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that relief his agitated spirits stood in need of. Columbus hitherto had heard no account of La Pinta, and suspected, not without cause, that his treacherous associate had set sail for Europe, that he might claim the merit of carrying the first tidings of the discoveries to Spain, and so far gain. the attention of his sovereign as to rob Columbus of the glory and reward to which he was justly intitled. But one vessel now remained, and that the smallest, and most crazy of the squadron ; in which they were compelled to traverse a vast ocean, with so many men back to Europe • To remedy this last inconvenience, he proposed to his men the great advantages that would accrue by leaving some of them on the Island, to learn the language of the ne ves, stusly their disposition, examioe the country, search is mines, and prepare for the commodious settlement of

le colony, for which he proposed to return, and secure Those advantages which it was reasonable to expect from nis discoveries. To this proposal all his men assented, and many offered voluntarily to remain behind. Guacanahari was pleased with the proposition, as he conceived that with such powerful allies, he should be able to repel the attacks of a warlike and fierce people he called Caribeans, who sometimes invaded his dominions, delighting in blood, and devoured the flesh of the prisoners, who unhappily fell into their hands. Guacatahari as he was speaking of these dreadful invaders, dicovered such symptoms of terror, as well as consciousness of the inability of his own people to resist them, that led Columbus to believe such a proposal would be very agreeable. Guacanahari, closed instantly with the proposal, and thought himself safe under the protection of beings sprung from, and superior in power to mortal men. · The ground was marked out for a small fort, wbich was called by Columbus Navidad, because it was Christmasday when he landed there. A deep ditch was drawn around it : the ramparts were fortified, and the great guns saved out of the admiral's ship were planted upon them. In ten days the work was completed ; the simple unsuspecting Indians, laboured with inconsiderate assiduity, in erecting this first monument of their own servitude. The high opinion the natives entertained for the Spaniards, was increased by the caresses and liberalily of Columbus ; but while he wished to inspire them with confidence in their disposition to do good, he also wished to give them som

VOL, I,

of the country was governed by a powerful cazique famed Guacanabari, who was one of the five sovereigns among whom the whole island was divided. He immediately sent messengers to Columbus with a present of a mask. of beaten gold, curiously fashioned, and invited him to his town near the harbour now called cape Francois. Colum. bus returned the cazique's civilities by a deputation of some of his own people ; who returned with such favour-, able accounts of the country and people, as inade Columbus impatient for that interview which Guacanahari had. desired.

For this purpose he sailed from St. Thomas on the twenty-fourth of December with a fair wind and smooth sta; and as he had not slept for two days, at midnight he relired to take some repose, committing the home to the Pilot, strictly enjoining him not to quit it for woment. But he dreading no danger, incautiously gave h im in charge to a cabin boy, and the ship was carries way by the current, and dashed against a rock. The v ende of the concussion awakened Columbus He imm liately went upon deck, and there he found all was confusion and despair. He alone retained presence of mind. Helin, mediately ordered some sailors to take a boat and carry oat an anchor astern ; but they, instead of complying with the orders of their admiral, made off to La Nigna, about half a league disļant. He then commanded the masts to be cut down, but all his endeavours were too late ; the ves. sel filled so fast with water, that it was impossible to save her. The smoothness of the sea, and the timely assistance from La Nigna, enable the crew to save their lives. The natives, as soon as they heard of this disaster, crowded to the shore with Guacana hari at their head, and lamented their misfortune with tears of sincere condolence. But they did not rest satisfied with this unavailing expression of their sorrow; they launched a vast nuniber of canoes, and under the direction of the Spaniards rendered important services, in saving the properly out of the wreck ; Guacanahari in person took charge of the goods as they were landed ; and by his orders were all deposited in one place, and posted centinels to keep the multitude at a distance,

Next morning this prince visited Columbus, who was on board of La Nigna, and in the warnich of affection offered all he had to repair his luss. Such tender assiduity. and sincere condolence in a savage, afforded Columbus

