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serum into the lung, which, by its slowness, might displace the air from the cells, but of a hæmorrhage from violence. The specific gravity of water is 1000; of blood, 1055; of lung, from 345 to 746 (Gray, page 831)-say an average of 550. Blood is about one-twentieth heavier than water; lung about half as heavy. Will not that buoyancy of one-half float a gravity of one-twentieth? The lung would always contain sufficient air to float itself and the blood. You cannot by any degree of compression short of crushing get so much air out of the lung that it will sink. Lungs of unborn or still-born babies will sink, because they have never been inflated. So will an oedematous, collapsed, hepatized or tuberculous portion of lung. Works on medical jurisprudence do not give this man's test for pulmonary hæmorrhage. It must be remembered, too, that he is testifying with the evident intention of proving that the deceased came to her death by choking. This alone would prevent the escape of air from the lung.
He says, “I think that the lung of a person dying a natural way would sink.” Of all the foolish things that I ever heard of a “doctor” or of a “professur" saying, this is about the worst. Any boy in a grammar-school ought to know better than that.
He says, “Did not see any blood on box or clothing." “Had there been any blood on the body, it was so decayed that it could not be seen.” Any man or woman ought to be able to teach this deponent that blood-stains in garments or on boards last for years; and every medical jurist can relate instances in which blood-stains have been identified as such by the spectroscope, long after they were made.
But here is the climar. He says, “I found the upper portion of the body very moist, while the lower portion was dry; we get this condition in strangulation.” O, memory of Hippocrates! Here is a disciple greater than his master! If this effect were to follow strangulation, the line of the stricture ought to be the boundary between the wet and the dry. And by what occult means is the law of evaporation of fluids suspended in the upper part of a body dead from strangulation? As well might you expect a wet towel, spread out upon a board, to dry at one end and not at the other.
This was the principal testimony in the case, and upon it the jury brought in this verdict, as I am told: “Came to her death by strangulation at the hands of Ed. Palmer.” To my mind, the evidence does not show it; and Tidy says, Volume III, page 267, “Nothing short of distinct external marks would justify the medical jurist in pronouncing death to be the result of strangulation.” The witness says, “I first examined externally to find any injury; found none."
The post mortem evidences of strangulation are, cyanosis of face and extremities; small hæmorrhages from mouth, nose, ears and eyes; swelled and protruded tongue; hands (as in other violent deaths) clenched; marks on neck; internal and middle coats of carotid arteries sometimes ruptured, and lining of larynx and of trachea congested.
I believe Palmer is guilty, but I do not want him convicted on such testimony. I would prefer to have him go free than to have our county endorse such a farcical inquest.
I. N. BRAINERD, M. D. ALMA, MICHIGAN, February 20, 1888.
HEALTH IN MICHIGAN DURING MAY.
Reports to the State Board of Health, Lansing, by observers in different parts of the State, show the diseases which caused most sickness in Michigan during the month of May (five weeks ending June 2), 1888, as follows, the diseases being arranged in the order of greatest prevalence:
Rheumatism, neuralgia, bronchitis, consumption of lungs, intermittent fever, tonsilitis, pneumonia, measles, influenza, remittent fever, erysipelas, diarrhoea, inflammation of kidney, inflammation of bowels, scarlet fever, whooping-cough, typhomalarial fever, dysentery, diphtheria, croup, puerperal fever, typhoid fever (enteric), inflammation of brain, cholera morbus, cholera infantum, cerebro-spinal meningitis, small-pox.
For the month of May, 1888, compared with the preceding month, the reports indicate that consumption and measles increased, and that influenza and neuralgia decreased in prevalence.
Compared with the preceding month the temperature in the month of May, 1888, was much higher, the absolute humidity much more, the relative humidity about the same, and the day and the night ozone slightly more.
Compared with the average for the month of May in the nine years, 1879 to 1887, measles were more prevalent, and intermittent fever, remittent fever, diphtheria, consumption of lungs, and diarrhæa were less prevalent in May, 1888.
For the month of May, 1889, compared with the average of corresponding months in the nine years, 1879 to 1887, the temperature was lower, the absolute humidity was less, the relative humidity was slightly more, the day and the night ozone were much less.
Including reports by regular observers and others, diphtheria was reported present in Michigan, in the month of May, 1888, at twenty-three places, scarlet fever at fifty-four places, typhoid fever at fourteen places, measles at sixty-four places, and smallpox at one place.
Reports from all sources show diphtheria reported at three places more, scarlet fever at eleven places more, typhoid fever at one place less, and measles at nineteen places more in the month of May, 1888, than in the preceding month.
HENRY B. BAKER, M. D., Secretary. LANSING, June 7, 1888.
THE MICHIGAN STATE MEDICAL SOCIETY.
