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The animal which was described by that learned physician, was brought from Angola in Africa, where it had been taken in the internal parts of the country, in company with a female of the same kind, that died by the way. The body was covered with hair, which was of a coal black colour, more resembling buman hair than that of brutes. It bore a still stronger similitude in its different lengths; for in those places where it is longest on the human species, it was also longest in this ; as on the head, the upper lip, the chin, and the pubes. The face was like that of a man, the forehead larger, and the head round. The upper and lower jaws were not so prominent as in monkeys; but flat, like those of a man. The ears were like those of a man in most respects; and the teeth had more resemblance to the human, than those of any other creature. The bending of the arms and legs were just the same as in a man: and, in short, the animal, at first view, presented a figure entirely human.
In order to discover its differences, it was necessary to make a closer survey ; and then the imperfections of its form began to appear. The first obvious difference was in the flatness of the nose; the next in the lowness of the forehead, and the wanting the prominence of the chin. The ears were proportionably too large; the eyes too close to each other; and the interval between the nose and mouth too great. The hody and limbs differed, in the thighs being too short, and the arms too long ; in the thumb being too little, and the palm of the band too narrow. The feet also were rather more like hands than feet; and the animal, if we may judge from the figure, bent too much upon its haunches.
When this creature was examined anatomically, a surprising similitude was seen to prevail in its internal conformation. It differed from man in the number of its ribs, having thirteen; whereas, in man, there are but twelve. The vertebræ of the neck also were shorter, the bones of the pelvis narrower, the orbits of the eyes were deeper, the kidneys were rounder, the urinary and gall bladders were longer and smaller, and the ureters of a different figure. Such were the principal distinctions between the internal parts of this animal and those of man ; in almost every thing else they were entirely and exactly the same, and discovered an astonishing congruity. Indeed, many parts were 80 much alike in conformation, that it might have excited wonder bow they were productive of such few advantages. The tongue, and all the organis of the voice, were the same, and yet the animal was dumb; the brain was formed in the same manner with that of man, and yet the creature wanted reason: an evident proof (as Buffon finely observes) that no disposition of matter will give mind; and that the body, how nicely soever formed, is formed in vain, wben there is not infused a soul to direct its operations. Having thus taken a comparative view of this creature with man,
what follows may be necessary to complete the general description. This animal was very hairy all behind, from the head downwards; and the hair so thick, that it covered the skin almost from being seen: but in all parts before, the hair was much thinner, the skin every where appeared, and in some places it was almost bare. When it went on all fours, as it was sometimes seen to do, it appeared all hairy ; when it went erect, it appeared before less bairy, and more like a man Its hair, which in this particular animal was black, much more resembled that of men than the fur of brutes ; for, in the latter, besides their long hair, there is usually a finer and shorter intermixed; but in the ouran-outang it was all of a kind; only about the pubes the hair was greyish, seemed longer, and somewhat different; as also on the upper lip and chin, where it was greyish, like the hair of a beard. The face, hands, and soles of the feet, were without hair; and so was most part of the forehead; but down the sides of the face the hair was thick, it being there about an inch and a half long, which exceeded that on any other part of the body. In the palms of its hands were remarkable those lines which are usually taken notice of in palmistry; and at the tips of the fingers, those spiral lines observed in man. The palms of the hands were as long as the soles of the feet; and the toes npon these were as long as the fingers : the middle toe was the longest of all, and the whole foot differed from the human The binder feet being thus formed as hands, the animal often nsed them as such ; and, on the contrary, now and then made use of its hands instead of feet. The breasts appeared small and shrivelled, but exactly like those of a man: the navel also appeared very fair, and in exact disposition, being neither harder nor more prominent than what is usually seen in children. Such is the description of this extraordinary creature; to which little has been added by succeeding observers, except that the colour of the hair is often found to vary • in that described by Edwards it was of a reddish brown.
