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CHAP. XXIII.

THE RHINOCEROS.

Next to the elephant, the Rhinoceros is the most powerful of animals. It is usually found twelve feet long, from the tip of the nose to the insertion of the tail; from six to seven feet high; and the cir. cumference of its body is nearly equal to its length. It is, therefore, equal to the elephant in bulk; and if it appears much smaller to the eye, the reason is, that its legs are much shorter. Words can convey but a very confused idea of this animal's shape; and yet there are few so remarkably formed: its head is furnished with a horn, growing from the snout, some. times three feet and a hall long: and but for this that part would have the appearance of the head of a bog; the upper lip, how

HISTORY OF THE RHINOCEROS.-If the The first rhinoceros of which any mention moderns are able to boast of a more extended is made in ancient history, was that which knowledge of animated nature than was pos- appeared at the celebrated festival of Ptolesessed by the ancients, it must be acknow- mæus Philadelphus, and which was made to ledged that it is rather the result of their march the last of all the strange animals exgeographical discoveries, than of the zeal of hibited at that epoch, as being apparently the their governments or commercial companies most curious and rare. It was brought from for its promotion. And it is humiliating to Ethiopia. think that the nations, among which a pure The first which appeared in Europe graced love of science is most widely diffused, still the triumph and games of Pompey. Pliny should be debarred the contemplation of those states that this animal had but one horn, rarer species of quadrupeds inhabiting the and that that number was the most common. Old World, which in ancient Rome were re- Augustus caused two to be slain, together peatedly exhibited to gratify a tyrant's love with a hippopotamus, when he triumphed of ostentation, and a people's lust for the after the death of Cleopatra : and these, also, cruel combats and wholesale slaughter of the are described as having each but one horn. Amphitheatre.

Strabo very exactly deseribes a one-horned The history of the remarkable qnaclruped rhinoceros, which he saw at Alexandria, and with which the present work commences (the mentions the folds in its skin. But PausaGiraffe) in some measure exemplifies this nias gives a detailed account of the position anomalous fact, and the rhinoceros is a still of the two horns, on a species having that stronger proof of it. This quadruped, which number, which he terms the Ethiopian Bull. is second in bulk to the elephant alone, is Of this latter kind two appeared at Rome peculiar to the Old World; yet of the five or under Domitian, and were engraved on some six distinct species which inhabit Africa and of the medals of that emperor; these occaAsia, only one has been exhibited in moderrsioned some of the epigrams of Martial, which Europe, and that at rare and distant intervals; modern commentators, from ignorance of the while the knowledge of the rest has been species with two horns, found so much difh. chiefly acquired in our own times.

culty in comprehending.

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ever, is much longer in proportion, ends in a point, is very pliable, serves to collect its food, and deliver it into the mouth; the ears are large, erect, and pointed; the eyes are small and piercing; the skin is naked, rough, knotty, and lying upon the body in folds, after a very peculiar fashion: there are two folds very remarkable ; one above bis shoulders

, and another over the rump: The emperors Antoninus, Heliogabalus, the latter are wholly deficient. The Abysand Gordian, severally exhibited the rhino- sinian traveller Bruce has given a vague ceros: and Cosmus expressly speaks of the indication of a two-horned thinoceros, which Ethiopian species as having two horns: there exhibits the plaiting of the hide peculiar to is abundant evidence, therefore, that the the Indian species; and some naturalists ancients possessed a degree of knowledge have supposed it probable, from the form of respecting these animals, of which the mo- the horns, that this may ultimately be found derns were for a long period destitute. to be a true and distinct species. More

The first rhinoceros which was exhibited recently, again, the accurate and scientific in Europe after the revival of literature, was traveller Burchell has announced the exist. a specimen of the one-horned species. It ence in the interior of the southern promonwas sent from India to Emmanuel

