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animal wants a tail, like the former, although there is a small protuberance at that part, which yet is rather formed by the skin than the bone. It differs also in having a large callous red rump. The face is prominent, and approaches more to that of quadrupeds than of man. The body is covered with a brownish hair, and yellow on the belly. It is about three feet and a half, or four feet of the animal. The following sketch is taken capability of much extension outwards, which from a drawing made by Charlas Landseer, enlarges the surface of the foot when the Esq., from the original, which is now depo- animal walks; the toes are short, the great sited in the British Museum. The measure- toe is the longest. The eyes of the animal ment of the animal was as follows :-From are close together, with the irides of a hazel the os calcis to the vertex of the head, 2 ft. colour ; the upper eyelids have lashes, the 4 in.; span of the arms, 4 ft.; length of the lower have none: the nose is confluent with
froin the axilla to the termination of the the face, except at the nostrils, which are a fore finger, I ft. 1072 in.; length of the leg, little elevated ; nostrils on each side, and the from the groin to the os calcis, 11 in.; length rose united to the upper lip: the mouth from the xiphoid or ensiform cartilage to the large: ears small, and resembling the human, crest of the pubis, 7, in.
but without the pendent lobe. He has nails The neeth are twelve in each jaw; fone on the fingers and toes; he has two hard incisors. two canine, and six mulares: in the tubercles on the tuberosities of the ischium, upper jaw the canine were placed widely but is destitute of a tail, or even the rudiapart froin the last incisor, giving an appear. ments of one. ance as if a tooth was deficient : this did His food is various : he prefers vegetable not occur in the lower jaw. The teeth
of the diet, as rice, plantains, &c., and was ravenanimal were in very bad condition. The co- ously fond of carrots, of which we had some
lour of the animal is entirely black, being quantity preserved on board. He would covered with stiff hair of a beautiful jet black drink tea, coffee, and chocolate, but neither over the whole body; the face has no hair, wine nor spirits: of animal food he prefers except on the sides as whiskers, and the hair fowl to any other; but a lizard having been stands forward from the forehead cver the caught on board, and placed before him, he eyes; there is little beard. The skin of the took it immediately in his paw, and greedily face is black; the arms are very long, the devoured it. radius and ulna being of greater length than He is not able to take up small objects the os humeri; the hair on the arm runs in with facility, on account of the disproportion one direction, viz. downwards, that on the of the size of the thumb) to the fingers. The forearm upwards; the hands are long and metacarpal bone of the thumb has the mobinarrow, fingers long and tapering; thunb lity of a first joint; the form of both the feet short, 'not reaching farther than the first and hands gives a great prehensile power, joint of the fore finger; the palms of the fitted for the woods where it must be almost hands and soles of the feet are bare and impossible to capture an adult animal alive. black; the legs are short in proportion to the Under the throat is a large black pouch, a arms and body: the feet are long, prehen- continuation of the common integument, and sile, and when the animal is in a sitting very thinly covered with hair: this pouch is posture, are turned inwards, and the toes are not very visible when undistended: it is a bent. The first and second toes are united, thick integument, of a blackish colour and (except at the last joint,) by a membrane, corrugated appearance. It extends from the from which circumstance he has derived his under part of the chin to the throat, and is specific name. He invariably walks in the attached as low down as the upper part of erect posture when on a level surface; and the sternum, and is also attached above to then the arms either hang down, enabling the symphysis of the lower jaw: its use is him sometimes to assist himself with his not well kuown, but it is not improbable that knuckles; or, what is more usual, he keeps it is an appendage to the organ of voice. his arms uplifted in an erect position, with Sometimes, when irritated, I have observed the hands pendent, ready to seize a rope and him infate the pouch, uttering at the same climb up on the approach of any danger, or time a hollow barking noise ;* for the proon the obtrusion of strangers. He walks duction of which, the rushing of the air into rather quick in the erect posture, but with a the sac was an adjuvant. The inflation of waddling gait, and is soon run down if the pouch was not, however, confined to whilst pursued, he has no opportunity of anger; for, when pleased he would purse the escaping by climbing. On the foot are five mouth, drive the air with an audible noise toes, the great toe being placed like the thumb of the hand; the form of the foot is some- • When the barking noise was made, the lips were high, and is a native of most parts of Africa and the East. As it recedes from man in its form, so also it appears different in its dispositions, being sullen, vicious, and untractable.(8)
pursed out, and the air driven into the sac, at the what similar to that of the hand, having an
same time that the sound was uttered, the lower jaw equal prehensile power; the great toe has a was also a little protruded.
