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of these animals, some are white, others black, but they are mostly brown, its face resembles that of the camel, and its height is about equal to that of an ass. They are not found in the ancient continent, but entirely belong to the new; nor are they found spread over all America, butare found chiefly upon those inountains that stretch from New Spain to the Straits of Magellan. They inhabit the highest regions of the globe, and seem to require purer air than animals of a lower situation are found to enjoy. Peru seems to be the place
(The White Llama.) where they are found in greatest plenty. In Mexico they are introduced rather as curiosities than beasts of burthen; but in Potosi and other provinces of Peru, they make the chief riches of the Indians and Spaniards who rear them: their flesh is excellent food; their hair, or rather wool may be spun into beautiful clothing ; and they are capable, in the most rugged and dangerous ways, of carrying burthens not exceeding a hundred weight, with the greatest safety. It is true indeed that they go but slowly, and seldom above fifteen miles a day : their tread is heavy, but sure; they descend precipices, and find footing among the most craggy rocks where even men can scarce accompany them; they are, however, but feeble animals, and after four or five days' labour, they are obliged to repose for a day or two. They are chiefly used in carrying the riches of the mines of Potosi, and we are told that there are above three hundred thousand of these animals in actual employ:
This animal, as was said before, is above three feet high, and the neck is three feet long ; the head is small and well proportioned, the eyes large, the nose long, the lips thick, the upper divided, and the lower a little depending ; like all those animals that feed upon grass, it wants the upper cutting teeth; the ears are four inches long, and move with great agility; the tail is but five inches long, it is small, straight, and a little turned up at the end; it is clovenfooted, like the ox, but it has a kind of spear-like appendage behind, which assists it in moving over precipices and rugged ways; the wool on the back is short, but long on the sides and the belly; it resembles the camel in the formation of the genital parts in the male, so that it makes urine backwards ; it couples also in the same manner, and though it finds much difficulty in the action, it is said to be much inclined to venery. A whole day is often passed before the necessary business can be completed, which is spent in growling, quarrelling, and spitting at each other; they seldom produce above one at a time, and their age never extends above ten or twelve years at farthest.
Though the llama is no way comparable to the camel, either for size, strength, or perseverance, yet the Americans find a substitute in it, with which they seem perfectly contented. It appears formed for that indolent race of masters which petual snow, from Chili to New Granada, way some of the Alpine animals of Europe, without reaching the isthmus of Panama. which never descend into the plains, are The species is not to be found in Mexico; found upon mountains at long intervals, al. and this remarkable circumstance is to be though the line of their summits is inter. ascribed to the fact that the isthmus of the nipted. This locality is determined by elevaCordilleras has a less elevation than is suited tion. The same fact is constantly observed to their natures and wants. In the same with regard to plants.
it is obliged to serve ; it requires no care, nor no expense in the attending or providing for its sustenance; it is supplied with a warm covering, and therefore does not require to be housed ; satisfied with vegetables and grass, it wants neither corn nor hay to subsist it; it is not less moderate in what it drinks, and exceeds even the camel in temperance. Indeed, of all other creatures, it seems to require water least, as it is supplied by nature with saliva in such large quantities, that it spits it out on every occasion: this saliva scems to be the only offensive weapon that the harmless creature has to testify its resentment. When overloaded, or fatigued, and driven on by all the torturing acts of its keeper, it falls on its belly, and pours out against him a quantity of this fluid; which, though probably no way hurtful, the Indians are much afraid of. They say that wherever it falls, it is of such an acrimonious nature, that it will either burn the skin, or cause very dangerous eruptions.
Such are these animals in their domestic state ; but as they are found wild in very great numbers, they exhibit marks of great force and agility in their state of nature. The stag is scarcely more swift, or the goat or the shammoy a better climber. All its shapes are more delicate and strong ; its colour is tawny, and its wool is but short; in their native forests they are gregarious animals, and are often seen in flocks of two or three hundred at a time. When they perceive a stranger, they regard him at first with astonishment, without marking any fear or surprise; but shortly, as if by common consent, they snuff up the air, somewhat like horses, and at once, by a common flight, take refuge on the tops of the mountains : they are fonder of the northern than the southern side of the Andes; they often climb above the snowy tracts of the mountain, and seem vigorous in proportion to the coldness of their situation. The natives hunt the wild llama for the sake of its fleece. If the dogs surprise one upon the plain, they are generally successful; but if once the llama obtains the rocky precipice of the mountain, the hunters are obliged to desist in their pursuit.
