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40, 3 of 36, 3 of 24, and a number of small vessels ; in all, 22 of the line, and 10 frigates.*
The revenues of Denmark are derived from the interest of a capital formed by the sale of crown lands; from a share in the tithes ; from the rights of fishing and hunting let to farm; from licences granted to the farmers to distil their own spirits; from the mint, post, turnpikes, lotteries, and the passage of the Sound. About the year 1750, the number of vessels which passed the Sound both ways was annually from 4,000 to 5,000; in 1752, the number of 6,000 was considered as very extraordinary. They have increased since in the following ratio : 1770 . . . . . . . . .
. 7,736 1777 . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,047 1783 . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,166 1790 . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,734 2796 . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,113 1800 . .
9,048 In 1770, the Sound duties amounted to 459,890 rixdollars; and they have probably been increased since that period to about half a million. To these sources of revenue are to be added a capitation tax, a land tax, a tax on rank, a tax on places, pensions, and the clergy; the stamps, customs, and excise; constituting a revenue of 7,270,172 rixdollars. † The following is a table of the expenses of the Danish government : The court.
. . . . . R. 250,000 The minor branches of the Royal family
180,000 Civil servants.
707,500 Secret service money and pensions : :
231,000 Army :
2,080,000 : : : : : : : : : :
1,200,000 East India colonies . .
180,000 Bounties to commerce and manufactures . . . . . 300,000 Annuities.
27,000 Buildings and repai
120,000 Interest of the public debt
1,100,000 Sinking fund . . . . . . . . . . . 150,000
Total . . . . . . R.6,525,500 The state of the Danish debt does not appear to be well ascertained. Vorage des deux Francais makes it amount to R. 13,645,046. Catteau seems to think it must have been above R. 20,000,000 at that period. The Darish government has had great recourse to the usual expedient of issuing paper money. So easy a method of getting rich has of course been abused : and the paper was, in the year 1790, at a discount of eight, nine, and ten per cent. There is, in general, a great want of specie in Denmark; for, though all the Sound duties are paid in gold and silver, the govern. ment is forced to export a considerable quantity of the precious metals for the payment of its foreign debts and agents; and, in spite of the rigid pro
Secret service money and pensions.
* In 1791, the Swedish army amounted to 47,000 men, regulars and militia ; their navy to not more than 16 ships of the line ; before the war it was about equal to the Danish navy. The author of Voyage des deux Français places the regular troops of Russia at 250,000 men, exclusive of guards and garrisons; and her navy, as it existed in 1791, at 30 frigates. and 50 sail of the line, of which 8 were of 110 guns. This is a brief picture of the forces of the Baltic powers.
+ Upon the subject of the Danish revenues, see Toze's Introduction to the Statistics, edited and improved by Heinze, 1799, tom. xi. From this work Mr. Catteau has taken information concerning the Danish revenues. See also the oth cap. vol. il. of Voyage des deur Français, which is admirable for extent and precision of information. In general, indeed, this work cannot be ovo much attended to by those who wish to become acquainted with the statistics of the north of Europe.
hibitions to the contrary, the Jews, who swarm at Copenhagen, export Danish ducats to a large value. The Court of Denmark has no great credit out of its own dominions, and has always experienced a considerable difficulty in raising its loans in Switzerland, Genoa, and Holland, the usual markets it has resorted to for that purpose. In the census taken in 1769, the return was as follows: In Denmark . . . .
. : :
2,016,127 This census was taken during the summer, a season in which great num. bers of sailors are absent from their families; and as it does not include the army, the total ought, perhaps, to be raised to 2,225,000. The present population of the Danish states, calculating from the tables of life and death, should be about two millions and a half; the census lately taken has not yet been published. From registers kept for a number of years, it appears that the number of marriages were, to the whole population, as I to 125; and the number of births to the whole population were as I to 32 or 33; of deaths, as I to 38. In 1797, in the diocese of Vibourg, out of 8,600 children, So were bastard : in the diocese of Fionia, 280 out of 1,146. Out of 1,356, dead in the first of these dioceses, 100 had attained the age of 80, and one of 100. In 1769, the population of the towns was 144, 105; in 1787, it was 142,880. In the first of these years the population of the country was 641,485 ; and in the later, 667,165. The population of Copenhagen consisted, in the year 1799, of 42,142 males, and 41,476 females. The deaths exceeded the births, says Mr. Catteau ; and, to prove it, he exhibits a table of deaths and births for six years. Upon calculating this table, however, it appears that the sum of the births, at Copenhagen, during that period, exceeds the sum of the deaths by 491, or nearly 82 per annum ; about 1odo of the whole population of the city. The whole kingdom increases 1210, or nearly ads in a year.* There is no city in Denmark Proper, except Copenhagen, which has a population of more than 5,000 souls. The density of population in Denmark Proper is about 1,300 to the square mile.f The proportion of births and deaths in the duchies is the same as in Denmark; that of mar. riages as I to 115. Altona, the second city in the Danish dominions, has a population of 20,000. The density of population in Marschland is 6,000 per square mile. The paucity of inhabitants in Norway is not merely referable to the difficulties of subsistence, but to the administrative system established there, and to the bad state of its civil and economical laws. It has been more than once exposed to the horrors of famine by the monopoly of the commerce of grain established there, from which, however, it has at length been delivered. The proportion of births to the living is as I to 35; that of deaths to the living as i to 49. So that the whole Danish dominions increase every year by about 265; and Norway, which has the worst climate and soil, by about ; exceeding the common increase by nearly sdo of the whole population. Out of 26,197 persons who died in Denmark in 1799,
• The average time in which old countries double their population is stated by Adam Smith to be about 500 years.
