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will also grapple with the dog, and, whilst they hox

fast in the fore paws, they will tear open the belly of their enemy with the strong hinder claws.

The period of gestation in the kangaroo is not yet ascertained, but the young is received into the marsupium, or external pouch, when of very small size. Sir Everard Home found one attached to the nipple which weighed twenty-one grains, and measured an inch without the tail; its fore paws were tolerably well formed, and double the length of the hind ones. When the young," be observes, "is first attached to the nipple, the face appears to be wanting, except a round hole at the muzzle, to which the vipple is applied and adheres; soon after, the lips and jaws grow upon the nipple, till at last nearly half an inch of its length is inclosed in the mouth.”

According to some notes made by a keeper on a kangaroo which belonged to the Duchess of Berri, it would appear that gestation had continued from the 6th of May to the 6th of October, viz. five months ; and that the young one remained in the pouch till the January following, when it quitted the nipple and came out. The exact period, however, of gestation in the kangaroo, the form and condition of the embryo at birth, and the precise manner in wbich it passes or is conveyed into the pouch, are points which still remain to be decided.*

• In examining the formation and habits strength and rankness of the grass in New of the kangaroo, and the nature of the country Holland, or at least in some parts of it where in which it is found, we shall be forcibly the kangaroo most abounds, that if they prostruck with the truth of what has been re- duced their young in the manner usual with marked respecting the beneficent provisions other quadrupeds, they would either wander observable throughout the animal kingdom and be lost in the high grass, or, in case the for the preservation of the various creatures dam was obliged to leave them to provide for which compose it. The kangaroo inhabits a her own safety, it would not be easy for her country where there are enormous tufts of the to find her young again. By means, how. coarsest grass, growing in swamps and marshy ever, of the abdominal pouch, in which the ground, each tuft being several feet in height, young reside, and which they only leave either and at a considerable distance from each for exercise and amusement, they share the other, or else they frequent rocky or bushy fate of their dam. I have, however, been ground. By means of the great strength of assured that those kangaroos, which have their tail and hind feet, they can even make been domesticated and bred in this country bounds in succession of from twelve to twenty are gradually losing the use of the pouch as feet in length, and several feet in height, from a place of refuge for their young, that the one tuft of grass, or froin one rock or bush, size and strength of the tail is diminishing, to another, and thus escape from their pur- and that they more frequently use all four of suers. Nor is "his all; for such is the their feet in running." - Jesse's G..EANINGS.

CHAP. XXII.

OF THE ELEPHANT.

Having gone through the description of those quadrupeds that, by resembling each other in some striking particular, admit of being grouped together and considered under one point of view, we now come to those insulated sorts that bear no similitude with the rest, and that to be distinctly described must be separately considered.*

The foremost of these, and in every respect the noblest quadruped in nature, is the elephant, not less remarkable for its size than its docility and understanding. All his

(The Elephant.) torians concur in giving it the character of the most sagacious animal next to man; and yet, were we to

* The GENUS ELEPHAS.—All the accurate ences, and to furnish the world with figures knowledge which we at present possess rela- of unquestionable fidelity, and executed under tive to the mode of propagation, the growth, all the advantages of the present condition of the disposition, and faculties of the elephant, the arts. is founded on observations made upon the The head of the elephant of Africa is Asiatic species : and it may be doubted how smaller, more elongated, and less irregular in far we are warranted in referring the attributes its contour than that of the Asiatic species. of this to the less commonly known elephant, The summit is rounded instead of being which ranges uncontrolled in the wilds of divided by a central longitudinal depression. Africa. Buffon, indeed, and most writers. But the most striking feature in the African previous to Cuvier, have applied the remarks elephant is the enormous size of his ears, of observers to both species indiscriminately, which extend over his shoulders, and when for it was not until they had been subjected agitated to and fro, beat the air with a vioto the penetrating scrutiny of the latter cele- lence and noise equal to that produced by the brated naturalist that their real specific differ- Aapping of the wings of the condor or other ence was distinctly pointed out.

