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CALCULATION OF INTEREST. To find the Interest on any number of Dollars for one Yenr.- Multiply the sum by the rate per ct., and divide by 100, or cut off ihe two right-hand figures, and the answer will be the interest in dollars : but if the original sum be dollars and cents, proceed in the same manner, and the answer will be the interest in cents. To find the interest for more than one year, multiply the answer by the number of years. What is ibe interest on $550 50 for one year at 5 per cent. ?

$550.50 cts.

5

Divisor 100)275250($27, 52 cts., 5 mills. To find the Interest on any number of Dollars

$3,469.32 and Cents for any number of Days.-Múltiply the

25 sum by the number of days ; divide the product hy 6; cut off the two right-hand figures, and the answer

1734660 will be in dollars, cents, and mills.

693864 What is the interest on $3,469.3.2 for 25 days, at 6 per cent. per annum ? Ans. $14, 45 cts., 5 mills. Divisor 6)8673300

1445550 Although the rate of interest may vary from 6 per cent., this method can still be used, by adding when it is more and substracting when it is less than 6 per cent. First find ihe interest at 6 per cent, as in the preceding example, and then- Add .... one sixth of itself..

for 7 per cent.
Add
one third

8 per cent.
Add
.... one half

9 per cent.
Add .... two thirds

“10 per cent. Subtract one sixth

5 per cent. Subtract one third

4 per cent.

64

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MENSURATION.

To find the Superficial Number of Feet a Board contains.-Maltiply the length of the board in feet by the breadth in inches, and divide the product by 12: the quotient is the contents in square feet. If the board is wider at one end than the other, add the breadths of the two ends together, and take half the amount for the mean breadth ; then multiply this by the length, and divide by 12 as before. If the length be feet and inches, reduce the wbole to inches, multiply it by the breadth, and divide by 144, when the answer will be feet.

to find the Cubic Contents of Square Timber.-Multiply the width and thick. What are the contents of a board 9 pess in inches together, and this amount feet 8 inches long and 15 inches wide ? by the length in feet: then divide the 9 ft. 8 iuches=116 inches. product by 144—the answer will be cubic

15 feet. If the length be feet and inches, reduce the length to inches, and multiply

580 as before, dividing the product by 1728 :

116 the answer will be cubic feet. For Round Timber.-Take the mean

144)1740(12 feet 1 inch. diameter of the log clear of the bark ; de.

144 ducting from this diameter one fourih, will give the square of the log; multiply

300 the square thus found in inches into it.

282 Belf, and this product by the length in feet; divide the amount by 144, which

12 will give the cubic contents in feet.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

In 1837, Congress passed a law for regulating the weights and measures of the Union, by which the secretary of the treasury was directed to supply standards of weighits, of length, and oi capacity, acc riting to the standır is of Great Britain, to the governors of states and re enre collectors. The measure of time and cir. cular motion is the same in America and Europe The Troy weight of England was adopted by the U s. for weighing coin and bullion. Apothecaries compound their medicines by the Troy lh ani a sub livision of their own." The avoirdupois weight used in England is also our legal standard for weighing all other aruck's bought and suld by weight. The British and the United States statute acre, square yarl, square foot, and square inch, and the mile, yard, foor, and inch. are the same.

Congress re ain' d the olit English wine gallon, as a measure for liquids, and the Winchester bushel for grain, &c.; though England has abandoned both, and subBii'uted what she terms the imperial measure, whether for wines, beer, and other liquids, or diy articles sold by measure ; her imperial gallon is exacuy I 1-5th of our wine sallon, and measures 277.274 solid inches ; our Winchester gallon measuring 268.8, or about 8} cubic inches less ; her new bushel is equal to 1.0.32 of ours; haped measure was abolishe. I by law in Scotland 200 years ago, though not always in practice. Eugland recognies it in recent laws and the United States have sometimes ordered duties to be coll. cted by it. Apoth caries' Weight.

:-20 grains make 1 scruple D, 3 scruples 1 dram 3; 8 drams 1 ounce 3 : 12 ounces 1 pound lb.