, king of tory of Africa, of a rhinoceros double the Portugal, in the year 1513. This sovereign size of the ordinary Cape species, which, made a present of it to the Pope ; but the like it, has also two horns, and a skin withanimal being seized during its passage without hairs or folds, but which differs in having a fit of tury, occasioned the loss of the vessel the lips and nose thickened, enlarged, and as in which it was transported. A second rhino- if Aattened. ceros was brought to England in 1685; a An interesting memoir from the pen of third was exhibited over almost the whole of M. Frederic Cuvier, has appeared in the Europe in 1739; and a fourth, which was a splendid work published by him conjointly female, in 1741. That exhibited in 1739 with M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, on the animals was described and figured by Parsons, in the in the menagerie in the Garden of Plants at Philosophical Transactions (vol. xlii. p. 583), Paris. It relates to the rhinoceros lately who mentioned also that of 1685 and of living in that establishment, and from which 1741. A fifth speciinen arrived at Versailles the figure was taken which serves to illusin 1771, and it died in 1793 at the age of trate the present account.-ZOOLOGICAL Mag. twenty-five or twenty-six years. The sixth "This rhinoceros was but young at the time was a very young rhinoceros, which died in that the figure was taken; and, contrary to this country in the year 1800: some account the commonly received opinion, was habituof its anatomy was published by Mr. Thomas, ally of a very gentle disposition, obedient to in the Philosophical Transactions for that his keeper, and receiving his care and atten. year. Lastly, a serenth specimen was living tion with a real affection. However, he a few years ago in the Garden of Plants at would occasionally be seized with fits of fury, Paris. All these specimens were one-horned, during which it was not prudent to come near and all from India. So that the two-horned him. No cause could be assigned for these rhinoceros has never been brought alive to violent paroxysms: one might say that a modern Europe, and it was long before even blind impulse or desire to regain a state of an accurate description of it was given by liberty, (which he had never enjoyed,) extravellers; its existence was known only by cited him to break his chains, and escape specimens of the horns adhering to the skin from the bondage in which he was retained. of the head, which were preserved in different Bread and fruits, however, always pacified museums. As these specimens were from him; and the claims of hunger always siAfrica, and as the first authentic accounts of lenced those of liberty ; so that this resource the living animal of the two-horned species against his fury was always kept in reserve. were derived from the histories of African He knew those persons who most indulged travellers, a general notion prevailed that him in his gourmandise, and they were reAsia afforded the one-horned species only, ceived with the liveliest manifestations of and that the two-horned kind was peculiar to affection: the moment he saw them he Africa. However, in the year 1793, Mr. stretched towards them his long upper lip, William Bell, a surgeon in the service of the opened his mouth, and drew in his tongue. East India Company, discovered a species of The narrow stall in which he was confined rhinoceros in the Island of Sumatra, which did not allow him to manifest much intellihas also two horns, whose skin, like the gence; and his keeper took no other pains African two-horned species, did not exhibit than to induce him to forget or misconceive those folds which are so peculiar to the hide his own strength, and to obey : but from the of the Indian rhinoceros. This species, how. attention which he paid to every thing which ever, differed from the African rhinoceros in was passing around him, and from the readipossessing incisive or front teeth, which in ness with which he distinguished individuals

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nature, the elephant rarely qnits the banks of the river, and often stands in water up to the belly. In a state of servitude, the Indians take equal care to provide a proper supply; they wash it with great address; they give it all the conveniences for lendmg assistance to itself; they smooth the skin with a pumice stone, and then rub it over with oils, essences, and odours.

It is not to be wondered at that an animal furnished with so many varions advantages, both of strength, sagacity, and obedience, should be taken into the service of man. We accordingly find that the elephant, from time immemorial, has been employed either for the purposes of labour, of war, or of ostentation to increase the grandeur of eastern princes, or to extend their dominions. We bave hitherto been describing this animal in its natural state; we now come to consider it in a different view, as taken from the forest and reduced to human obedience. We are now to behold this brave harmless creature as learning a lesson from mankind, and instructed by him in all the arts of war, massacre, and devastation. We are now to behold this half reasoning animal led into the field of battle, and wondering at those tumults and that madness which he is compelled to increase. The elephant is a native of Africa and Asia, being found neither in Europe nor America. In Africa he still retains his natural liberty. The savage inhabitants of that part of the world, instead of attempting to subdue this powerful creature to their necessities, are happy in being able to protect themselves from his fury. Formerly, indeed, during the splendour of the Carthaginian empire, elephants were used in their wars; but this was only a transitory gleam of human power in that part of the globe; the natives of Africa have long since degenerated, and the elephant is only known among them from his devastations. However, there are no elephants in the northern parts of Africa at present, there being none found on this side of Mount Atlas. It is beyond the river Senegal that they are to be met with in great numbers, and so down to the Cape of Good Hope, as well as in the heart of the country. In this extensive region they appear to be more numerous than in any other part of the world. But although these animals are most plentiful in Africa, it is only in Asia that the greatest elephants are found, and rendered subservient to human command.* in Africa, the largest do not exceed ten feet high; in Asia they are found from ten to fifteen. Their price increases in proportion to their size ; and when they exceed a certain bulk, like jewels, their value then rises as the fancy is pleased to estimate. The largest are entirely kept for the service of princes; and are maintained with the utmost magnificence and at the greatest expense.