huge bird. On the thick integument which In this country it naturally happens, from invests the disproportionately small foot of our relations with the East Indies, that the the elephant five hoofs may be observed on elephant which is most coinmonly exhibited the fore foot in both species, whilst on the in menageries is of the Asiatic species. The hind foot four hoofs are observable in the two young individuals, which have been seen Asiatic elephant, and three only in the Afrito such advantage during the past summer can. We should be mistaken, however, in in the gardens of the Zoological Society, are supposing that the number of toes strictly of this kind. In the menagerie at the Jardin corresponded to these outward indications ; des Plantes, however, there is at present a fine for in both species, when the skin and Aesh young African elephant (Elephas Africanus, are removed and the bony framework is exCuv.), as well as a noble Asiatic one (Elephas posed, these huge productions of nature are Indicus, Cuv.). Hence the most ample op- seen to have been constructed on the same portunities have been afforded to the eminent plan, and the ultimate divisions of all the four naturalists who have the charge of that truly extremities are seen in the skeleton to be into national establishment to determine accurately five distinct parts or toes. It has been obthe sum and nature of their specific differ. served that the extremity of the proboscis in

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take our idea of its capacity from its outward appearance, we should be led to conceive very meanly of his abilities. The elephant, at first view, presents the spectator with an enormous mass of flesh that seems scarcely animated.

Its huge body, covered with a callous hide without hair ; its large misshapen legs that seem the African elephant is better constructed as down with an irresistible blow of the proboscis, a prehensile organ, and that he seizes thin trodden under foot, or gored to death. The substances with greater ease and effect than morning displays to the survivors the spot his eastern relative. The tail in the African which had been occupied by their plantations species is shorter by half its length than in converted into a wilderness and swamp; for the Asiatic. These characters are open to the elephants tread down and destroy more superficial inspection, and may be readily than they consume. A famine succeeds, and seized by the youngest student of zoology; pestilence, its usual concomitant; and the but the most important specific distinction wretched remnant of the tribe are driven to requires a closer investigation: it is derived the alternative of perishing through hunger, from the differences presented by the worn-or of selling themselves as slaves to a more down surfaces of the grinding teeth ;-those fortunate tribe. of the Asiatic elephant presenting parallel But for occasional ravages of this descriptransverse wavy ridges, while the African's tion man takes ample vengeance, by the ungrinders are marked by transverse lozenge- ceasing warfare waged against the offenders shaped ridges. The degree of difference, for the sake of their tusks. All the methods therefore, between those two animals, when of capture practised against the elephant of strictly considered with reference to the mo- Africa have his destruction for their end, his dern methods in zoology, is even greater than utility being confined to the ivory he furnishes usually separates species such as the dog and for commerce ; for the tusks of this species are wolf; and is equivalent rather to that which very large, and of equal size both in the male distinguishes the dog from the hyena. A and female. We are informed by Lander distinct generic name (Loxodonte) has there that the negroes inhabiting the banks of the fore been proposed for the African elephant. Niger employ a very simple stratagem to

The Asiatic elephant is generally seen insure the destruction of their ponderous and under all the favourable circumstances that dreaded neighbour. In one of the beaten an association with man is calculated to pro- tracks by which the elephants pass down from duce. His wants being supplied, his passions the forests to bathe in the stream, a lance is moderated, and his intellectual powers deve- fixed in the ground, pointing towards the loped by tuition, we find him elevated to the part from which they issue: this being conhighest degree of perfection his nature can cealed by brushwood,

penetrates the abdomen sustain; and in return he renders all his en- of the foremost elephant, who, feeling the dowments subservient to the wants and luxu- smart, instead of retreating backwards, blindly ries of his master. But in the history of the rushes on with augmented speed, and thus is elephant of Africa the scene is sadly reversed. mortally wounded. In the neighbourhood of In the wild regions which he traverses we the Cape, and in other parts of the coast of find that, in his relations to mankind, mutual Africa, where commercial settlements are situfear and deadly enmity usurp the place of ated, and fire-arms have been introduced, services and benefactions. How often in the those weapons are commonly employed. This records of African travellers is the following method of destruction requires great courage, picture presented! A tribe of Africans, of a patience, and capability of bearing fatigue, mild and unwarlike disposition, cultivate a and is attended with considerable personal fertile spot on the banks of some large stream, risk to the hunters. A third method, which and subsist on the produce of their rice. requires still more address, consists in enticing grounds, fields of maize, and plantations of the elephant to pursue a mounted hunter on sugar-cane. The time of harvest having the open plain, while the huge pursuer is arrived, they rejoice at the ample store of hamstringed by a sabre cut inflicted by anonutriment provided for their subsistence dur-ther hunter behind him. One might infer ing the unproductive months. In a single from the previous summary of the present night the hopes of a season are blighted. condition of the African elephant, as relates With nishing noise, and the earth trembling to man, that his disposition was naturally beneath their tread, a herd of wild and hungry vicious, and rendered him incapable of domeselephants come suddenly upon the devoted tication. But there is no real ground for such settlement, attracted by the ripened vegeta- a conclusion. Were the Africans raised to bles. The poor negroes, surprised in sleep, the same degrees of civilization as the Asiatics, and destitute of fire-arms, in vain attempt to there seems little doubt but that their species oppose the progress of these formidable in. of elephant might be made equally useful in vaders. Their simple huts are overturned; a state of servitude; for the specimen now and such as are unable to escape are beaten living in the French National Menagerie has scarcely formed for motion; its little eyes, large ears, and long trunk-all give it an air of extreme stupidity. But our prejudices will soon subside when we come to examine its history: they will even serve to increase our surprise when we consider the various advantages it derives from so clumsy a conformation.