(U. S.) Troy Weighl.—24 grains make 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights, 1 ounce; 12 ounces 1 pound. 1 lb. Troy is to 1 lb. avoirdupois as 144 is to 175; or, 5,760 grains make 1 lb Trov, and 7,000 grains 1 lb. Avoirdupois.

(US) Avoirdupois Weight.-[1 dram or 27 11-32 grains equal 1.7712 grammes] - -16 drams make 1 ounce [equal to 28.334 granmes) ; 16 ounces, 1 pound ; 28 pounds, 1 quarter ; 4 quarters, 1 hundred weight; 20 hundred weight, or 2.240 pounds, 1 ton.

In Philarielphia, and many other places 2,240 lbs. are generally considered a ton. In the state of New York, unless by special bargain, 2,000 lbs. are a ton. Sales by the lb. are the most common; nothing is sold by the cwt. of 112 lbs. In Avoirdupois, 7 lbs. make 1 clove of wool, and 14 lbs. 1 stone. A pack of wool is 240 lbs. In Ohio, when sales are made by the bushel, without a special agreement, the following are the legal weights of a bushel-wheat 60 lbs.; Indian corn 56 ; barley 48; O its 39 ; rye 56: flaxseed 56: cloverseed 64. Corn is usually sold in the Western States 56 lbs. to the bushel. In Boston, 53 lbs. are considered a bushel of Western corn. 36 bushels, or 574 cubic feet, of English coal make 1 chaldron.

In freights, by the rules of the N. Y. Chamber of Commerce, a ton is composed of 8 barrels of Hour ; 22 bushels of grain, peas, or beans, in casks, or 36 in bulk; 36 bushels European, or 31 bushels W. I. salt; 6 barrels of beef, pork, talow, or pickled fish ; 200 gallons, wine measure, of oil, wine, brandy, or other liquids; 29 bushels of sea-coal: 40 cubic feet of square limber, oak plank, pine, cotton, wool, and bale goods; 2,000 lbs. of bar or pig iron, ashes, and all other heavy goods.

(U. S.) Linenr Measure.-3 barley-corns make 1 inch ; 12 inches 1 foot; 3 feet 1 yard ; 54 yards 1 rod or pole ; 40 rods 1 furlong; 8 furlongs 1 mile. A hand is 4 inches ; a fathom 6 feet ; 120 fathoms 1 cable's length; a cubit if feet ; 694 statute, or 60 sea miles, 1 degree ; 360 degrees a great circle of the earth ; 3 miles are a league ; 1 link is equal to 7.92 inches; 100=792 inches, or 66 feet, or trods, or 1 chain; 80 chains=320 rods, or 1 mile.

An English or American mile is 5280 feet; A Dutch mile 24303 feet; a Ro. man 4884 feet; an Arabian 6444 feet; a Persian Parasang 18108 feet; 4 English miles make 1 German ; 24 English 1 French league; the Spanish and Polish mile is about 34 English miles; the Russian mile or verst is about thrce fourth of an English mile; the Hungarian, Danish, and Swiss mile is between five and six English miles; the Swedish nearly seven.

Cloth Mensure.-4 nails or 9 inches make 1 quarter; 4 quarters, 1 yard.

(V. S.) Square Mensure.-144 square inches make 1 square foot; 9 sq. feat, 1 sq. yard; 304 sq. yards, 1 sq. rod : 40 sq. rols, 1 rood ; 4 roods, or 43560 feet, 1 acre ; 640 acres, 1 sq. mile ; 16 square rods or 10 square chains make an acre.

(U. S.) Solid Meisire-1.728 cubic inches nake 1 cubic foot ; 27 cubic feet, 1 cubic yaril; 42 cubic feet. 1 ton of shipping : 40 cubic feet, 1 ton of unbewn timber; 50 cubic feet 1 ton squarer timber. A pile of wood 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 4 feet hiih (or 128 cubic feet), make 1 cord.

(US) Iline Meisure —4 gills make ) pint; 2 pints. I quart; 4 quarts, 1 gallon; 314 gallons, 1 barrel; 63 gallons, 1 bogsliead; 2 hogsheads, 1 pipe; 2 pipes, 1 tun.

