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to fulfil his promise. Lenity and despatch were therefore strongly recommended to the Parliament in several royal messages and speeches, emanating, undoubtedly, from the advice, and, probably, from the pen of Hyde.* “ It is evident," said a royal message to the Commons on the 18th of June, “ that all we have or do offer doth “ not enough compose the minds of our people,
nor, in their opinions, can their security be provided for till the Act of Indemnity and “ Oblivion be passed ; and we find great industry “ is used by those who do not wish that peace to “ the kingdom they ought to do, to persuade our “ good subjects that we have no mind to make
good our promises, which, in truth, we desire to perform for our own sake, as well as theirs. And
we do therefore very earnestly recommend it to “you, that all possible expedition be used in the passing that most necessary act."
." + On the 27th of June, the King came to the House
* That Charles's speeches and messages were composed by Hyde, appears, in many instances, from internal evidence of sentiment and style, and, in many, from the rough drafts in Hyde's hand-writing, which are extant among his papers in the Bodleian Library. The following is one of these: « His Majesty, takinge notice of the delay in the pass"inge the Bill of Indemnity, and of the greate obstructions to the peace, " and security of the kingdome, which aryse from that delay, doth very “ earnestly recommend to the House of Peers that they will use all pos“sible expediçon in passinge the same, and that they will rest satisfyed “ with the excepçons they have already made of persons, and from hence “ forwarde that they not thinke of any further excepçons of persons “ either as to life or estate, or any other incapacity, but endeavour by all “ means to bury all thoughts of animosity and revenge, that the whole “ Island may returne to those mutuall offices of conversation and
friendship which can only establish a firm and lastinge peace.” + Com. Journals, June 18. 1660.
of Lords and delivered a speech, in which he alluded to two previous recommendations of “the speedy
despatch of the Act of Indemnity as a necessary “ foundation of that security we all pray for;” declared that he never thought of excepting from pardon any other than “ the immediate murderers" of his father ; besought them to “oblige all other
persons by not excluding them from the benefit “ of this act ;" spoke of the advantages of mercy ; and added, “therefore I do earnestly desire and “conjure you to depart from all particular animo“sities and revenge, or memory of past provo“cations, and that you will pass this Act with“out other exceptions than of those who were “ immediately guilty of that murder of my “ Father.” *
Conferences ensued between the two Houses, in which the point most warmly contested was the interpretation to be attached to the Proclamation of the 6th of June—the Commons maintaining, that by implication it promised pardon to all who surrendered themselves-the Lords, that it was merely of the nature of a summons, and conferred only the right of trial, and the chance of acquittal or of pardon. After much debate, a compromise was effected, which consisted in the adoption of a middle course, not warranted by either of the foregoing interpretations; and it was agreed that the Regicides who surrendered themselves should be
Lord's Journals, July 27. 1660.
tried for their lives, but should not be executed CHAP. without the sanction of an act of Parliament.
At length the Bill passed both Houses, and 1660. received the Royal Assent.* It first pardoned generally all political offences since June 1. 1637 ; then made the following exceptions; -of fifty-one persons (of whom forty-nine were named) who were instrumental to the death of Charles I., with a proviso that the nineteen who had surrendered themselves should not receive capital punishment without the sanction of an act of Parliament to be passed for that purpose of Vane and Lambert of Haselrig, and six others, as far as regarded any punishment not capital - of twenty persons by name rendered incapable of any office, ecclesiastical, civil, or military — of all others (except Ingoldsby and Tomlinson) who, since December 5.1648, had given sentence of death in any illegal high court of justice, or signed a warrant for the execution of persons so condemned.
* On the occasion of this Bill receiving the Royal Assent, the Speaker of the House of Commons thought it not inconsistent with good taste, good feeling, the gravity of the occasion, and the dignity of his office, to pour forth such fustian as the following:-“ But looking “ over a long, black, prodigious, dismal roll and catalogue of male“ factors, we there met not with men but with monsters, guilty of blood “ – precious blood — precious Royal blood — never to be remembered “ without tears — incomparable in all kinds of villanies that ever were “ acted by the worst of miscreants-perverters of religion, subverters of “ the Government, false to God, disloyal to the best of kings, and per“ fidious to their country. And, therefore, we find an absolute and “ indispensable necessity incumbent on us to except and set some “ apart for an antidote to expel the poison of sin and rebellion out of “ others; and that they may be made sacrifices to appease God's wrath " and satisfy divine vengeance.” Parliamentary History, iv. 113.
The next important business was the settlement of the Revenue. Pecuniary embarrassment had
been a fruitful source of dissension between the of the Re- Crown and the Parliament in the preceding reign ;
and it was advisable to make such provision as would preclude the recurrence of such dissension. That the Parliament should abandon its controlling power, and the Crown be relieved from its dependence on the people, was not desirable ; but it was desirable to abate any great disproportion between the exigences and the supplies, and to obviate that recklessness which such disproportion tended to encourage -- to leave little to the capricious fluctuations of parsimony and generosity -- and in the words of Lord Clarendon)" to settle such a revenue
upon the Crown as the King might conform his expense to, and that it should not be in any
body's power to make that revenue be esteemed “ by him to be greater than in truth it would
“ be.” * Sept. 4. A Committee appointed to consider this subject,
reported to the Commons that the average revenue of Charles I., from 1637 to 1641 inclusive, had been 895,819l.: and the average expenditure about 1,100,0001. At that time prices were lower, and the country less burthened with navy and garrisons, among which latter, Dunkirk alone now cost more than 100,0001. a-year. It appeared, therefore, that the least sum to which the King could be expected
* Life of Clarendon, i. 421.
to “conform his expense,” was 1,200,000l.: and CHAP. this was the revenue which the Parliament agreed to settle upon him. There is reason to believe,
1 that in the existing temper of the House of Commons, and during the first ebullitions of exuberant loyalty, it would have been possible for the King to have obtained the assignment of a much larger income. But the Chancellor, it is said, would make no such request, but discountenanced a liberality which would have encouraged Charles's extravagance, and rendered him too little dependent on the representatives of the people. “ It was “ believed,” says Burnet, “ that if two millions had “ been asked he could have carried it. But he “ had no mind to put the King out of the neces“sity of having recourse to his Parliament. The “ King came afterwards to believe that he could “ have raised both his authority and revenue much “ higher, but that he had no mind to carry it “ farther, or to trust him too much.” * By the
* Burnet, i. 271. 435. Pepys, iv. 276. Welwood's Memoirs, 121. Père d'Orleans, iii. 144. Pepys was told by Sir W. Coventry that Lord Southampton, “ when the King did show himself forward for “ passing the Act of Indemnity, did advise the King, that he would hold “ his hand in doing it till he had got his power restored that had been “ diminished by the late times, and his revenue settled in such a “manner as he might depend on himself, without resting upon parlia“ments, and then pass it. But my Lord Chancellor, who thought he “ could have the command of parliaments for ever, because for the “ King's sake they were awhile willing to grant all the King desired, “ did press for its being done ; and so it was, and the King from that “ time was able to do nothing with the Parliament almost." iv. 276, 277.
The following statement is made by Père d'Orleans :-“ Une per" sonne digne de foi m'a dit savoir du Comte de Bath, qu'Alexander “ Popham, homme d'intrigue et de beaucoup d'habilité, offrit au Roi