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that relief his agitated spirits stood in need of. Columbus hitherto had heard no account of La Pinta, and suspected, not without cause, that his treacherous associate had set sail for Europe, that he might claim the merit of carrying the first tidings of the discoveries to Spain, and so far gain. the attention of his sovereign as to rob Columbus of the glory and reward to which he was justly intitled. But one vessel now remained, and that the smallest, and most crazy of the squadron : in which they were compelled to traverse a vast ocean, with so many men back to Europe - To remedy this last inconvenience, he proposed to bis men the great advantages that would accrue by leaving sone of them on the Island, to learn the language of the nyives, study their disposition, examine the country, search femines, and prepare for the commodious settlement of The colony, for which he proposed to return, and secure hose advantages which it was reasonable to expect from his discoveries. To this proposal all his men assented, and many offered voluntarily to remain behind. Gu.canahari was pleased with the proposition, as he conceived that with such powerful allies, he should be able to repel the attacks of a warlike and fierce people he called Caribeans, who sometimes invaded his dominions, delighting in blood, and devoured the Aesh of the prisoners, who unhappily fell into their hands. Guacabahari as he was speaking of these dreadful invaders, dicovered such symptoms of terror, as well as consciousness of the inability of his own people to resist them, that led Columbus to believe such a proposal would be very agreeable. Guacanahari, closed instantly with the proposal, and thought himself safe under the protection of beings sprung from, and superior in power to mortal men. · The ground was marked out for a small fort, which was called by Columbus Navidad, because it was Christmasday when he landed there. A deep ditch was drawn around it: the rainparts were fortified, and the great guns saved out of the admiral's ship were planted upon them. In ten days the work was completed ; the simple unsuspecting Indians, laboured with inconsiderate assiduity, in erecting this first monument of their own servitude The high opinion the natives entertamed for the Spaniards, was increased by the caresses and liberality of Columbus ; but while he wished to inspire them wiih confidence in their disposition to do good, he also wished to give them somę

VOL. 1,

striking idea of their power lo punish and destroy such as provoked their just indignation. With this view, 'he drew up his men in order of battle, in view of a vast concourse of people, and made an ostentatious display of the force of the Spanish arms.

These rude people, strangers to any hostile weapons, but wooden swords, javelins hardened in the fire, and reeds pointed with the bones of fishes, admired and trembled, but the sudden explosion of the great guns, struck them with such terror and astonishment, that they fell flat to the ground, and covered their faces with their hands; and when they beheld the effects of the balls, they were persuaded that it was impossible to resist men who cane as med with thunder and lightning against their enemies. After giving such powerful impressions of the power and beneficence of the Spaniards, Columbus chose out thirty-eight of his people to remain in the island. The command of these was given to Diego de Arada, a gentleman of Cordova ; Columbus investing him with the same powers which he had himself received from his royal patrons : after furnishing him with every thing rea quisite for this infant colony. He strongly insisted on their preserving concord amongst themselves, a prompt and ready obedience to their commander, and the maintenance of a friendly intercourse with the natives, 'as the surest means of their preservation That they should cultivate the friendship of Guacanahari, but not put themselves in his power by straggling in small parties from the fort. He then took his leave, after promising to revisit them soon with a reinforcement sufficient to take full possession of the country. He further prorrised to place their merit in a conspicuous light to the king and queen.

Having thus taken every precaution to secure the colony, be left Navidad on the fourth day of January, 1493, and steering towards the east on the sixth, he discovered L'a

Pinta, after a separation of more than six weeks. Pinzon 'endeavoured to justify his conduct, pretending he had been driven from his coarse dy stress of weather, and prevented from 'returning by contrary winds. Columbus though no stranger to his perfidious intentions, as well as the false. hood he urged in his defence, was so sensibie that it was not a proper time for exerting his authority, and was so pleased with joining his consort, as it delivered him from somc uneasy apprehensjons, that he adınitted the apology

without difficulty, and restored him to favour., Columbus now found it necessary, from the eagerness which his men shewed to visit their native country, and the crazy condi. tion of his ships, to hasten his return to Europe.

With this view, on the 16th of January, he direcied his course to :he north-east, and was soon out of sight of his newly discovered country. He had some of the bar tives whom he had taken from the different islands on board ; and besides the gold which was the principal obe ! ject of research, he had specimens of all the productions which were likely to become subjects of conimerce, as well as many strange birds and other natural curiosities, which might attract the attention, and excite the wonder of the people,

The voyage was prosperous to the fourteenth of February, at which time they had advanced five hundred leagues when the wind began to rise, and blow with increasing rage, till it terminated in a violent hurricane. Colum. bus's naval skill and experience was severely put to the proof; destruction cecmed inevitable; the sailors had recourse to prayers, and to the invocation of saints, to vows and charms, to every thing that religion or superstition suggests to the affrighted mind. No prospect of deliverance appearing, despair was visible in every countenance, and they expected every moment to be smallowed up by the waves. Columbus had to endure feelings peculiar to himself. He dreaded that all the knowledge of his discove. ries would be lost to the world, and that his name would de; scend to posterity as that of a rash deluded adventurer, instead of being transmitted with the honour due to the allthor and conductor of the noblest enterprize, that had ever been undertaken. Reflections like these extinguished all sense of his own personal danger. More solicitous to preserve the memory of what he had achieved, than the preservation of his own life, he retired lo his cabin, and wrote upon parchment a short account of the voyage he had made, the course he had taken, and of the riches and situation of the country he had discovered, and of the small colony lie had left there.

Having wrapped this up in an oiled cloth, which he en. closed in a cake of wax, he then carefully put it into a . cask, effectually stopping it to keep out the water, he threw it into the sea, in hopes that some fortunate accident might preserve a deposit of so much importance to the world!

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