The llama seems to be the largest of the camel kind in America; there are others which are called guanacoes and pacos, that are smaller and weaker, but endued with the same nature, and formed pretty much in the same manner. They seem to bear the same proportions to each other that the horse does to the ass, and are employed with the same degree of subordination. The wool, however, of the paco seems to be the most valuable, and it is formed into stuffs, not inferior to silk either in price or beauty: The natural colour of the paco is that of a dried rose-leaf; the manufacturers seldom give its wool any other dye, but form it into quilts and carpets, which exceed those from the Levant. This manufacture forms a very considerable branch of commerce in South America, and probably too, might be extended to Europe, were the beauty and the durability of what is (The Tawny Llama.) thus wrought up sufficiently known.*
• LLAMAS IN ENGLAND.-Llamas have were fed on the road with potatoes, maize, been frequently brought to England within and hay. Eleven only of the number arrived the last twenty years, and have been exhibited at Cadiz, of which two died there. These in the menageries. His Majesty George the animals were brought to Europe, as a present fourth had several at Windsor, which were from Godoy (the Prince of Peace) to the Emallowed to range in a paddock, but they did press Josephine; but they arrived just at the not long endure the climate.
period of his disgrace, at the coinmencement The greatest number of llamas that were of the Spanish revolution, and the populace, ever brought over to Europe at one time, was in atred to their late minister, were about a herd that arrived at Cadiz in 1808. It ori- to throw the llamas into the sea. The goverginally consisted of thirty-six individuals. nor of Cadiz, however, rescued them, and They were brought from Lima in Puri and Marshal Soult, who subsequently traversed Conception in Chili, to Buenos Ayres, by the province, took them under his care.— Ed. slow journeys of two or three leagues. They
This animal, the name of which is pronounced nylgaw, is a native of India, and has but lately been imported into Europe ; it seems to be of a middle nature, between the cow and the deer, and carries the appearance of both in its form. In size, it is as much smaller than the one, as it is larger than the other; its body, horns, and tail, are not unlike those of a bull; and the head, neck, and legs, are very like those of a decr. The colour, in general, is ash or grey, from a mixture of black hairs and white; all along the
(The Nyl-ghau.) ridge or edge of the neck, the hair is blacker, larger, and more erect, making a short, thin, and upright mane. Its hords are seven inches long; they are six inches round at the foot, growing smaller by degrees, they terminate in a blunt point. The bluntness of these, together with the form of its bead and neck, might incline us to suppose it was of the deer kind; but as it never sheds its horns, it has a greater affinity to the cow.
From the disposition of that brought over to this country, which has been very accurately and minutely described by Dr. Hunter, their manners were harmless and gentle. Although in its native wildness, it is said to be fierce and vicious, this seemed pleased with every kind of familiarity, and always licked the band that stroked, or gave it bread, and never once attempted to use its horns offensively; it seemed to have much dependence on its organs of smell, and snuffed keenly, and with noise, whenever any person came within sight; it did so likewise when any food or drink was brought to it; and was so casily offended with smells, or so cautious, that it would not taste the bread which was offered, when the band happened to smell strong of turpentine. Its manner of fighting is very particular. It was observed, at Lord Clive's, where two males were put into a little inclosure, that, while they were at a considerable distance from each other, they prepared for the attack by falling upon their fore knees; then they shuffled towards each other with a quick pace, keeping still upon their fore knees, and when they were come within some yards, they made a spring, and darted against each other. The intrepidity and force with which they dart against any object, appeared by the strength with which one of them attempted to overturn a poor labourer who unthinkingly stood on the outside of the pales of its inclosure. The nyl-gban, with the quickness of lightning, darted against the wood-work with such violence that he broke it to pieces, and broke off one of his horns close to the root, which occasioned the animal's death. At all the places in India where we have settlements, they are considered as rarities, and brought from the distant interior parts of the country. The emperor, sometimes kills them in such numbers, as to distribute quarters
of them to all his omrahs, which shows that they are internally wild and in plenty, and esteemed good or delicious food. The nyl-ghans wbich bave been brought to England, have been most, if not all of them, received from Surat or Bombay; and they seem to he less uncommon in that part of India than in Bengal; which gives room for a conjecture that they may be indigenous, perhaps, in the province of Guzarat, one of the most western and the most considerable of the Hindostan empire, lying to the northward of Surat, and stretching away to the Indian ocean.
Of the bear there are three different kinds, the brown bear of the Alps, the black bear of North America, which is smaller, and the great Greenland, or white bear.* These, though different in their form, are no doubt of the same original, and owe their chief variations to food and climate. They have all the same habitudes, being equally carnivorous, treacherous, and cruel. It has been said indeed, that the black bear of America rejects animal food, but of the contrary I am certain, as I have often
(The Bear.) seen the young ones, which are brought over to London, prefer flesh to every kind of vegetable aliment.