THE BABOON.-Descending from the more perfect of the monkey kinds, we come to the baboon and its varieties, a large, fierce, and formidable race, that, mixing the figure of the man and the quadruped in tveir conformation, seem to possess only the defects of both; the petulance of tne one and the ferocity of the other.
The baboon, properly so called, is from three to four feet high, very strong. built, with a thick body and limbs, and canine teeth, much longer than those of men. It has large callosities behind which are quite naked and red. lis tail into the sac; or when yawning, it was also and if the vessel in which the liquid is coninflated ; and in all instances he would gra. tained should be shallow, Łe dips the paw dually empty the sac, as if he derived a into it, holds it over the mouth, letting the pleasure from it. When the sac has been liquid drop in. I never observed him lap distended, I have often pressed on it, and with the tongue when drinking; but when forced the air contained within it into the tea or coffee was given to him, the lingual mouth, the animal nut evincing at the time organ was carefully protruded for the purpose any sign of its being an annoyance to him. of ascertaining its temperature. When uttering the barking noise, the pouch At sunset when desirous of retiring to rest, is not inflated to the same extent as when he he would approach his friends, uttering his yawns. It has been stated in an American peculiar chirping note, beseeching to be publication, that the use of the air-rac is for taken into their arms: his request once aca swimming bladder. It may be said in refu. ceded to, he was as difficult to remove as tation (if the assertion is not too absurd to Sinbad's Old Man of the Sea, any attempt to be refuted) that the animal being one day remove him being followed by violent screams; washed in a large tub of water, although he clung still closer to the person in whose much frightened, did not inflate, or make arms he was lodged, and it was difficult to the least attempt to inflate the sac. He is remove him until he fell asleep. His tailless destitute of cheek-pouches as a reservoir for appearance, when the back is turned towards food.
the spectator, and his erect posture, gives an When sleeping, he lies along either on the appearance of a little black hairy man; and side or back, resting the head on the hands, such an object might easily have been reand seemed always desirous of retiring to garded by the superstitious as one of the rest at sunset; but would often (I suppose imps of darkness. from his approximation to civilization) in. The limbs from their muscular and strong dulge in bed some time after sunrise; and prehensile power, render the animal a fit infrequently when I awoke I have seen him habitant for the forest; enabling him to lying on his back, his long arms stretched spring from tree to tree with an agility that out, and, with eyes open, appearing as if we have frequently witnessed him display buried in deep reflection. The sounds he about the rigging of the ship, passing down uttered were various : when pleased at a re- the backstays, sometimes hanging by his cognition of his friends, he would utter a hands, at others by walking down them in peculiar squeaking chirping note ; when irri- an erect posture, like a rope-dancer, balanciated, a hollow barking noise was produced; ing himself by his long arms; or he would but when angry and frightened, or when chas- spring from one rope at a great distance to tised, the loud guttural sounds of ra, ra, ru, another, or would drop from one above to aninvariably followed.
other below. When he walks in the erect posture, he The position of the feet, when the animal turns the leg and foot outwards, which occa- walks, is turned outwards, and the great toe, sions him to have a waddling gait and bow. which has a capability of great extension, is legged appearance. He would walk the deck, spread out wide, giving a broader surface to being held by his long arm, and then had a the foot; when he walks, to use a nautical resemblance to a child just learning to walk phrase. " he sways the body,” and stepping He has an awkward manner of drinking, by at once on the whole of the under surface of which the liquid is much wasted : he first the foot, occasions a pattering noise, like that applies his lips to the liquid, throwing the which is heard when a duck or any aquatic head up, which may in some degree be attri- bird walks on the deck of a ship.--ARCANA buted to the prominency of the lower jaw; or SCIENCE, 1833.
(8) Omnes femellæ hujusce et precedentium, ut et fere sequentium specierum menstruali patiuntur fluxu sicut in féminis.
is crooked and thick, and about seven or eight inches long. Its snout, for it can hardly be called a face, is long and thick, and on each side of its cheeks it
has a pouch, into which, when satiated with eating, it puts the remainder of its provisions. It is covered with long thick hair of a reddish brown colour, and pretty uniform over the whole body. It walks more commonly upon all fours than upright, and its hands as well as its feet are armed with long sharp claws, instead of the broad round nails of the ape kind.