Frein a picture so like that of the buman species, we are naturally led to expect a corresponding mind; and it is certain that such of these animals as have been shown in Europe, have discovered a degree of imitation beyond what any quadruped can arrive at.(8)
The little animals we have been describing, which are seldom found above four feet high, seem to partake of the nature of dwarfs among the human species, being gentle, assiduous and playful, rather titted to amuse than terrify. But the gigantic races of the ouran-outang, seen and described by travellers, are truly formidable: and in the gloomy forests, where they are only found, seem to hold undisputed dominion. Many of these are as tall or taller than a man ; active, strong, and intrepid, cunning, lascivions, and cruel. This redoubtable rival of mankind is found in many parts of Africa, in the East Indies, in Madagascar, aud in Borneo.(8) In the last of these places, the people of quality course him as we do the stag; and this sort of hunting is one of the favourite amusements of the king himself.* This creature is extremely swift of foot,
(g) HABITS OF THE ORAN-OUTANG.—Buffon negro; and these at that early age discovered gives an interesting account of one :-" I have an astonishing power of imitation. They even seen it,” says he, "give its hand to show the then sat at the table like men, ate of every company to the door: I have seen it sit at thing without distinction, made use of theú table, unfold its napkin, wipe its lips, make knife, spoon, and fork, both to eat their meat use of the spoon and the fork to carry the and help themselves. They drank wine and victuals to its mouth, pour out its drink into other liquors. When carried on shipboard, a glass, touch glasses when invited, take a they had signs for the cabin boys expressive cup and saucer and lay them on the table, of their wants; and whenever these negput in sugar, pour out its tea, leave it to cool lected attending upon them as they desired, before drinking; and all this without any they instantly few into a passion, seized other instigation than the signs or the com- them by the arm, bit them, and kept them mand of its master, and often of its own down. The male was sea sick, and required accord. It was gentle and inoffensive; it attendance like a human creature; he was even approached strangers with respect, and even twice bled in the arm; and every time came rather to receive caresses than to offer afterwards when he found himself out of injuries. It was particularly fond of sugared order, he showed his arın, as desirous of being comfits, which every body was ready to give relieved by bleeding." it; and, as it had a defluxion upon the breast, * Recent CAPTURE OF THIS ANIMAL so much sugar contributed to increase the -A female oran-outang has lately been disorder and shorten its life. It continued at captured by Captain Hull on the coast of Paris but one summer, and died in London. Sumatra. On his arrival at Truman, where It ate indiscriminately of all things, but it he was kindly received, he heard various preferred dry and ripe fruits to all other ali- accounts from the natives of the animal he ments. It would drink wine, but in small was in search of, called by them Orang quantities, and gladly left it for milk, tea, or Mawah, Mawi, or Mawy. These animals, any other sweet liquor.
they said, resided in the deepest part of a * Such these animals appeared when forest, distant from Truman about five or six brought into Europe. However, many of days' journey, and they appeared very averse their extraordinary habits were probally, the to undertake any expedition in search of result of education, and we are not told how them, stating that these beings would assurlong the instructions they received for this edly attack any small party, especially if a purpose were continued. But we learn from woman should be with them, whom they another account that they take but a very would endeavour to carry off. They were short time to come to a great degree of imita- unwilling also to destroy these animals from tive perfection. Mr. L. Brosse bought two a superstitious belief that they are animated young ones, that were but a year old, from a by the souls of their ancestors, and that they
(g) Le Compte's History of China.
endowed with extraordinary strength, and runs with prodigious celerity. His skin is all hairy, his eyes sunk in his head, his countenance stern, his face tanned, and all his lineaments, though exactly human, harsh and blackened by the sun. In Africa this creature is even still more formidable. Battel calls him the Pongo, and assures is that in all his proportions he resembles a man, except that he is much larger, even to a gigantic state. His face resembles that of a man, the eyes deep sunk in the bead, the hair on each side extremely long, the visage naked and without hair, as also the ears and the hands. The body is lightly covered, and scarcely differing from that of a man, except that there are no calves to the legs. Still, however, the animal is seen to walk npon his hinder legs, and in an erect posture. He sleeps under trees, and builds bimself a hut, which serves to protect him against the sun and the rains of the tropical climates, of which he is a native. He lives only upon fruits, and is no way carnivorous. He cannot speak, although furnished with a greater instinct than any other animal of the brute creation. When the negroes make a fire in the woods, this animal comes near and warms himself by the blaze. However, he has not skill enough to keep the name alive by feeding it with fuel. They go together in companies, and if they bappen to meet one of the human species, remote from succour, they show him no mercy. They even attack the elephant, which they beat with their clubs, and oblige to leave that part of the forest wbich they claim as their own. It is impossible to take any of these dreadful creatures alive, for they are so strong that ten men would not be a match for but one of them. None of this kind, therefore, are taken except when very young, and these but rarely, when the female happens to leave them behind, for in general they keep clung to the breast, and adhere both with legs and arms From the same traveller we learn, that when one of these animals dies, the rest cover the body with a quantity of leaves and branches. They sometimes also show mercy to the human kind. A negro boy, that was taken by one of these, and carried into the woods, continued there a whole year, without receiving any injury.(g) From another traveller we learn, that these animals often attempt to surprise the female negroes as they go into the woods, and frequently keep them against their wills for the pleasure of their company, feeding them very plentifully all the time. He assures us that he knew a woman of Loango that had lived among these animals for three years.* hold dominion over the great forest of Su. her breast, but the young one escaped. She
