashion, with a highly preserve it all their lives, and these are called arched bamboo, he could not be opposed. ring-bears.-Lloyd's Field SPORTS. The gentleman thought it necessary to relin- SCANDINAVIAN Bears.—Many naturalists quish his situation in favour of his shaggy assert that the Scandinavian bear does not visiter ; who, with as little ceremony as he subsist upon flesh. For years bears reside in had entered, passed through, following the the neighbourhood of cattle without doing gentleman with some very suspicious hints, them any injury, although, as is notoriously such as barking and champing of the teeth. the fact, they will sometimes visit herds solely After some manœuvres on both sides, a close from the desire of prey. Young bears seldom action commenced, in which either party at molest cattle; but old bears, after having times might claim the victory. The bearers tasted blood, often become very destructive. had collected themselves on a high spot, “ The bear,” Mr. Nilsson observes, “ is more whence they could have an excellent “ bird's or less noxious as the weather varies; for if eye view" of the battle; but whether from it be clear and dry, his attacks upon cattle prudence, or impelled by curiosity to ascertain are less frequent than when the summer is what would be the result of an engagement wet and cloudy." The bear feeds on roots, between an English gentleman and a Bengal and the leaves and small branches of the bear, all kept aloof from the combatants. As aspen, mountain ash, and other trees. He is the chances varied, so did the bearers express also fond of succulent plants, such as angetheir approbation; applauding each as he lica, mountain thistle, &c.; to berries he is seemed by his superiority to merit their plau- likewise very partial-of these he devours vast dits. When the gentleman chanced to have quantities. Ripe corn he also eats, and he the upper hand, they cheered him with “ Saw. sometimes commits no little havoc amongst bash saheh," —i. e., well done, master; and it; for, seating himself on his haunches in a when the bear became lord of the ascendant, field of it, he collects with his outstretched they paid the just tribute to his exertions with arms nearly a sheaf at a time, the ears of “ Suwbush baulvo," — i. e., well done, Mr. which he then devours. Bear. Now and then an interjection, wau! During the summer the bear is always wau! expressive of the highest admiration, lean; but in the autumn, when the berries was uttered with no small emphasis, indiscri- are ripe, and he has consequently a greater minately, as it might be in justice merited by facility of obtaining food, he generally beeither party.
comes very fat. Towards the end of October, however, he ceases for that year to feed ; his to the roofs of cowhouses, tearing the same bowels and stomach become quite empty and off, descending and slaughtering the poor contracted into a very small compass, whilst animals confined within, and actually carrythe extremity of them is closed by an indu. ing them away by shoving or lifting them rated substance which in Sweden is called through the aperture by which they themselves tappen. This is composed, as it is said, of had entered," we would pause and seek to le the last substances, such as pine leaves, and assured that Scandinavian cows are not Eng what he obtains from the ant-hills, of which lish calves.-Ed. the bear has eaten. If, in the course of the COURAGE.—Mr. Lloyd quotes an anecdote, winter, the bear be frightened out of his den of many amusing ones of Frederick the First, and very severely hunted, he once in a while King of Sweden, who had a very large lion passes the tappen — in which case, it is presented to him by the Barbary powers. said, he immediately grows excessively thin. There were several bears kept by the butchThough the tappen has probably been known ers about the shambles in Stockholm, and his to the bear-hunters of the north for ages, Mr. Majesty being anxious to witness a renconFalk was, I believe, the first to bring the cir- tre between one of these animals and the lion, cumstance before the notice of the public. I ordered them to be brought into contact with have had a tuppen, taken from one of the each other. In the lion's den there were two bears that I myself killed in the winter season, apartments, into one of which the bear was carefully analyzed, the component parts of introduced. On the lion, however, getting which were as follow:
access to that animal, he found him posted Brown resin.
in a corner; when going up to him, he gave Green essential (volatile) oil; smells like him a slight rap with his paw, as if to see of turpentine.
what materials his visiter was composed. Pale yellow fat (fixed) oil; smells rancid. The bear not liking this kind of salutation, Chlorophyle, colouring matter of leaves. growled and endeavoured to parry it. This Starch.
made the lion angry; when, "with one fell Lignia.
swoop,” with his paw, as the story goes, he Pectic acid.