An animal thus made for strength, and furnished with dangerous weapons, is found in fact to be one of the most formidable of the savage race, in those countries where it is bred. It appears in its native woods, to be impelled by two opposite passions; an hatred for the males of the human species, and a desire for women. Were we assured of these strange oppositions in its disposition from one testimony alone, the account might appear doubtful;
but as it comes from a variety of the most credible (Ribbed-nose Baboou.)
witnesses, we cannot refuse our assent. From them,
therefore, we learn that these animals will often assail women in a body, and force them into the woods, where they keep them against their will, and kill them when refractory.
At the Cape of Good Hope they are less formidable, but to the best of their power equally mischievous. They are there under a sort of natural discipline, and go about whatever they undertake with surprising skill and regularity. When they set about robbing an orchard or a vineyard, for they are extremely fond of grapes, apples and ripe fruit, they do not go singly to work, but in large companies, and with preconcerted deliberation. On these occasions, a part of them enter the inclosure, while one is set to watch. The rest stand without the fence, and form a line reaching all the way from their fellows within to their rendezvous without, which is generally in some craggy mountain. Every thing being thus disposed, the plunderers within the orchard throw the fruit to those that are without as fast as they can gather it; or, if the wall or hedge be high, to those that sit on the top; and these hand the plunder to those next them on the other side. Thus the fruit is pitched from one to another all along the line, till it is safely deposited at their head-quarters. They catch it as readily as the most skilful tennis-player can a ball; and while the business is going forward, which they conduct with great expedition, a most profound silence is observed among them. Their sentinel, during this whole time, continues upon the watch, extremely anxious and attentive; but if be perceives any one coming, he instantly sets up a loud cry, and at this signal the whole company scamper off. Nor yet are they at any time willing to leave the place empty-handed; for if they be plundering a bed of melons, for instance, they go off with one in their mouths, one in their hands, and one under their
arm. If the pursuit is bot, they drop first that from under their arm, then that from their hand; and, if it be continued, they at last let fall that which they had hitherto kept in their mouths. The natives of the Cape often take the young of these animals, and, feeding them with sheep and goats' milk, accustom them to guard their houses : which duty they perform with great punctuality.
The largest of the baboon kind is the Mandril; an ugly, disgusting animal, with a tail shorter than the former, though of a much larger stature, being from four to five feet high. The muzzle is still longer than that of the preceding; it is of a bluish colour, and strongly marked with wrinkles, which give it a frightful appearance. But what renders it truly loathsome is, that from the nose there is always seen issuing a snot, which the animal takes care at intervals to lick off with its tongue and swallow. It is a native of the Gold Coast; it is said to walk more frequently erect than upon all fours; and when displeased. to weep like a child. There was one of them shown in England some years ago. It seemed tame but stupid, and had a method of opening its mouth, and blowing at such as came too near.
The Wanderow is a baboon rather less than the former, with the body less compact and muscular, and the binder parts seemingly more feeble. The tail is from seven to eight inches long; the muzzle is prominent as in the rest of this kind; but what particularly distinguishes it is a large, long, white head of hair, together with a monstrous white beard, coarse, rough, and descending; the colour of the rest of the body being brown or black. As to the rest, in its savage state, it is equally fierce with the others; but, with a proper education, it seems more tractable than most of its kind, and is chiefly seen in the woods of Ceylon and Malabar.
The Maimon of Buffon, which Edwards calls the Pigtail, is the last of the baboons, and in size rather approaches the monkey, being no larger than a cat. Its chief distinction, besides its prominent muzzle, like a baboon, is in the tail, which is about five or six inches long, and curled up like that of a hog; from which circumstance, peculiar to this animal, our English naturalist gave it the name. It is a native of Sumatra, and does not well endure the rigours of our climate. Edwards, however, kept one of them a year in London; and another of them happening at the same time to be exposed in a show of beasts, he brought the two exiles together, to see if they would claim or acknowledge their kindred. The moment they came into each other's presence, they testified their mutual satisfaction,
and seemed quite transported at the interview.* THE MONKEY.—The varieties in the larger tribes of the monkey kind are but few; in the ape we have seen but four, and in the baboon about as many. But when we come to the smaller class, the differences among them seem too tedious for enumeration. These, as was observed in the beginning, are all small in stature,
and with long tails, by which they are distinguished from the preceding, that entirely want the tail, or are large and have but a short one. The varieties in the form and colonr of dogs or squir
(Red Monkey.) rels, is nothing to what are found among monkeys of the smaller kind. Bosman
* A DOG-PACED BABOON.—Died in February, 1828, in the Tower, after having attracted a great deal of atten. tion during its residence in that establishment, by its extraordinary resemblance to humanity, not only in form and appearance, but also in its manners and habits The right arm, in particular, exhibited a singular likeness to the corresponding part of the human figure; so much so, indeed, that had it not been for its hairy covering, and the somewhat unusual length of the fingers, the eye, at least, might almost have mistaken it for a
mentions above fifty sorts on the Gold Coast alone, and Smith confirms the account. Condamine asserts that it would take up a volume to describe the differences of these to be found along the river Amazons; and we are sure that every one of these is very different from those on the African coast.