+ The same rule is used here as in p. 54.
there were 155 between 80 and 100; and out of 18,354 who died in Norway the same year, there were 208 individuals of the same advanced age. The country population is to the town population in the ratio of 13 to 137. In some parts of Nordland and Finmarken the population is as low as 15 to the square mile.
Within the last twenty or thirty years the Danes have done a great deal for the improvement of their country. The peasants, as we have before mentioned, are freed from the soil. The greater part of the clerical, and much of the lay, tithes are redeemed, and the corvées and other servile tenures begin to be commuted for money. A bank of credit is established at Copenhagen, for the loan of money to persons engaged in speculations of agriculture and mining. The interest is 4 per cent., and the money is repaid by instalments in the course of from 21 to 28 years. In the course of 12 years the bank has lent about three millions of rixdollars. The external and domestic commerce of grain is now placed upon the most liberal foot. ing. The culture of potatoes (ce fruit modeste) has at length found its way into Denmark, after meeting with the same objections which it experienced at its first introduction from every nation in Europe. Hops are a good deal attended to in Fionia, though enough are not yet grown for the supply of the country. Tobacco is cultivated in the environs of Fredericia, in Jutland, by the industrious descendants of a French colony planted there by Frederick IV. Very little hemp and flax is grown in the Danish dominions. They had veterinary schools previous to the present establishment of them in Great Britain. Indeed, there was a greater necessity for them in Denmark, as no country in Europe has suffered so severely from diseases among its animals. The decay of the woods begins to be very perceptible; and great quantities, both for fuel and construction, are annually imported from the other countries bordering the Baltic. They have pit. coal; but either from its inferior quality, or their little skill in working it, they are forced to purchase to a considerable amount from England. The Danes have been almost driven out of the herring market by the Swedes. Their principal export of this kind is dried fish; though, at Altona, their fisheries are carried on with more appearance of enterprise than elsewhere. The districts of Hedemarken, Hodeland, Toten, and Romerige, are the parts of Norway most celebrated for the cultivation of grain, which principally consists of oats. The distress in Norway is sometimes so great that the inhabit. ants are compelled to make bread of various sorts of lichens mingled with their grain. It has lately been discovered that the Lichen rangiferous, or reindeer's moss, is extremely well calculated for that purpose. The Norway fisheries bring to the amount of a million and a half of rixdollars annually into the country. The most remarkable mines in Norway are the gold mines of Edsvold, the silver mines of Konigsberg, the copper mines of Ræraas, and the iron mines of Arendal and Krageræ ; the cobalt mines of Fossum, and the black-lead mines of Englidal. The Court of Denmark is not yet cured of the folly of entering into commercial speculations on its own account. From the year 1769 to 1792, 78,000 rixdollars per annun have been lost on the royal mines alone. Norway produces marble of different colours, very beautiful granites, mill and whetstones, and alum.
The principal manufactures of Denmark are those of cloth, cotton-printing, sugar-refining, and porcelain ; of which latter manufactures, carried on by the Crown, the patient proprietors hope that the profits may at some future period equal the expenses. The manufactories for large and small arms are at Frederickwaerk and Elsineur; and, at the gates of Copenhagen, there has lately been erected a cotton-spinning mill upon the construction so well known in England. At Tendern, in Sleswick, there is a manufacture of lace; and very considerable glass manufactories in several parts of Norway. All the manufacturing arts have evidently travelled from Lubeck and Ham. burg; the greater part of the manfacturers are of German parentage ; and vast numbers of manufacturing Germans are to be met with, not only in Denmark, but throughout Sweden and Russia.
The Holstein Canal, uniting the Baltic and the North Sea, is extremely favourable to the interior commerce of Denmark, by rendering unnecessary the long and dangerous voyage round the peninsula of Jutland. In the year 1785 there passed through this canal 409 Danish, and 44 foreign ships. In the year 1798, 1,086 Danish, and 1,164 foreign. This canal is so advantageous, and the passage round Jutland so very bad, that goods, before the creation of the canal, were very often sent by land from Lubeck to Hamburg. The amount of cargoes despatched from Copenhagen for Iceland, between the years 1764 and 1784, was R. 2,560,000 ; that of the returns, R. 4,665,000. The commerce with the isles of Foeroe is quite inconsiderable. The exports from Greenland, in the year 1787, amounted to R. 168,475; its imports to R. 74,427. None of these possessions are suffered to trade with foreign nations but through the intervention of the mother-country. The cargoes despatched to the Danish West Indies consist of all sorts of provisions, of iron, of copper, of various Danish manufactures, and of some East India goods. The returns are made in sugar, rum, cotton, indigo, tobacco, and coffee. There are about 75 vessels employed in this commerce, from the burden of 40 to 200 tons.
