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refresh it. At last a tame elephant is brought forward, of that number which is employed in instructing the new comers, and an officer riding upon it, in order to show the late captive that it has nothing to fear. The hunters then open the inclosure; and while this creature leads the captive along, two more are joined on either side of it, and these compel it to submit
. It is then tied by cords to a massy pillar provided for that purpose, and suffered to remain in that position for about a day and a night, until its indignation be wholly subsided. The next day it begins to be somewhat submissive; and, in a fortnight, is completely tarned like the rest. The females are taken when accompanying the males; they often come into these inclosures, and they shortly after serve as decoys to the rest. But this method of taking the elephant differs according to the abilities of the hunter; the negroes of Africa, who hunt this animal merely for its flesh, are content to take it in pitfalls; and often to pursue it in the defiles of a mountain, where it cannot easily turn, and so wound it from behind till it falls. *
The elephant, when once tamed, becomes the most gentle and obedient of all animals. It soon conceives an attachment for the person that attends it, caresses lim, obeys him, and seems to anticipate his desires. This acquaintance is often perfectly necessary; for the elephant frequently takes such an affection for its keeper that it will obey no other : and it has been known to die for grief, when in some sudden fit of madness, it has killed its conductor. We are told, that one of these, that was used by the French forces in India for the drawing their cannon, was promised, by the conductor, a reward, for having performed some painful service; but being disappointed of its expectations, it alew him in a fury. The conductor's wife, who was a spectator of this shocking scene, could not restrain her madness and despair; but running with her two children in her arms, threw them at the elephant's feet, crying out that since it had killed her husband, it might kill her and her children also. The elephant, seeing the children at its feet, instantly stopped, and moderating its fury, took up the eldest with its trunk, and placing him upon its neck, adopted him for its conductor, and obeyed him ever after with great punctuality,
In India, where they were at one time employed in launching ships, a particular elephant was directed to force a very large vessel into the water: the work proved superior to its strength, but not to its endeavours ;, which, however, the keeper affected to despise.“ Take away,” says he," that lazy beast, and bring another better fitted for service.” The poor animal instantly upon this redoubled its efforts, fractured its scull, and died upon the spot.
In Delhi, an elephant, passing along the streets, put his trunk into a tailor's shop, where several people were at work. One of the persons of the shop, desirous of some amusement, pricked the animal's trunk with his needle, and seemed highly delighted with this slight punishment. The elephant, however, passed on without any immediate signs of resentment; but coming to a puddie filled with dirty water, he filled his trunk, returned to the shop, and spurted the contents over all the finery upon which the tailors were then employed. +
* CAPTURING IN Pir-Pauls.-Another me- into sheaves being thrown to him, he is grathod of catching wild elephants is by decoy- dually brought to the surface, as may enable ing them by means of a tame animal to pits, him to step out. A very strong objection covered with grass and rushes, into which exists against elephants taken in pits; they they are precipitated. These traps are also are generally lamed, notwithstanding the soft made in those paths much frequented by substances, such as leaves and grass, laid at elephants, which in their nightly rambles the bottom; exclusive of which, internal occasionally stumble into them, and by their bruises often take place, extremely injurious moanings, quickly convey intelligence of the to the constitution of the animal.-Oriental success of the device to the peasant. The Field Sports, abridged. mode of getting elephants out of pits is + RESENTMENT. – Though elephants ale somewhat curious, but extremely simple. The somewhat resentful, they are by no means animal is for the most part retained until cruel. Instances have happened of their dissufficiently tractable to be conducted forth, playing much magnanimity; the following when large bundles of jungle grass tied up may serve as a proof. A boy of about nine An elephant in Adsmeer, which often passed through the bazar or market, as he went by a certain herb-woman, always received from her a mouthful of greens. Being one day seized with a periodical fit of madness, he broke his fetters, and, running through the market, put the crowd to flight; and, among others, this woman, who in her baste forgot a little child at her stall. The elephant recollecting the spot where his benefactress was accustomed to sit, took up the intant gently in his trunk, and conveyed it to a place of safety.