As the art of war is but very little improved in Asia, there are few princes of the East who do not procure and maintain as many elephants as they are able, and place great confidence on their assistance in an engagement. For this purpose, they are obliged to take them wild in their native forests; and tame them; for the elephant never breeds in a state of servitude. It is one of the most striking peculiarities in this extraordinary creature, that his generative powers totally fail when he comes under the dominion of man; as if he seemed unwilling to propagate a race of slaves to increase the pride of his conqueror. There is, perhaps, no other quadruped that will not breed in its own native climate, if indulged with a moderate share of freedom; and we know, that many of them will copulate in every climate. The elephant alone bas never been seen to breed ;(8) and though he has been reduced under the obedience

* AFRICAN ELEPHANT.—Since 1681 no habits, so far as those of a very young animal African elephant has been seen in Europe, can be relied on, exhibit none of the terucity until the young female figured by M. Cuvier, usually ascribed to it, and are, indeed, fully as which is now alive in Paris, having been sent mild, intelligent, and tractable as those of the as a present by the Pacha of Egypt. Its elephant of Asia. - ARCANA OF SCIENCE, 1828.

(8) Multis persuasum est Elephantem non brutorum sed hominumn more coire. Quod retro mingit non dubitatur. Sed ipse vidi marem hujusce speciei, in vostri regis stabulis super fæmellam itidem inclusam quadrupedum more silientem, pene paululum iucurvato, sed suffi. cienter recto.

of man for ages, the duration of pregnancy in the female still remains a secret,

The Indian princes having vainly endeavoured to multiply the breed of elephants, like that of other animals, have been, at last, content to separate the males from the females, to prevent those accesses of desire, which debilitated, without multiplying the species. In order to take tbem wild in the woods, a spot of ground is fixed upon, which is surrounded with a strong pallisade. This is made of the thickest and the strongest trees ; and strengthened by cross bars which give firmness to the whole. The posts are fixed at such distances from each other, that a man can easily pass between them; there being only one great passage left open, through which an elephant can easily come; and which is so contrived as to shut behind, as soon as the beast is entered. To draw him into this inclosure, it is necessary first to find him out in the woods; and a female elephant is conducted along into the heart of the forest, where it is obliged by its keeper to cry out for the male.f The male

* REPRODUCTION OF THE ELEPHANT.- other manner during this act, but invariably The obscurity which formerly prevailed re- seized the nipple with the side of its mouth. specting the mode of reproduction of the At this period it is a common practice with elephant has been dissipated in a great mea- the elephant attendants to raise a small sure by the accurate and assiduous observa- mound of earth, about six or eight inches tions of our countryman, Mr. Corse. And it high, for the young one to stand on, and is a remarkable instance of the difficulty of thus to save the mother the trouble of benderadicating a popular error or prejudice, that ing her body every time she gives suck; for notwithstanding the circumstantial evidence she has never been observed to lie down for and authentic description given by this gen- that purpose. The nipples are two iu numtleman relative to the above subject, it is still ber, and are situated between the fore legs. very generally believed that in a state of sub- It is remarkable that the elephant, although jection the elephant is unalterably barren; having but one young, has by no means a and that though it has been reduced under strong affection for it: instances have octhe dominion of man for ages, yet, as if it cured of the mother leaving her offspring had a proper sense of its degraded condition, and escaping into the woods. If a wild eleit refuses to increase the pride and power of phant happens to be separated from her its conquerors by propagating a race of slaves. young for only two days, though giving suck, This circumstance was adduced by Buffon as she never afterwards recognises or acknowone of the most striking instances of the ledges it. “I have been much mortified," superiority of the elephant, in its moral con- says Mr. Corse, "at such unnatural conduct, dition, over other quadrupeds. Mr. Corse, particularly when it was evident the young who resided for more than ten years at Tipe- elephant knew its dam, and by its plaintive rah, a province of Bengal, where herds of cries and submissive approaches solicited her elephants are taken every season, and who assistance.” During the first year the elefor five years had the Company's elephant phant grows eleven inches, and is three feet hunters entirely under his direction, has com eleven inches high ; in the second he grows pletely disproved these assertions. Twice eight inches; in the third six; in the fourth during that period he succeeded in breeding year five inches; about the same in the fifth from elephants in a state of captivity and year; in the sixth year three inches and a servitude, and observes that this mode of half; and in the seventh year two inches and supplying the Indian community with so a half,-measuring then six feet four inches useful an animal is abandoned only from its in height. During the succeeding ten years being more expensive than the ordinary me- the growth is comparatively slow. The male thod by the capture of the wild herds; since is longer in attaining his full growth than the elephants, after being reduced by the the female, seldom having acquired it before process of training, require rest and high his twenty-sixth year.-— ZOOLOGICAL MAGAfeeding to bring them into the requisite condition. In this way was ascertained the + Decoy ELEPHANTS.—The method of precise period of gestation in the elephant, decoying elephants is the most singular exwhich Mr. Corse states to be twenty months hibition of sagacity which occurs in the and eighteen days. The.young animal when whole animal kingdom. The Koomkie or born is 35, inches high. It soon begins to female elephant employed becomes an active nibble and suck the breast, pressing it with accessary in a plot against her fellow-creature, its trunk to make the milk flow more readily discovering not only great readiness, but into its mouth while sucking. It has never much ingenuity and anxiety for the sucveen observed to use its proboscis in any cess of the enterprise, as well as for the per