If the slave trade, in pursuance of the laws to that effect, ceases in the Danish colonies, the establishments on the coast of Africa will become rather a burthen than a profit. What measures have been taken to ensure the abolition, and whether or not the philanthropy of the mother-country is likely to be defeated by the interested views of the colonists, are delicate points, which Mr. Catteau, who often seems to think more of himself than of his reader, passes over with his usual timidity and caution. The present year is the period at which all further importation of negroes ought to cease ; and if this wise and noble law be really carried into execution, the Danes will enjoy the glory of having been the first to erase this foulest blot in the morality of Europe, and to abolish a wicked and absurd traffic, which purchases its luxuries at the price of impending massacre and present oppression. Deferred revenge is always put out to compound interest, and exacts its dues with more than Judaical rigour. The Africans have begun with the French :
- am proximus ardet
Ucalegon. Tea, rhubarb, and porcelain are the principal articles brought from China. The factories in the East Indies send home cotton cloths, silk, sugar, rice, pepper, ginger, indigo, opium, and arrack. Their most important East Indian settlement is Fredericksnager.* Denmark, after having been long overshadowed by the active industry of the Hanseatic towns, and embarrassed by its ignorance of the true principles of commerce, has at length established important commercial connections with all the nations of Europe, and has regulated those connections by very liberal and enlightened principles. The
* We should very willingly have gone through every branch of the Danish commerce, if
been apprehensive of extending this article too far. Mr. Catteau gives no general tables of the Danish exports and imports. A German work places them, for the year 1768, as follows ;-Exports, 3,067,051 rixdollars ; imports, 3,215,085.--Ur. Kunden, par Gatspari,
for the customs, published in 1791, are a very remarkable proof
dertion. Everything is there arranged upon the most just and sample principles; and the whole code evidences the striking progress of mer. cantile knowledge in that country. In looking over the particulars of the Danish commerce, we were struck with the immense increase of their freight. age during the wars of this country; a circumstance which should certainly have rendered them rather less disposed to complain of the vexations imposed upon the neutral powers during such periods.* In the first six months of the year 1796, 5,032 lasts of Danish shipping were taken up by strangers for American voyages only. The commercial tonnage of Denmark is put at about 85,000 lasts.
There appears to exist in the kingdom of Denmark, according to the account of Mr. Catteau, a laudable spirit of religious toleration ; such as, in some instances, we might copy, with great advantage, in this island. It is not, for instance, necessary in Denmark that a man should be a Lutheran before he can be the mayor of a town; and, incredible as it may seem to some people, there are many officers and magistrates who are found capable of civil trusts, though they do not take the sacraments exactly in the forms prescribed by the established church. There is no doubt, however, of the existence of this very extraordinary fact; and if Mr. Catteau's authority is called in question, we are ready to corroborate it by the testimony of more than one dozen German statists. The Danish Church consists of 13 bishops, 227 arch-priests, and 2,462 priests. The principal part of the benefices are, in Norway, in the gift of the Crown. In some parts of Denmark the proprietors of the pri. vileged lands are the patrons; in other parts, the parishes. The revenues of the clergy are from the same sources as our own clergy. The sum of the church revenues is computed to be 1,391,895 rixdollars; which is little more than 500 for each clergyman. The Jews, however, are still prohibited from entering the kingdom of Norway. The Court of Denmark is so liberal upon the subject of sectaries, that the whole Royal Family and the Bishop of Seland assisted at the worship of the Calvinists in 1789, when they celebrated, in the most public manner, the centenary of the foundation of their church. In spite of this to lerantspirit, it is computed that there are not more than 1,800 Calvinists in the whole Danish dominions. At Christianfield, on the frontiers of Sleswick and Jutland, there is a colony of Northern Quakers, or Hernhutes, of which Mr. Catteau has given a very agreeable account. They appear to be characterized by the same neatness, order, industry, and absurdity as their brethren in this country ; taking the utmost care of the sick and destitute, and thoroughly persuaded that by these good deeds, aided by long pockets and slouched hats, they are acting up to the true spirit of the Gospel. The Green. landers were converted to Christianity by a Norwegian priest, named John Egede. He was so eminently successful in the object of his mission, and contrived to make himself so very much beloved, that his memory is still held among them in the highest veneration ; and they actually date their chronology from the year of his arrival, as we do ours from the birth of our Saviour.
There are, in the University of Copenhagen, seven professors of Theology, two of Civil Law, two of Mathematics, one of Latin and Rhetoric, one of Greek, one of Oriental Languages, one of History, five of Medicine, one of Agriculture, and one of Statistics. They enjoy a salary of from 1,000 to 1,500 rixdollars, and are well lodged in the University. The University of Copenhagen is extremely rich, and enjoys an income of 3,000,000 rixdollars. Even
* To say nothing of the increased sale of Norway timber, out of 86,000 lasts exported from Norway, 1795, 76,000 came to Great Britain.