The late meeting of the Michigan State Medical Society, held in Detroit, June 14 and 15, was in all of its features the most successful in the history of the society. The disadvantage to be feared, in having the meeting of the society held in a city that possesses so many attractions to draw the members away from the exercises of the meeting, was not apparent. The attendance was unusually large, and those who came took more than the accustomed interest in the professional work of the sessions. The papers read and the discussions possessed worth and interest sufficient to keep the members in close attendance during the sessions of the several sections. The advantage of having the society divided into sections, a departure that was not very successful or popular last year, was fully demonstrated at this meeting. Formerly the limited time allotted to the reading of papers and their discussion, compelled many valuable productions to be presented only by title, and debarring the discussion of these and abridging it on those read, to such a degree that it was robbed of both interest and profit. The results of the division of the society were this year eminently gratifying; nearly every one of the announced papers were read, and many volunteer papers and subjects were presented.
Even with the new arrangement, it is clearly evident that a meeting of two days is not sufficient time to transact the work of the society in the deliberate manner necessary to obtain the best results. The regular parliamentary business, now consumes one-half the time of the meeting, and must be put through with a dispatch that is uncomfortable. It is to be regretted that a resolution was not offered to extend the time to three days, that it could have been acted upon at the next meeting.
The feature of having a regular address from some one elected by each section, to be delivered on a subject pertaining to the field of that respective section, has become one of the most instructive and pleasing of the various exercises of the meetings; but to have them crowded with the President's address into a single evening session, make a feast too elaborate to be fully enjoyed.
The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President of the Society, Dr. J. E. French, of Battle Creek. For the Sections: Obstetrics: President, Dr. N. W. Webber, Detroit; secretary, Dr. C. H. Leonard, Detroit; orator, Dr. E. W. Jenks, Detroit. Practice of medicine: President, Hugh McColl, Lapeer; secretary, Dr. H. F. Lyster, Detroit; orators, Drs. N. H. Gibbs, E. L. Shurly, E. W. C. Wade and C. Georg. Surgery: President, Dr. C. T. Newkirk, Bay City; secretary, Dr. T. W. Mann, Detroit; orator, Dr. Herman Kiefer.
During the nomination and election of officers, an incident occurred which was significant of the disposition of the members that factional feeling must in the future be kept out of the society.
The next meeting will be held in Kalamazoo, beginning on the second Thursday of May.
“THE DEPENDENCE OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION ON
The evening session of the late State Medical Society was given to the delivering of the President's address; and the "Annual addresses" on Surgery, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, and Practice of Medicine. The former was delivered by Dr. Theo. A. McGraw, who in plain terms pointed out wherein this dependence existed, and how the work of the profession was deprived of some of its best results for the good of the people, on account of the people not appreciating how much these results depended upon their assistance and co-operation. The profession itself did not clearly understand their relation to the people, because "we are too much occupied with our own influence on the people to pay sufficient attention to influence of people on ourselves.”
The responsibility of the low grade, and the inadequate equipment of American medical and surgical schools, rests more with the people than with the profession. The speaker stated an unfortunate truth when he said: “The attitude of the people of Michigan towards its medical schools is not at all satisfactory.” The apathy, if not the actual prejudice, of the people of Michigan towards medical instruction is such that Dr. McGraw thinks that it is doubtful, whether disassociated from the University, a medical school as such would have received any support whatever from any legislation. That the appropriations to the medical department of the University, that have been made from time to time, were always with regard to the interests of the University as a whole. In dealing with the clinical question Dr. McGraw makes some predictions. He says: “It remains for time, which solves so many questions, to discover whether the conflicting interests can be made to harmonize. This much is certain, neither State patronage nor University influence can long sustain the medical department in a flourishing condition if it fails to comply with the demands of the age in the kind of instruction furnished." The popular apathy or prejudice has even greater evil effects upon private medical corporations, in addition to which there are obstacles thrown in the way which are nearly insuperable. The speaker struck home when he said, in reference to the discussions on the merits and demerits of our medical schools: “Even the critics in the profession have habitually charged medical teachers with the responsibility of evils, which medical teachers, more than all others, have had constant occasion to deplore. In fact, the worst evil which we have to encounter is the uncertain and apathetic attitude of the State towards the profession. If the State would undertake itself to vigorously teach medicine, a school could be built up which would rival any European school in efficient teaching.” The peculiar view, and notions of the people cause disabilities in our hospitals, upon which medical schools greatly depend. Whether these are public or private in the character of their management, Dr. McGraw deems it self-evident that these institutions which absorb vast sums in charitable donations from the people should be made to fulfill all of its functions. The one great function of a hospital is the care of the patients within its walls, but he regards it a great mistake, although a mistake made by the managing board of many hos