(US) Dry, or \Vinchester Mensure.--4 gills make 1 pint=33.6 cubic inches =0.5.50.53 French litres; 2 pints 1 quart = 67-40 cubic inches = 1.10107 litres, 4 quarts 1 gallon= 268.8 cub. in. = 4.40428 litres; 2 gallons 1 peck = 537.6 cub. in. = = 8.808 litres ; 4 pecks 1 bushel = 2150.42 cub. in. = 35.2343 litres; 5 quarters 1 wey or load.

The Winchester bushel is 184 inches wide and 8 inches deep; it contains 2150 2-5 solid inches, being 47 1-5 less than the imperial bushel. Of wheat the bushel is 60 lbs. The barrel of Aour contains 5 Winchester bushels, and weighs, net, 196 lbs. The barrel of Indian cor contains 3 1-8 busliels. The weight of a gallon of molasses is usually 11 lbs. but sometimes 10 or 12.

Brilish Imperin (nerr) Standard Measure, compared with Winchester and Wine Measure.- Oir extensive dealings with England make it useful for businessmen to have an explanation of the difference between the imperial measure for liquids and dry articles, and our Winchester and wine measures, wbich latter were formerly used in England.

By the imperial standard, adopted in England in 1826, 1 gill is = 8 665 solid inches : 4 gills = 1 pint; 2 pints 1 quart ; 4 quarts gallon, or 277.274 solid inches: 2 gallons 1 peck; 4 pecks 1 bushel, or 2218.191 inches; 4 busbels are 1 coomb; 2 coombs (8 bushels) 1 quarter.

The quarter of wheat is equal to the quarter of a ton of 2240 lbs or 560 lbs 70 Ibs. in weight are an English bushel wheat, while 60 lbs. of wheat make our bushel; so that the U. S. wheat bushel is just 6-7ths of the English or imperial, and a quarter of wheat in England is equal to 94 bushels in the United States, thouglı in capacity to only 8} bushels.

The U. S grain gallon measnres 268.8 solid inches; the wine gallon 231 inches; the imperial measures 2774 inches; 36 of our wine gallons are very nearly equal to 30 imperial gallons. The obsolete English ale and beer gallon measured 282 culiic inches.

The imperial standard gallon is a measure that will hold 10 lbs avoirdupois of pure (distilled) water, weighed in air'at 620 Fahrenheit, the barometer being at 30.

This is the unit standard in Britain of capacity, fros liquids. ale, beer, wine, spir. its, and dry articles pot measured by heaped nieasure. Our Winchester gallon weighs 9 lbs. 10 oz ar 1 3-4 drams of pure water.

I Winchester quarter = 0.9694.5 of air imperial quarter ; 33 W’inchester quarters = 31 99175 imp. ; 98 W.= 95.00.581 imp. ; 100 W.= 96.94470 imp.

To Reduce the Price of Iherit, in Sterling, per Imperial Qunter, to Dollars and Cents.-Reduce the shillings per quarter into dollars and cents. at 24.2 cts. per shilling. aur divide by 9: the number of U. S. busht-ls in an imperial quarter.

Ex+MPLE-Required the price of wheat per U. S bushel in Liverpool, when it fetches 588. 6d. per imperial quarter. 58s. 6d. equals $14.15, which, divided by 91, gives $1.514 ihe price per bushiel.

:

TABLE OF FOREIGN WEIGHTS 'AND MEASURES,

REDUCED TO THE STANDARD OF THE UNITED STATES.

(The two right hand figures are the hundredth parts of a whole number.)
FRANCE.

SPAIN.
Metre..

3.28 feet. Quintal, or 4 arrobas .101:44 lbs. Decimetre (1-10th metre)... 3.94 inches. Arroba ..

25:36 lbs. Velt. 2.00 galls. Arroba of wine.

4:43 galls. Hectolitre

26-42 galls.
Fanega of grain.

1 60 bush. Decalitre

2.64 valls.

PORTUGAL. Litre 211 pints. 100 lbs.

101.19 lbs. Kilolitre 35:32 feet. 22 lbs. (1 arroha)

22 26 lbs. Hectolitre.

2.84 bush. 4 arrobas of 22 lbs. (1 quintal) 89-05 lbs. Decalitre..

