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whoin Guacanahari had represented in such frightful colours. From them the Spaniards met with such a recep. tion as convinced them of their martial and daring spirit : and they found in their habiiations the relics of those hor. rid feasts, which they had made upon the bodies of their enemies taken in war. Columbus, eager to know the state of the colony he had left, proceeded directly to Hispaniola. When he arrived off Navidad where he had left the thirtyeight men under the command of Arada, he was astonished that none of them appeared ; and expected every moment to see them running with transports of joy to Welcome their countrymen.

Foreboding in his mind what had befallen them, he rowed instantly to land. All the natives, from whoin he might have reccived information, Ad at his approach. The fort which he had built, was demolished, and the tattered garments, the broken arms and utensils scatterech about it, left no room to doubt concerning the unhappy fate of the garrison.

VVbile the Spaniards were lamenting over the sad mer morials of their countrymen, a brother of the cazique Guacanahari arrived, who gave Columbus a particular de tail of what had happened after his departure from the is. land. The conduct of the Spaniards, and their familiar in. tercourse with the Indians, lended to diminish that vene. ration with which they at first inspired them

As soon as the powerful restraints, which the presence and authority of Columbus imposed was withdrawn, the garrison threw off all subordination to the officer whom he had left in command. They roamed as free-booters through the country; the gold, the women, the provisions were all the prey of these licentious oppressors : they 68tended their rapaci'y to every corner of the island. Gentle and timid as the inhabit nts werey un vruvokid injuries a: length rouzed their courage

The cazique of Cibao, whose territories the Spaniards chiefly infested, on account of the gold which they contained, surprized and cut off several stitiling Perlis. lie next assembled his subjects, surrouveled the fest, and stit on fire. Some of the Spaniards were killed in defending it, the rest perished in attempting to escape, by crossing an arm of the sea. Guacauabari, wlio still retained his affec. tion for the Spaniards, took up arms in their defence, and received a wound, by wliich he was still confined.

Columbus, although he entertained some suspicions of the fidelity of Guacanahari, yet he considered that this was not a proper time to enquire into his conduct : he, therefore, rejected the advice'of several of his officers, who urged him to seize the person of that prince, and revenge the death of their countrymen, by attacking his subjects. He considered it necessary to secure the friendship of some potentate of the country, in order to facilitate the settlement which he intended. Therefore, in order to pre. vent any future injury, he made choice of a more healthy situation than that of Navidad. He traced out the plan of a town in a large plain before a spacious bay, and made every person put his hand to a work on which their com. mon safety depended ; the houses and raniparts were soon so far advanced by their united labour, as to afford them Shelter and security.

This being the first city founded in the new world, by the Europeans, Columbus named it Isabella, in honour of his patroness, the queen of Castile. Columbus had to . sustain all the hardships in carrying on this necessary work, and encounter all ihe difficulties to which infant colonies are exposed, when they settled in an uncultivated country ; le had also to contend with what was more dif. ficult and insuperable, the laziness, the inpatience, and the mutinous disposition, of his followers. The natural inace tivity of the Spaniards, seemed to ericrease under the enervating influence of a hot climate. Some of them were gen. tlemen unused to bodily fatigue ; they had engaged in the enterprize with the same sanguine hopes, excited by the splendid and exaggerated accounts, of those who had returned with Columbus from his first voyage, conceiving that it was either the Cipango of Marco Polo, or the Ophir from whence Solomon imported those precious commodities, which suddenly diffused such immense riches through bis kingdom

But wi'en, instead of that golden harvest, which they expected to reap without much toil or pains, they found their prospect of wealth was remote and uncertain : and, if attained, it must be by slow and persevering efforts of ir.dustry; the disappointment of their hopes occasioned such dejection of inind, as led to general discontent. In vain did Columbus endeavour to revive their spirits by expatiating on the fer ility of the soil, and displaying the specimens of gold daily brought in from the different parts of the islans

Their patience was too much exhausted to wait the gradual returns of the former, and they despised the latter as scanty and inconsiderable.. · A conspiracy was formed, which threatened fatal consequences to Columbus, and the colony. Fortunately he discovered it, and seized the ringleaders; some of them he punished, and sent the others prisoners to Spain ; with These he sent twelve ships, which had served as transports, with an earnest request for a reinforcement of men, and a large supply of provisions.