At the Cape of Good Hope it is customary to hunt those animals for the sake of their teeth. Three horsemen, well mounted, and armed with lances, attack the elephant alternately, each relieving the other, as they see their companion pressed, till the beast is subdued. Three Dutchmen, brothers, who had made large fortunes by this business, determined to retire to Europe, and enjoy the fruits of their labours; but they resolved one day before they went, to have a last chase, by way of amusement: they met with their game, and began their attack in the usual manner; but, unfortunately, one of their horses falling, happened to fling his rider; the enraged elephant instantly seized the unhappy huntsman with his trunk, flung him up to a vast height in the air, and received him upon one of his tusks as he fell; and then turning towards the other two brothers, as if it were with an aspect of revenge and insult, held out to them the impaled wretch, writhing in the agonies of death.* years old, son to a mohout, used in his father's the yellow handkerchief that bound the absence to teaze the elephant, which for a hunter's head. We had frequently traced long time put up with all his mischievous the mighty foot-prints of the elephant; from tricks. One dav, however, being extremely which the Hottentots told us when the aniprovoked, she seized the young rogue by the mals had been there. “This is three days middle with her trunk, and curling it inwards old.”—This is last night.” It was curious with the boy in its centre, but without pres. to observe the marks stamped in the mud sure, she drew him gently against her two armynd the small ponds, of animals that left teeth which proceed from the upper jaw, and their haunts at night to drink. The misin females are very short. Thus she held shapen spoor of the elephant; that of the him: the boy was so alarmed that he could rhinoceros, resembling three horses' hoofs; not call for assistance. She, however, saved the buffalo, the wolf, the timid and various him that trouble by commencing a hideous antelopes, and the baboon, were all clearly roar, which summoned the father, on whose traced. The search was becoming hopeless, arrival she unfolded her trunk.
when the leader pointed to a distant hill ; * ELEPHANT HUNT.—The country we were there was a consultation in which it was detraversing was singularly varied, — savage cided that a troop of elephants was passing nature unreclaimed, -no blue smuke amidst over it. I lookeil, and could see noi hing. the dark green hills and shadowy hollows But now we went on with fresh vigour, and told of an habitation : even the roads are the gained the hill opposite to that on which they work of an elephant. Man has never apo were; we halted and watched, and a few peared in these tremendous solitudes, save as words passed between the hunter and skipa destroyer. All was still, yet at intervals per, and we descended silently the ravine there caine upon the ear the distant sound of that divided us. Again they whispered, a passing belī
, heavy and slow like a death. marked from what point the light breeze toll; all again was still, and again the bello came, and we commenced the steep ascent in bird's note came borne on the wind : we a direction that the wind might come from never seemed to approach it, but that slow, the animals to us; for we were now so near melancholy, distant, dream-like sound still them that their quick scent would have discontimed at intervals to haunt us like an evil covered us. Skipper led, while we followed oinen. We threaded the elephants' paths in Indian files, threading a narrow rocky with a swift silent pace, over hills and through path, which skirted one bauk of a small ravines, until, from having been unaccuse hollow, while the huge beasts were feeding tomed to walking in this riding country, I on the opposite one. The leader halted, the began, greatly to the surprise of the hunter, hunter gave my companions and myself light to show syınptons of fatigue. "We shall sticks, and whispered directions to fire the soon be among the elephants," he said, “and bush and grass, and to retreat, in the event then we can sit down and watch them.” of the animals charging. It was a strange Forward we went, now in shadow and now feeling to find myself within twenty yards of in light, as we wound through the high bush; creatures whose forward movement would the light now glancing on the strange head- have been destruction; but they stood brows. gear of the leading Hottentot, now touching ing on the bushes, and flapping their large
The teeth of the elephant are what produces the great enmity between him and mankind; but whether they are slied, like the horns of the deer, or whether the animal be killed to obtain them, is not yet perfectly known. All we have as yet certain is, that the natives of Africa, from whence almost all our ivory comes, assure us, that they find the greatest part of it in their forests ; nor would, say they, the teeth of an elephant recompense them for their trouble and danger in killing it : notwithstanding, the elephants which are tamed by man, are never known to shed their tusks; and from the hardness of their sube stance, they seem no ways analogous to deer's horns.* ears, pictures of indolent security. We were high into the air. Having thus wreaked taking our stations when we heard a shot, vengeance upon his foes, he walked gently and then another; and of the eight elephants, up to his consort, and affectionately caressing seven fled. We went forward to see the her, supported her wounded sile with his effects of the shots. Skipper's had carried shoulder, and regardless of the volley of balls, death with it; the elephant had fallen, but with which the hunters, who had again rallied rose again. I never heard any thing like its to the conflict, assailed him, he succeeded in groans; he again fell, and we went up to conveying her from their reach into the imhim; the ball had entered behind the shoul- penetrable recesses of the forest. der, and pierced the heart. - Rose's SouthERN AFRICA.