After some days' debate, however, measured four feet eleven inches in length, and hearing that a Mawah had been seen in and two feet across the shoulders, and was the forest, the young man collected a party of covered with red hair. It is probable from twenty persous, armed with muskets, spears, the spot where this animal was found being and bamboos, and having marched in an east- so near to Truman, that she was the mate of ernly direction for above thirty miles, fell in one destroyed by the party from the brig. with the object of his search. The orang was Her remains, consisting of the skin and all sitting on the summit of one of the highest the bones, were transmitted home by Captain trees with a young one in its arms. The first Hull to Sir Stamford Raffles, at Bencoolen.fire of the party struck off the great toe of the Arcana or Science, 1828. old orang, who uttered a hideous cry,
* HUMOROUS INCIDENT.—Pere Caubasson inmediately lifted up her young one as high brought up an oran-outang, which became so as her long arms would reach, and let it go fond of him that wherever he went it always anjongst the topmost branches, which ap- seemed desirous of accompanying him: whenpeared too weak to sustain herself. During ever, therefore, he had to perform the service the time the party were cautiously approach of his church, he was under the necessity of ing her to obtain anuther shot, the poor shutting it up in a room. Once, however, animal made no attempt to escape, but kept the animal escaped, and followed the father a steady watch on their movements, uttering to the church, where, silently mounting the at the same time singular sounds; and sounding board above the pulpit, he lay perglancing her eye occasionally towards her fectly still till the sermon commenced. young one, seemed to hasten its escape by then crept to the edge, and overlooking the waving her hand. The second volley brought preacher, imitated all his gestures in so groher to the ground, a ball having penetrated tesque a manner, that the whole congregation
(8) Le Brosse, as quoted by Buffon, vol. xxviii. p. 70.
From this description of the ouran-outang, we perceive at what a distance the first animal of the brute creation is placed from the very lowest of the human species. Even in countries peopled with savages, this creature is considered as a beast; and in thosc very places where we might suppose the smallest difference between them and mankind, the inhabitants hold it in the greatest contempt and detestation. In Borneo, wbere this animal has been said to come to its greatest perfection, the natives hunt it in the same manner as they pursue the elephant or the lion, while its resemblance to the human form procures it neither pity nor protection. The gradations of nature in the other parts of nature are minute and insensible; in the passage from quadrupeds to fishes we can scarcely tell where the quadruped ends and the fish begins; in the descent from beasts to insects we can hardly distinguish the steps of the progression ; but in the ascent from brutes to man the line is strongly drawn, well marked, and unpassable. It is in vain that the ouran-outang resembles man in form, or imitates many of his actions; he still continues a wretched, helpless creature, pent up in the most gloomy part of the forest, and with regard to the provision for his own happiness, inferior even to the elephant or the beaver in sagacity. To us, indeed, this animal seems much wiser than it really is. As we have long been used to measure the sagacity of all actions by their similitude to our own, and not their fitness to the animal's way of living, we are pleased with the imitations of the ape, even though we know they are far from contributing to the convenience of its situation. An ape, or a quadruped, when under the trammels of human education, may be an admirable object for human curiosity, but is very little advanced by all its learning in the road to its own felicity. On the contrary, I have never seen any of these long instructed animals that did not, by their melancholy air, appear sensible of the wretchedness of their situation. Its marks of seeming sagacity were merely relative to us and not to the animal; and all its boasted wisdom was merely of our own making. * were unavoidably urged to laugh. The father, way swoops him off; and the little creature surprised and confounded at this ill-timed that had been accustomed to active gambols levity, severely rebuked his audience for their in the wild wood, (to say nothing of change inattention. The reproof failed in its effect; of diet, and climate, and water,) is henceforth the congregation still laughed, and the transferred to, and confined to a small inclopreacher, in the warmth of his zeal, redou- sure, where its movements are circumscribed, bled his vociferations and his actions: these where he is perhaps chained ; and never like the ape imitated so exactly, that the congre- the dog, solaced with the society of its kind; gation could no longer restrain themselves, where, in short, his whole systein and habits but burst out into a loud and continued must undergo a change consequent on slavery, laughter. A friend of the preacher at length and where its faculties have not their fair stepped up to him, and pointed out the cause field for developement. How it is to be exof this improper conduct, and the servants of pected, under such circumstances, that an the church took it away.