That the people might not have leisure to brood over their disappointments, and nourish a spirit of discontent, he sent them on several expeditions into the interior part of the country. One detachment he sent under the command of Alonzo de Ojeda, an enterprizing officer, to visit the district of Cibao, which was said to yield the greatest quantity of gold; and followed himself with the main body of the troops. He displayed in this expedition, all the pomp of military parade, in order to strike the imagination of the natives; he marched with colours Oying, martial music, and a small body of cavalry, that sometimes appeared in front, and sometimes in the rear The horses were objects of terror, no less than admiration, to the Indians, who were unacquainted with that vast accession of power, which man had'acquired by subjecting them to his dominion. They considered them as one animal with their riders : they were astonished at their speed, and deemed their strength and impetuosity irresistible

Notwithstanding this display of power, wisely intended to inspire the natives with an high idea of the strength of the Spaniards, Columbus did not neglect the arts of gaining their love and confidence. He adhered strictly to the principles of integrity and justice, in all his transactions with them, and treated them on every occasion, with hu. manity and indulgence.

The district of Cibao was mountainous and uncultiva. ted : in every brook and river gold was gathered, either in * dust or grains; some of which were of considerable size.

The Indians had never penetrated into the bowels of the earth, in search of gold ; they had neither capacity nor inclination to refine the rude ore ; these were operations too complicated for their talents or industry : neither did they wish to put their ingenuity and invention upon the stretch in order to obtain it,

T'he Spaniards however, no longer doubted that the country contained rich treasures in its bowels, of which they soon expected to be masters. The account of these promising appearances of wealth, in the country of Cibao, comforted the desponding colony, which was afflicted with distresses of various kinds. Provisions became scârce, and what remained was corrupted by the heat, and humidity of the climate, so as to render it unfit for use. The ground the natives cultivated, was insufficient for their own subsistence, and the Spaniards had neither time nor leisure, to reap any considerable fruits from their own industry.

They now became afraid of perishing with lunger, and were reduced to live at short allowance, Diseases prera. lent in the torrid zone, began to spread amongst them ; alarmed at their violence and unusual symptoms, they exclaimed against Columbus and the companions of his for. iner voyage, who, by their exaggerated descriptions of Hispaniola, had allured them from their native ceuntry, to settle in a barbarous uncultivated land, to die either by - famine, or of unknown distempers These complaints came not only from the common people, but several offi, cers and persons of note, joined in these seditious coni. plaints : father Boyle, the apostolical vicar, was one of the most turbulent and outrageous It required all the autho. rity and address of Columbus, tore es ablish order and tranquillity in the colony. But the prospec! of wtalih, from the mines of Cibao contributed to sooth ti't nalecontents, which they hoped would be a recompense for all their sufferings, and efface the memory of past disappointnents. When concord and order, were in a good degree established, Columbus resolved to pursue his discoveries, tiat he might be able to ascertain whether those new countries with which he had opened a communication, were connected with any region of the earth already known, or whether they were to be considered as a stparate part of the globe, bitherto un visited. ; He appointed his brother, Don Diego Columbus, and a council of officers, to assist tu govern the islund in his ab. sence, To Don Pedro Margarita, he gave the command of a body of troops, with whon he was to visit the differ: ent parts of the island, and endearuur 10 establish the authority of the Spaniards riaving left then particular ind structions with respect to their conduct, he weighed anchor

the twenty-fourth of April, taking with him one ship and two smal 1 essels.

During this voyage, he experienced all the hardships to which persons of his profession are commonly exposed, and notwithstanding he was out five months, made po additional discovery, except the island of Jamaica, which ap. peared beautiful in the extreme. As he sailed on this unknown course, he was entangled among rocks and shelves, retarded by contrary winds, assaulted by furious stornis, and with terrible thunder and lightning, which is almost incessant, between the tropics. To add to his dis. tress, his provisions fell short. His crew exhausted with fatigue and hunger, murmured and threatened ; and were ready to proceed to the most desperate extremities against him.

Danger appearing, in various forms, kept him on continual watch; to issue every order, and superintend the execution of it. At no time his skill and experience, were more severely tried :- to these, the squadron owed its safety. Though naturally of a vigorous, and robust'constitution, such unremitied fatigue of body, and intense application of mind, brought on a pestilential. fever, termiDating in a lethargy, which considerably impaired his reason, and his memory, and nearly deprived him of his life. In this dilemma, the crew determined to return with all possible haste to Isabella, which they effected in five days : Columbus recovered his senses, on the abating of the fever, but he remained a considerable time in a feeble stale. Here, to his inexpressible joy he found his brother Bartholomew, which greatly contributed to his recovery. It was now thirteen years, since the two brothers had separated, and during that space had no intercourse with each other.

Bartholomew after concluding his negociation, at the court of England, had set out for Spain, by the way of France. At Paris he first received the account of the discoveries his brother had made, in his first voyage, and that he was preparing to embark on a second expedition, Tbis intelligence made him pursue his journey with the utinost dispatch : but Columbus had sailed before he reached Spain,

Ferdinand and Isabella received him, with the respect due to the brother of a man, whose services and merit nad rendered him so conspicuous : and as they knew what

VOL, I.

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