laid the bear dead at his feet. It is of course Formic acid.
idle, continues that writer, to make a compaSulphates, phosphates, and muriates. rison between the powers of the lion and the Leaves of Scotch fir, juniper.
bear, from the anecdote I have just related ; The ashes contain oxides of iron and man. I think, however, that there are bears to be ganese kali.—Lloyd's Fiend. SPORTS. found in the Scandinavian forests, that even
STRENGTK.—The bear is a fast and good the lord of the African deserts would find swimmer, and in hot weather bathes frequent, some difficulty in annihilating at a single ly; he climbs well, but in descending trees blow. Nilsson, the Swedish writer, observes or precipices always comes down back- that the bear's attack on men or inforior wards. The strength of the bear is very animals is always commenced with the fore great, but we cannot credit the statement paws, with which he either strikes like the made by Mr. Lloyd quoting from Nilsson, cat, or endeavours to squeeze his enemy to " that a bear has been seen walking on his death. Men that have been struck, that hinder feet along a small tree (stock) that gentleman observes, have mostly been hit stretched across a river, bearing a dead horse with the fore paws on the upper part of the in his fore paws !” The prowess of the bear, head, with such force, that the whole skull with all respect for Nilsson's veracity may be has been laid entirely bare.—Lloyd's Field surprising, but when we are told that several SPORTS. instances have occurred of their climbing on
The badger's legs are so short, that its belly seems to touch the ground; this however is but a deceitful appearance, as it is caused by the length of the bair, which is very long all over the body, and makes it seem much more bulky than it really is. It is a solitary, stupid animal, that finds refuge remote from man, and digs itself a deep bole with great assiduity. It seems to avoid the light, and seldom quits its retreat by day, only stealing out at night to find subsistence. It burrows in the ground very easy, its legs being short and
(The Badger.) strong, and its claws stiff and horny. As it continues to bury itself, and throw the earth behind it to a great distance, and thus forms to itself a winding hole, at the bottom of which it remains in safety. As the fox is not so expert at digging into the earth, it often takes possession of that which has been quitted by the badger, and some say, forces it from its retreat by laying its excrements at the mouth of the badger's hole.
This animal, however, is not long in making itself a new habitation, from which it seldom ventures far, as it flies but slowly, and can find safety only in the strength of its retreat. When it is surprised by the dogs at some distance from its hole, it tben combats with desperate resolution ; it falls upon its back, defends itself on every side, and seldom dies unrevenged in the midst of its enemies.
The badger, like the fox, is a carnivorous animal, and nothing that has life can come amiss to it.* It sleeps the greatest part of its time, and thus, without being a voracious feeder, it still keeps fat, particularly in winter. They always keep their hole very clean, and when the female brings forth, she makes a comfortable warm bed of hay, at the bottom of her hole, for the reception of her young. She brings forth in summer, generally to the number of three or four, which she feeds at first with her milk, and afterwards with such petty prey as she can surprise. She seizes the young rabbits in their warren, robs birds' uests, finds out where the wild bees have laid up the honey, and brings all to her expecting brood.
The young ones when taken are easily tamed, but the old still continue savage and incorrigible; the former, after a sbort time, play with the dogs, follow their master about the bouse, but seem of all other animals the most fond of the fire. They often approach it so closely, that they burn themselves in a dangerous manner. They are sometimes also subject to the mange, and have a gland under their tail, which scents pretty strongly. The poor of some countries eat their Arsh, which, though fat, is at best but rank and ill tasted.t
• Food.—The principal food of the badger it has very small eyes and very short legs, is roots, fruits, snails, and worms. It seems and is only one foot nine inches long, with quite a mistake, their living on animal food. a tail of nine inches. † Tur SPOTTED BADGER.
The spotted THE AMERICAN BADGER inhabits Labrabadger is of a white colour, marked with red- dor, and the country about Hudson's Bay. dish, yellow, and dusky spots. It inhabits It has a strong resemblance to the common Europe and the north of Asia, as far as the or European badgers, but is somewhat northern provinces of Persia and China, and smaller, and the hair is longer, more soft and in Japan. The white badger is said by Bris- silky; the ears are short, and of a white son to have been brought from New York; colour, edged with black.