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very readily answers the cry, and hastens to join her; which the keeper per ceiving, obliges her to retreat, still repeating the same cry, until she leads the animal into the inclosure already described, which shuts the moment he is entered. Still, however, the female proceeds calling, and inviting, while the male proceeds forward in the inclosure, which grows narrower all the way, and until the poor animal tinds bimself completely shut up, without the power of either advancing or retreating; the female, in the mean time, being let out by a private way, which she has been previously accustomed to. The wild elephant, upon seeing himself entraped in this manner, instantly attempts to use violence ; and, upon seeing the hunters, all his former desires only turn to fury. In the mean time, the hunters, having fixed bim with cords, attempt to soften his indignation, by throwing buckets of water upon him in great quantities, rubbing the body with leaves, and pouring oil down his ears. Soon after, two tame elephants are brought, a male and a female, that caress the indignant animal with their trunks; wbile they still continue pouring water to sonal safety of her keeper. At the season of Williamson gives illustration in the following procreation, domestic animals, and likewise anecdote. “A gentleman bought a female those in a wild state are very fierce and war- elephant at the sale of a deceased person's like. In the large focks of elephants, dread- effects, not having the least idea that she ful conflicts take place, terminating in the was a kaomkie, which to him would not have expulsion of the weaker parties : the master been any recommendation, as he was not a elephant of the herd wages war on the sauns, dealer in that branch. He resided for a or single males, who from their equality of short time at the place of sale, and repeatstature become objects of jealousy. Full of edly refused handsome offers for his late passion and resentinent, many of these de- purchase; to obtain which many persons stroy every thing within their power, pulling seemed desirous, but finding him iguorant of up sugar-canes, plantain-trees, and all in the her qualifications, all carefully kept secret on most wanton manner; then in a sulky state the subject, lest a knowledge of them might they seek the heavy covers, where time allays cause him to overrate an animal that each their passions, and by degrees they join their hoped at some time to obtain. The mohout, own, or some other herd. These single or animal's keeper, equally anxious to get out males very soon attract the notice of the of employment replete with danger, yet de. dealer, and one or two koomkies are dis- sirous of being in the service of the gen. patched for the purpose of securing such tleman, forbore to reveal the value of the substantial prizes. Each mohout is provided elephant to his master. One morning Lutchwith a black blanket, and a small quantity mee Pearree, which was the elephant's name, of strong rope, proper for securing the sann. was not to be found; for several days no Covered with his blankets, the mohout intelligence could be obtained respecting the crouches on the back of the koomkie ; and if truant; and in fact she was given over for the situation be favourable, both the koomkie lost, under the suppositiou that she had and driver furnish themselves with green strayed into the neighbouring jungles, and boughs, which the former carries in her trunk, joined with the wild herds: thus no prospect playing with it in such a manner as to favour of recovering her. About a week after, the concealment of the latter. A most sin. Lutchmee made her appearance at her pick. gular scene now presents itself: the koomkies ets, and being secured, was accoutred, and begin to caress the saun, raising his passions her master mounted her to take a ride. He by the most amatory demeanour; during happened to proceed to the skirt of a very which the mohoats approach, and pass ropes heavy grass jungle, into which Lutchmee with wonderful dexterity round the fore and frequently attempted to turn, but was prehind legs of the saun, which being elated, vented by the mohout, who suspected that loses all sense but that of animal enjoyinent, she was become wild, and might prove danand is speedily secured. During the opera- gerous. At length Lutchmee became quite tion, the conduct of the koomkies is peculiarly restive, and in defiance of control dashed into artful. They not only exert themselves with the jungle; nor did she stop, until arriving astonishing address to divert the attention of at a thick patch of trees, to the utter astonishthe saun, and to cut off his view downwards ment of her terrified burden, a large male by means of their trunks, but they even aid was discovered, round whose fore legs the in effecting the ligatures therewith, passing iron chain with which Lutchmee was ordinathe rope at times when the mohouts might rily fastened during the night at her pickets, either be exposed to danger, or unable to was turned, so as to secure her prize in the reach it. Of the sagacity, wantonness, and most complete manner!"-ORIENTAL FIELD cunning of the fernale elephant, Captain Sports, abridged.

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