9:08 quarts.
Alquiere.....

4.75 bush. Millier 2 205 lbs. Mojo of grain

23 03 bush Quintal .220-54 lbs. Last of salt.

70.00 bush Kilogramme 2.21 lbs. Alinude of wine.

4:37 galls. AMSTERDAM.

SICILY. 100 lbs. 1 center.. . 108.93 lbs. Cantaro groso.

.192 50 lbs. Last of grain. 85.25 bush. Cantaro sottile.

175-00 lbs. Ahm of wine.

41:00 galls.
100 lbs....

70 00 lbs. Amsterdam foot.. 0.93 foot. Salma grossa of grain

9.77 bush. Antwerp foot. 0.94 foot. Salma generale..

bush. Rhineland foot. 1.03 feet. Salma of wine..

23.06 galls. Amsterdam ell 2.26 feet.

NAPLES.
Ell of the Hague.

2.28 feet.
Cantaro groso

196.50 lbs. Ell of the Brabant. 2:30 feet. Cantaro picolo..

..106 00 lbs. NETHERLANDS.

Carro o grain.

52 24 bush. Ell. 3.28 feet. Carro of wine...

.264.00 galls. Mudde of Zak 2.84 bush.

ROME.
Vat hectolitre..

26 42 galls.
Rubbio of grain..

8:36 bush. Kan litre.

2:11 pints.
Barih of wine...

15:31 galls. Pond kilogramme. 2.21 lbs.

GENOA.
HAMBURG.
100 lbs. or peso groso...

76 87 lbs. Last of grain

89-64 bush. 100 lbs. or peso sottile. 69.89 lbs. Ahm of wine.

38-25 galls.
Mina of grain.

3 43 bush. Hamburg foot. 0.96 foot. Mezzarola of wine

39 22 galls. Ell...

1.92 feet.

FLORENCE AND LEGHORN.
PRUSSIA.
100 lbs. or I cantaro.

74 86 lbs. 100 lbs. of 2 Cologne marks

Moggio of grain.

16 59 bush. each 103 11 lbs. Barile of wine..

12 04 galls. Quintal, 110 lbs.. .113-42 lbs.

VENICE. Sheffel of grain. 1.56 bush. 100 lbs. peso groso.

.105.18 lbs, Eimar of wine 18:14 galls. 100 lbs. peso sottile..

64.04 lbs. Ell of cloth.. 2:19 feet. Moggio of grain..

9.08 bush. Foot 1.03 feet. Anifora of wine.

.137 00 galls. DENMARK.

TRIESTE. 100 lbs. 1 centner 110-28 lbs. 100 lbs..

123.60 lbs. Barrel or toende of corn.... 395 bush. Stajo of grain..

2 34 bush. Viertel of wine..

2:04 galls.

Orna or eimer of wine..... 14.94 galls. Copenhagen or Rhineland

Ell for woollens..

2.22 feet. foot... 1.03 feet. Ell for silk...

2:10 feet. SWEDEN.

MALTA. 100 lbs. or 5 lispunds 73-76 lbs. 100 lbs. 1 cantar.

.174 50 lbs. Kan of f corn.... 7.42 bush. Salma of grain..

8.22 bush. Last.. 75.00 bush.

0 85 foot. Cann of wine 69 09 galls.

SMYRNA. Ell of cloth 1.95 feet. 100 lbs. (1 quintal)

129 48 lbs. RUSSIA. Oke..

2 83 lbs. 100 lbs. of 32 laths each. 90-26 lbs, Quillot of grain.

1.46 bush Chertwert of grain.. 5-95 bush, Quillot of wine.

13.50 galls. Vedro of wine.

CHINA. Petersburgh foot...... 1.18 feet. Tail.

1.33 oz. Moscow foot.. 1.10 feet. 16 tails 1 catty..

1.33 lbs. Pood.... 36.00 lbs. 100 catties 1 picul.......

133.25 lbs.

Foot.....

3.25 galls.

24

1 00

50 25 10 5

65 90

12 50

24

1 00 .40 to

50 24

18

TABLE OF GOLD AND SILVER COINS

WITH THEIR VALUE, ACCORDING TO WEIGHT.
GOLD COINS.