oran-outang child, (for all the orans to de+ SAGACITY OF THE ORAN-OUTANG.—Mr. scriptions of which I have had access, were Grant in a paper on the habits and structure supposed to be very young,) should be more of a male and female oran-outang observes— intelligent than the most intelligent of all the Oran-outangs, it has been remarked, have ex. inferior animals, the full-grown dog, in the hibited no greater degree of intelligence than prime of its faculties and strength, naturalized a dog. This, generally speaking, is, I believe, to a state of connexion with human society, a correct enough observation, but then let us and unhappy save under such circumstances ? bear in mind the comparative advantages, in The oran-outang, however, without being relation to his counexion with human soci- taught, will do what a dog, I suspect, cannot ety, that the dog possesses over the oran- be taught to do, and untaught, cannot think outang. Companionship with man is to the of doing : he will untwist or unravel his dog a state of nature and gratification; he chain or cord. If the dog is chained, and is to the manner born.” Not so the poor the chain becomes in any way jammed be. oran-outang; left, perhaps, when an infant tween things lying about, or twisted upon or very young, and unable to provide for itself itself, the animal drags hard at it, away from at some spot, while its mother wanders in the point of entanglement, perhaps increasing another direction, with the intention of re- the evil,- becomes alarmed-cries out, and turning by and by to lead him home. A never thinks of slackening the chain, and Sumatran or Bornese forester passing that returning back to see what the cause of the
The animal next to these, and to be placed in the same class, is the Ape, properly so called, or the Pithekos of the ancients. This is much less than the former, being not above a foot and a half high, but walks erect, is without a tail, and is easily tamed.
Of this kind also is the Gibbon, so called by Buffon, or the Long Armed Ape, which is a very extraordinary and remarkable creature. It is of different sizes, being from four feet to two feet high, It walks erect, is without a tail, has a face resembling that of a man, with a circle of bushy hair all round the visage; its eyes are
(The Barbary Ape.) large, and sunk in its head; its face . tanned, and its ears exactly proportioned. But that in which it chiefly differs from all others of the monkey tribe is the extraordinary length of its arms, which, when the animal stands erect, are long enough to reach the ground; so that it can walk apon all fours, and yet keep its erect posture at the same time. This animal, next to the oranoutang and the ape, most nearly resembles mankind, not only in form, but in gentle manners and tractable disposition. native of the East Indies, and particularly found along the coasts of Coromandel.
(The Long Armed Ape.) The last of the ape kind is the Cynocephalus, or the Magot of Buffon.* This
It is a
inconvenience is. Not so the oran-outang;
THE UNCKA APE OF SUMATRA.—Mr. the moment such an accident occurs, he George Bennett, F. L. S. &c. has communideliberately sets about putting matters to cated to the Magazine of Natural History, rights. He does not drag away froin the an interesting account of the habits and point of resistance, does not insist on running structure of this curious animal; of which forcibly counter, but instantly slackens his the subjoined is an abstract. chain, as a human being would do under the During a visit to the Island of Singapore, like circumstances, and goes back to see what on the 13th of November, 1830, a male speoccasions the obstruction. If the chain has cimen of this interesting animal was pregot entangled with a box or any other article sented to me: it had been recently brought of furniture, he disengages it; if it has be- by a Malay lad from the Menangkabau councome twisted, he considers the matter, and try, in the interior of Sumatra. The Malays untwists it. It may perhaps be said in reply, at Singapore called this animal the Ungka; that the possession of hands gives the oran by Sir Stamford Raffles it has been stated as advantages that the dog has not, in the in- being called the Siamang among the natives; stance referred to, and so undoubtedly it and the Ungka ape is described by F. Cuvier does; but it is not natural for an oran to be as the Onko, in his splendid work on the chained, and the whole process evinces that Mammalia, plates v. and vi. On making in. he thinks or reflects upon the predicament he quiry ainong the Malays at Singapore, they has got into, which the dog apparently does denied this animal being the Siamang, at not, but loses his presence of mind. I have the same time stating that the Siamang a monkey chained in my compound, (Simia resembled it in form, but differed in having entellus,) but when his chain becomes en- the eyebrows and hair around the face of a tangled or twisted, he does not get himself white colour. out of the scrape like the oran-outang, but, The Simia syndactyla is described and like the dog, makes matters worse by dragging figured in Dr. Horsfield's Zoology of Javı ; impetuously.-- ARCANA OY Science, 1832. but the engraving does not give a correct idea