It is remarkable that the inonkeys of two cantons are never found to mix with each other, but rigorously to observe a separation ; each forest produces only its own; and these guard their limits from the intrusion of all strangers of a different race from themselves. In this they somewhat resemble the buman inhabitants of the savage nations among wbom they are found, where the petty kingdoms are numerous, and their manners opposite.
In general, monkeys of all kinds, being less than the baboon, are endned with less powers of doing mischief. Indeed, the ferocity of their nature seems to diminish with their size ; and when taken wild in the woods, they are sooner tamed, and more easily taught to imitate man than the former. More gentle than the baboon, and less grave and sullen than the ape, they soon begin to esert all their sportive mimickries, and are easily restrained by correction.
In their native woods they are not less the pests of man than of other animals. The monkeys, says a traveller.(8) are in possession of every forest wbere they reside, and may be considered as the masters of the place. Neither the tiger, nor the lion itself, will venture to dispute the dominion, since these, from the tops of trees, continually carry on an offensive war, and by their agility escape all possibility of pursuit. Nor have the birds less to fear from their continual depredations; for, as these harmless inhabitants of the wood usually build upon trees, the monkeys are for ever on the watch to find out and rob their nests; and such is their petulant delight in mischief, that they will fling their eggs against the ground when they want appetite or inclination to devour them.
There is but one animal in all the forest that ventures to oppose the monkey, and that is the serpent. The larger snakes are often seen winding up the trees where the monkeys reside ; and, when they happen to surprise them sleeping, swallow them whole before the little animals have time to make a defence. In this manner, the two most mischievous kinds in all mature keep the whole forest between them ; both equally formidable to each other, and for ever employed in mutnal hostilities. The monkeys in general inhabit the tops of the trees, and the serpents cling to the branches nearer the bottom; and in this manner they are for ever seen
near each other, like enemies in the same field of battle. portion of some brawny blacksmith or hero and soft as silk. The animal was reckoned of the ring. Our deceased friend, we under- of a very rare description; so much so, as to stand, used, at all events, to brandish his pot excite great wonder and admiration among of porter by its assistance, in a style that the natives, who represented that such a would have done honour to any of us; and creature had never but once, to their knowwould swill it off, apparently with quite a ledge, been seen in those parts; and then human relish. His attentions to a dog that the king of Ava sent down a golden cage, used to be a frequent visiter his cage, with a host of people to escort the animal to were, we are told, in the very best style of the golden presence, and expended, besides, dignified patronizing; nor did the little fa- 20,000 rupees in sacrifices and public revourite seem to recognise any difference be- joicings; auguring, from the arrival of the tween the pat of his brother quadruped's paw, extraordinary stranger, the most happy preand that of the whiter-skinned and shorter- sages of good fortune. In the present infingered aniinal. This jolly tippler, how. stance, the creature was unfortunately of too ever, “life's idle business o'er," sunk at last young and tender an age when caught. A under a confirmed dropsy, the effect, we fear, Burmese fioman, who was mursing an infant of his plentiful potations, leaving only the of her own, requested permission to suckle it, memory of his fate as a warning to all sur- and very fairly divided her maternal attention viving debauchees.-AROANA OY SCIENCE, between the two. The animal lived in appa1829.
rent good health and spirits for six days ;
but, whether it was that its nursing disagreed White MONKEY.-A perfectly white with it, or that it was naturally very delicate, monkey was caught in April, 1827, at Ram- it died on the seventh day.-ARCANA ON ree. The hair on its body was white, curly, SCIENCE, 1828.
(8) Description Historique de Macacar, p. 51.