OTS.

7 66 $ cts. Forty Lire United States Double Eagle.. 20 00 Twenty Lire

3 83 United States Eagle (since 1834) 10 00 Ten Lire

1 90 United States Eagle (before 18:34).....10 50 Sequin

2 20 United States Half Eagle (since 1834).. 5 00 Ten Scudo

.10 00 United States Hall-Eagle (before 1834). 5 25 Twenty Drachms, Greece..

3 30 United States Quarter Eagle... 2 50 Turkish Gold Coin.. California Half-Eagle

4 90 to 5 00 United States Gold Dollar

1 00

SILVER COINS. Doubloon, Mexico, Central America, United States Dollar

New Granada, Ecuador, Colombia, Half Dollar

Peru, Bolivia, Chili...... ..15 60 Quarter-Dollar Doubloon, Spain

..16 00 One Dime... Half Doubloon, Bolivia, Peru, &c......7 75 Half-Dime Half-Doubloon, Spain..

8 00 Dollar, Mexico, Central America, New Quarter-Doubloon, Mexico, Colombia,

Granada, Colombia, Peru, Chili, Peru. Bolivia, Chili, &C.... 3 75 Argentine Confederation, &c. .... 1 00 Quarter-Doubloon, Spain..

4 00 Base Dollar, New Granada Eighth-Doubloon. Spain.... 2 00 Base Dollar, Bolivia..

98 Sixteenth-Doubloon, Mexico, Central 960 Reis, Brazil and Portugal..

1 00 America, New Granada, &c.... 90 1,200 Reis.. Sixteenth-Doubloon, Spain

1 00 One Real, South American states..6 to Half-Joe, Brazil 8 50 Half-Dollar

.30 to Half-Joe, Portugal. 6 to 8 50 Quarter-Dollar.

.22 to Eighth-Joe, Portugal.

1 75 Spanish Dollar Moidore, Brazil and Portugal... 4 75 to 6 00 Half-Dollar Tenth-Moidore, Brazil and Portugal... 50 Quarter-Dollar.

23 to Crown, Purtugal

5 75 Head-Pistareen.. Dobraon, Portugal...

.34 00 Pistareen Five Sovereigns, England

.24 20 Half-Pistareen.. Double Sovereign.

9 67 Five Pecetas Sovereign

.4 80 to 4 83 One Peceta .. Half-Sovereign

2 41 Crusado, Portugal. Guinea

5 00 Six Vintems Halt-Guinea

2 50 Testoon.. Third of a Guinea..

1 66 Crown, England One Mohur, East India Company 675 Half-Crown Double Louis d'or, France

9 00 Shilling.. Louis d'or

4 50 Sixpence Forty Francs.

7 66 Rupee, East India Company. Twenty Francs..

3 83 Crown, France. Six Francs

1 12 Five Francs.. Ten Thalers, Germany.

7 80 Two Francs Five Thalers

3 90 One Franc. Frederick d'or, Prussia

3 90 Crown, Italy Double Frederick d'or

7 80 Scudo.. Sovereign .

6 50 One Livre Half-Sovereign

3 25 Rix-Dollar Ten Gilders.

3 98 Florin Five Gilders

1 98 Crown, Germany Carolin

4 75 Thaler. Half-Carolin

2 85 Florin Quarter-Carolin

1 18 Gilder Twelve Marks...

1 55 Six Stivers.. Ducat.

2 20 Six Kreutzers. Quadruple Ducat, Austria.

8 80 Ducatoon, Germany Twenty-Five Francs..

4 75 Ducatoon, Belgium Imperial, Russia...

7 Halt-Imperial, or Five Roubles 3 90 Rix-Dollar, Denmark, Sweden, Nor; Hundred Lire, Italian States.

.19 15 way, &c. ...... Eighty Lire

..15 32) Rouble, Russia

16
8
90
16
50
12

6
1 00 fo 1 12
50 to 56

23 11 40 1 06 93 34

17 93 to

97 86 to

97 17 93

20 1 00 to 1 02

66 to 1 02 40 to 45

36
6

2
1 15

93 100

75 to 1 10

73

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