* MADEMOISELLE D'JECK.-The inhabiGALLANTRY OF THE ELEPHANT. - On tant of this country recently witnessed the one occasion a band of hunters had sur. dramatic exhibition of an elephant, which prised two elephants, a male and a female, afforded them a more remarkable example of in an open spot, near the skirts of a thick the sagacity of this quadruped than the ordoand thorny jungle. The animals fled towards nary docility which it manifests at the coins the thickets; and the male, in spite of many mand of the showman. This elephant was balls which struck him ineffectually, was soon a large female from Siam, and was exhibited safe from the reach of the pursuers; but the in the Adelphi Theatre, London, and throughfemale was so sorely wounded that she was out the country. She was taken in 1830 to unable to retreat with the same alacrity, and America. She was well disciplined, and exthe hunters having got between her and the hibited her feats with considerable effect, by wood, were preparing speedily to finish her their adaptation to scenic display. To march career, when all at once the male rushed forth in a procession, to kneel down without any with the utmost fury from his hiding place, more perceptible bidding than the waving ot and with a shrill and frightful scream, like a hand, to salute a particular individual, to the loud sound of a trumpet, charged down place a crown upon the head of the “ true the huntsmen. So terrific was the animal's prince,” to eat and drink with great gravity aspect, that all instinctively sprung to their and propriety of demeanour, and to make her horses, and for their lives. The elephant, reverence to an audience without any appadisregarding the others, singled out an unfor rent signal, are very striking evidences of the tunate man, Cobus Klopper, who was the tractability of this creature ; but they are by last person that had fired upon its comrade, no means of the class of novel exhibitions, and who was standing with his horse's bridle and they have been excelled by other perform over his arm, reloading his huge gun, at the ances of which we have a distinct record. moment when the infuriated aniinal burst One of the most remarkable narratives of the from the wood. Cobus also leaped hastily ancient display of elephants in a theatre, is on horse back, but before he could seat hin- that of Ælian, who has described in a very self in his saddle, the elephant was upon him. lively manner the extreme docility of the eles One blow from his proboscis struck poor phants of Germanicus. At that period, eleCobus to the earth, and without troubling phants were bred at Rome-a fact which hinself about the horse, he thrust his gigan- has been most unaccountably overlooked in tie tusks through the man's body, and then the description of modern naturalists, but the after stamping it fat with his ponderous feet, practicability of which has received abundan again seized it with his trunk, and Hung it coufirmation from recent experience.
Next to the elephant, the Rhinoceros is the most powerful of animals. It is usually found twelve feet long, from the tip of the nose to the insertion of the tail; from six to seven feet high; and the cir. cumference of its body is nearly equal to its length. It is, therefore, equal to the elephant in bulk; and if it appears much smaller to the eye, the reason is, that its legs are much shorter. Words can convey but a very confused idea of this animal's shape; and yet there are few so remarkably formed: its head is furnished with a horn, growing from the snout, some. times three feet and a hall long: and but for this that part would have the appearance of the head of a bog; the upper lip, how
* History of the RHINOCEROS.-If the The first rhinoceros of which any mention moderns are able to boast of a more extended is made in ancient history, was that which knowledge of animated nature than was pos. appeared at the celebrated festival of Ptolesessed by the ancients, it must be acknow- mæus Philadelphus, and which was made to ledged that it is rather the result of their march the last of all the strange animals exgeographical discoveries, than of the zeal of hibited at that epoch, as being apparently the their governments or commercial companies most curious and rare. It was brought from for its promotion. And it is humiliating to Ethiopia. think that the nations, among which a pure The first which appeared in Europe graced love of science is most widely diffused, still the triumph and games of Pompey. Pliny should be debarred the contemplation of those states that this animal had but one horn, rarer species of quadrupeds inhabiting the and that that number was the most common. Old World, which in ancient Rome were re- Augustus caused two to be slain, together peatedly exhibited to gratify a tyrant's love with a hippopotamus, when he triumphed of ostentation, and a people's lust for the after the death of Cleopatra: and these, also, cruel combats and wholesale slaughter of the are described as having each but one horn. Amphitheatre.
Strabo very exactly describes a one-horned The history of the remarkable quadruped rhinoceros, which he saw at Alexandria, and with which the present work commences (the mentions the folds in its skin. But Pausa. Giraffe) in some measure exemplifies this nias gives a detailed account of the position anomalous fact, and the rhinoceros is a still of the two horns, on a species having that stronger proof of it. This quadruped, which number, which he terms the Ethiopian Bull. is second in bulk to the elephant alone, is Of this latter kind two appeared at Rome peculiar to the Old World ; yet of the five or under Doinitian, and were engraved on some six distinct species which inhabit Africa and of the medals of that emperor; these occaAsia, only one has been exhi) moderrsioned some of the epigrams of Martial, which Europe, and that at rare an
als; modern commentators, from ignorance of the while the knowledge
in species with two horns, found so much diffchiefly acquired in our
culty in comprehending.