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The elephant is seen from seven to no less than fifteen feet high.* Whatever care we take to imagine a large animal beforehand, yet the first sight of this huge creature never fails to strike us with astonishment, and in some measure to exceed our idea. Having been used to smaller animals, we have scarce any conception of its magnitude ; for a moving column of flesh, fourteen feet high, is an object so utterly different from those we are constantly presented with, that to be conceived it must be actually seen.

Of all quadrupeds the elephant is the strongest as well as the largest ; and yet, in a state of nature, it is neither fierce nor formidable.(R) Mild, peaceful, and brave, it never abuses its power or its strength, and only uses its force for its own protection, or that of its community.t not shown less intelligence than the Asiatic Nero. Pompey harnessed them to his car elephant. It has learned the same tricks, during his triumph for Africa. Germanicus and has performed the same motions and exhibited some which danced in a rude faexercises, under the same circumstances, and shion. In the reign of Nero they were seen in the same period of time. It is as affec. to dance on a rope, carrying at the same time tionate to those who feed him, and as obedient a Roman knight. One may read in Ælian to their commands. The Carthaginians, the extraordinary feats they were brought to moreover, employed elephants for all the pur- execute. It is true they were trained to them poses that they have served in other parts of from their earliest age, and Ælian says even, the civilized world ; and they must have de expressly, that these dancing elephants were rived their supply from the species under con. brought forth at Rome. This assertion, with sideration. Cuvier gives the following con- the confirmation it has received in our own cise account of the ancient history of the day from the experiments of Mr. Corse, leads elephant: -“ Homer speaks frequently of us to hope it will be possible to multiply this ivory, but knew not the animal whence it was useful animal in a state of domestication. derived. The first of the Greeks who saw the elephant were Alexander and his soldiers, feet in height. The tallest ever found in Ben.

* Size.— The elephant rarely exceeds nine have observed them

well

, for Aristotle gives a gal was the Paugul, or Mad Elephant, well complete history of this animal, and much

known about the year 1780: it measured truer in its details than those of our moderns. nearly twelve feet at the shoulder, and was After the death of Alexander, Antigonus stout in proportion. The average of fullpossessed the greatest number of elephants. grown elephants may be estimated at from Pyrrhus first brought them into Italy 472 twelve to thirteen feet high. years after the foundation of Rome: they † ACCOUNT OF A FIGHT BETWEEN A TIGER were disembarked at Tarentum. The Ro AND AN ELEPHANT.- In the midst of a grassy mans, to whom these animals were entirely plain, about half a mile long and nearly as strange, gave them the name of Leucanian much in breadth, about sixty or seventy fine Bulls. Curius Dentatus, who captured four elephants were drawn up in several ranks, of these animals from Pyrrhus, brought them each animal being provided with a mahawat to Rome for the ceremony of his triumph. and a hauda, which was empty. On one side These were the first which were there exhi. were placed convenient seats; the governor, bited, but afterwards they became in some mandarins, and a numerons train of soldiers,

Metellus having van being also present at the spectacle. A crowd quished the Carthaginians in Sicily, con- of spectators occupied the side opposite. The ducted their elephants to Rome on rafts, to tiger was bound to a stake placed in the centre the number of a hundred and twenty, accords of the plain, by means of a stout rope fastened ing to Seneca--of a hundred and forty-two, round his loins. We soon perceived how unaccording to Pliny. Claudius Pulcher had equal was the combat. The claws of the poor combats of the elephant in the circus in 655; animal had been torn out, and a strong stitch and similar combats, either of elephant against bound the lips together, and prevented him elephant, of the elephant against the rhino. from opening his mouth. On being turned ceros, the bull, or the gladiator, were exhibited loose from the cage, he attempted to bound by Lucullus, Pompey, Cæsar, Claudius, and over the plain; but, finding all attempts to

(8). I have extracted the greatest part of this description from Mr. Buffon. Where I add I mark with commas, “ thus."

measure

common.