* The LABIATED Bear or Ursine SLOTH, family Tardigrada, considering the descrip(Shaw.)- In the year 1792, there was shown tion of Pennant and Shaw as correct; but in London, under the name of lion-monster, on account of the form and number of its an unknown animal from the neighbourhood teeth, and the form of its claws, he separated of Patua in Bengal. Pennant and Shaw, it from the genus Bradypus, and described it who examined it, said it had grinders and as a distinct genus under the name Prochicanine teeth, but po fore teeth; and hence lus, from its remarkably movable and extenthey referred it to the genus Bradypus or sile lip. It is also mentioned by Cuvier ; but Sloth, and from its general resemblance to he hesitates as to its true place in the system, the bear, named it Ursine Sloth. This erro- and remarks that the form of its teeth does neous opinion was adopted by several suc- not agree with those of the sloth tribe. Very ceeding naturalists IDiger referred it to the lately, Tidemann, the celebrated comparative
anatomist, had an opportunity of examining
a live specimen of this curious animal, and was thus enabled to refer. it to its true place in the system. He finds that it is provided with cutting teeth, and belongs not to the sloth, but to the bear, or ursus tribe. According to Dr. Francis Hamilton, it lives in holes which digs, and subsists on fruits, sorgho, and white ants.
“ Of all bears the labiated or sloth bear presents the rudest and most shapeless figure. One might sup
pose that our great countryman Ray (The Ursine Sloth.)
had had this species especially under
The brown bear is properly an inhabitant of the temperate climates; the black finds subsistence in the northern regions of Europe and America; while the great white bear takes refuge in the most icy climates, and lives where scarce any other animal can find subsistence.
The brown bear(8) is not only savage but solitary ; he takes refuge in the most anfrequented parts, and the most dangerous precipices of uninhabited mountains. It chooses its den in the most gloomy parts of the forest, in some cavern that has been hollowed by time, or in the hollow of some old enormous tree. There it retires alone, and passes some months of the winter without provisions, or without ever stirring abroad. However this animal is not entirely deprived of sensation like the bat, or
(The Brown Bear.) his eye when he characterized the ursine peculiarity that the commonly adopted trivial genus. The whole of its body and legs are name, lubiatus, has been derived. The labiconcealed beneath a coat of long, coarse, ated bear is a native of Hindostan, more black hair, out of which there projects in especially the mountainous districts. It is front a narrow, elongated, ill-shapen snout; common in Bengal, on the mountains of while beneath this shaggy penthouse four Silhet, and in the Deccan Ghauts. Its great paws, turned awkwardly inwards, be first appearance in this country was about speak the quadruped. Such, at least, is the fifty years ago. Bewick, in his History of general appearance of two of this species at Quadrupeds, has given a characteristic figure present living in the Gardens of the Zoologic and an accurate description of this species; cal Society, where, however, both the density and from the striking correspondence of parts and length of the covering may, perhaps, in observable between it and the common bear, some measure, be ascribable to the influence as well as from an attentive examination of of our northern climate. This bear is, how- its disposition and manners, he was induced ever, in its natural haunts, distinguished from to place it in the same genus, notwithstandall its tropical congeners by its denser coat of ing it seemed to differ in some of those chahair; and it is doubtless owing to this natu- racteristics, which have been pointed out by ral protection that it is enabled to brave our naturalists as the guides to a regular and syswinters with impunity, even when its den is tematic arrangement. In an earlier and placed in a comparatively unsheltered situa- ruder figure, which we find in Caton's Figures tion. The hair upon the back of the head of Animals, the good sense of the artist also and neck is so remarkably developed as to detected the true relations of this subject, represent a sort of mane exceeding a foot in and the animal is called the Petre Bear. length, and almost hiding the ears. The ladi. There are few of our readers who, if they ated bear differs also from the rest of the were asked if they had ever seen a living genus, in losing, at an early period of its exis- sloth, would not answer in the affirmative, and tence, the whole or greater part of the incisor perhaps be inclined to receive with increduor front teeth ; his nostrils are supported by a lity our assertion, that their curiosity, with peculiarly large and movable cartilaginous respect to this singular animal, still remains plate, by means of which he can open or close to be gratified. But the fact is, that the ani. their apertures at will, and in this way proba- mal, which is exhibited as the sloth in the bly defends the nasal passages from the ants, travelling menageries, is the bear now under into whose nests he intrudes his snout. The consideration; and we are not aware that lips of this species are soft and Aeshy, and sus- either of the true species of sloth, which is ceptible of varied and extensive motion, often peculiar to South America, has hitherto been being elongated in a tubular form three or brought alive to this country.—ZOOLOGICAL four inches beyond the jaws. It is from this MAGAZINE,