In their natural state, they delight to live along the sides of rivers, to keep in the deepest vales, to refresh themselves in the most shady forests and watery places. They cannot live far from the water; and they always disturb it before they drink. They often fill their trunk with it, either to cool that organ, or to divert themselves by spurting it out like a fountain. They are equally distressed by the extremes of heat and cold; and, to avoid the former, they frequently take shelter in the most obscure recesses of the forest, or often plunge into the water, and even swim from the continent into islands some leagues distant from the shore. Their chief food is of the vegetable kind, for they loathe all kind of animal diet. When one among their number happens to light upon a spot of good pasture, he calls the rest, and invites them to share in the entertainment; but it must be a very copious pasture indeed that can supply the necessities of the whole

band. As with their broad and heavy feet they sink deep wherever they go, they destroy much more than they devour; so that they are frequently obliged to change their quarters, and to migrate from one country to another.

Such are the habits of this animal considered in a social light; and if we regard it as an individual, we shall find its powers still more extraordinary. With a very awkward appearance,

it

possesses all the senses in great perfection, and is capable of applying them to more useful purposes than any other quadruped. The elephant, as we observed, bas very small eyes when compared to the enormous bulk of its body. But, though their ininuteness may at first sight appear deformed, yet, when we come to examine them, they are seen to exhibit a variety of expression, and to discover the various sensations with which it is moved. It turns them with attention and friendship to its master; it seems to reflect and deliberate ; and, as its passions slowly succeed each other, their various workings are distinctly seen.

The elephant is not less remarkable for the excellence of its hearing. Its ears ure extremely large, and greater in proportion than even those of an ass. They are usually dependent; but it can readily raise and move them. They serve, also, to wipe its eyes, and to protect them against the dust and flies that might otherwise incommode them. It appears delighted with music, and very readily learns to beat time, to move in measure, and even to join its voice to the sound of the drum and the trumpet.

This animal's sense of smelling is not only exquisite, but it is in a great measure pleased with the same odours that delight mankind. The elephant gathers

extricate himself useless, he threw himself at and so much frightened, that nothing could length upon the grass, till, seeing a large prevent him from breaking through every elephant with long tusks approach, he got up obstacle, and fairly running off. The mahaand faced the coming danger. The elephant wat was considered to have failed in his duty, was by this attitude and the horrid growl of and soon after was brought up to the governor the tiger too much intimidated, and turned with his hands bound behind his back, and aside, while the tiger pursued him heavily, on the spot received a liundred lashes of the and struck him with his fore paw upon the rattan. hind quarter, quickening his pace not a little. Another elephant was now brought, but the

The mahawat succeeded in bringing the tiger made less resistance on each successive elephant to the charge again before he had attack. It was evident that the tosses he gone far, and this time he rushed on furiously, received must soon occasion his death. driving his tusks into the earth under the All the elephants were furnished with tusks, tiger, and, lifting him up fairly, gave him a and the mode of attack in every instance, for Near cast to the distance of about thirty feet. Several others were called forward, was that of l'his was an interesting point in the combat. rushing upon the tiger, thrusting their tusks The tiger lay along on the ground as if he under him, raising him, and throwing him to were dead, yet it appeared that he had sus- a distance. Of their trunks they evidently lained no material injury; for, on the next were very careful, rolling them cautiously up attack, he threw himself into an attitude of under the chin. When the tiger was perfectly defence, and, as the elephant was again about dead, an elephant was brought up, who, ina to take him up, he sprung upon his forehead, stead of raising the tiger in his tusks, seized fixing his hind feet upon the trunk of the him with his trunk, and in general cast him foriner.

to the distance of thirty feet.- ARCANA ON The elephant was wounded in this attack, SCIENCE for 1829.

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