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which were inseparable from-military service in the New World But in Almagro these splendid accomplisliments were joined to an openness, generosity, and candour, natural to men who profess the military art In Pizarro they were united with the address, the craft, and the dissimulation of a politician; he had the art to conceal bis own purposes, and sagacity to penetrate into those of other men), · Hernando de Luque was an ecclesiastic, who acted both as priest and schoolmaster at Panama, and who had amassed riches that inspired him with thoughts of rising to greater eminence. Such were the men who eventually overturned one of the most extensive empires recorded in Listory.
. Their confederacy was authorized by Pedrarias, the governor of Panama, and was confirmed by the most salemn act of religion. Luque celebrated mass, divided a consecrated host into three parts, of which each had his portion, and thus in the name of the prince of peace, ratified a contract, of whichaplunder and bloodshed were the objects.
Picirro set sail from Panama on the fourteenth of Noa vember, 1524, with one single vessel, and an hundred and twenty men. Almagro was to conduct the supplies of provisions, and reinforcements of troops, and Luque was to remain at Panama to negociate with the governor, and promote the general interest. Pizarro had chosen the most iniproper time of the whole year; the periodical winds at that time set in, and were directly adverse to the course he proposed to steer After beating about for seventy days, his progress towards the southeast was no inore than what a skilsul navigator will make in as many hours.
Pizarro, potwithstanding his suffering incredible hardships from famine, fatigue, and the hostility of the natives where he landed, but above all the disle mpers incident to a moist sultry climate, which proved fatal to several of his men ; yet bis resolution remained undaunted, and he ene cleavoured by every persuasive art, to reanimate their desponding hopes. At length he was obliged to abandon the inhospitable coast of Terra Firma, and retire to Chu
chama, opposite to the pearl islands, where he hoped · to receive a supply of provisions and troops from Panama
Almagro soon after followed him with seventy men, and landing them on the continent, where he had hoped to meet with his associate, was repulsed by the 1st ions ; in which conflict he lost one of his eyes, by the wount of an arrow : they likewise were con pelled to re-embaik, and chance directed them to the place of Piz ro's lellest, where they found some con.olaiion in recounting to exch other their sufferings Norwithstanding all they had sufo fered, they were infi, xibly bent to pursue their original intention. Almagro repaired to Panama, in hopes of ico cruiting their shattered troops; but his countrymen, dis. couraged at the recital of the sufferings he and Piz.ro had sustained, were not to be persuaded to engave in such hard service. The most that he could mumler w.ts about fourscore men Feeble us this remforcement was, they did not hesitate about resurning their operations.
After a long series of disasters. part of the armament reached the bay of St Matthew on the coast of Quro, and landed at Tacaintz to the south of the river of Emeralds, and beheld a country more fertile than any they had yet discovered on the Southern Ocean ; the natives were clad in garments of woollen, or otton Stuff, and adorned with trinkets of gold and silver. Pizarro and Almagro, however, were unwilling to invade a country $0 populous, with a handful of men enfocbled by discasts and fatigue.
Almagro mnet with an unfavourable reception frum Pedro de los Rios, who had succeeded Pedrarias in the govern. ment of Panama. After weighing the matter with that cold economical prudence esteemed the first of all virtues, by persons of limited faculties, incapable of concciving or executing great designs, he concluded the expedition-de. trimental to an infant colony ; prohibited the raising new levies, and dispatched a vessel to bring hoine Pizarro and his companions from the island of Gallo.
Almagro and Luque deeply affected with these mea. sures, communicated their sentiments privately to Pizarro, requesting him not to relinquish an enterprize on which all their hopes depended, as the means of re-establishing their reputation and fortune. Pizarro's mind, inflexibly bent on all its pursuits, required no incentive to persist in the scheme. He peremptorily refused to obey the go. Vernor of Panama's orders, and employed all his address, and eloquence in persuading his men not to abandon hinh But the thoughts of revisiting their families and friends, after so long ap absence, and suffering such incredible hardships, rushed with such joy into their minds, that when Pizarro drew a line upon the sand with his sword, permite ting such as wished to return home to pass over it, only thirteen daring veterans remained with their commander.
This small, but determined band, whose names the Spa. nish historians record will deserved praise, as the persons to whose persevering forţiiude their country is indebied for the most valuable of all its American possessions, fixed their residence in the island of Gorgona, where they de. termined to wait for supplies from Panama, which they trusted their associates there would eventually procure.
Almagro and Luque were not inattentive or cold solici- tai tors, and their incessant importunity was seconded by the general voice of the people, who exclaimed loudly against the infamy of exposing brave men, engaged in the public service, charged with no error, but what flowed from an excess of zeal and courage. The governor overcome with intreaties and expostulations at last consented to send a small vessel to their relief. But unwilling to encourage Pizarro in any new enterprize, he would not permit one land man to embark on board it.
Pizarro and his companions had remained at this time five months on an island in the most unhealthy climate in the region of America : during which period, they were buoyed up with hopes of succours from Panama; till worn out with fruitless expectations, they in despair came to a resolution of committing themselves to the ocean on a bit float ; but on the arrival of the vessel from Panama; they where transported with such joy, that all their sufferings were forgoiten. Pizarro easily induced them to resume their former scheme with fresh ardiour. Instead of returning to Panama, they stood towards the south east, when on the twentiei h day afier their departure, they discovered the coast of Peru.
They landed in 1526, at Tumbez, a place of some note, distinguished for its stately, temple, and a palace of the Incas or sovereigns of the country. There the Spaniards feasted their eyes with the first view of the opulence and eivilization of the Peruvian empiie, a counlry fully peo. gled, and cultivated with an appearance of regular industry
the natives deeently clothed, ingenious, and so far surpassing the other natives of the New World, as to have the use ot tame domestic animals. But their notice was most pleasingly a tracted with the show of gold and silver, which not only appeared as ornaments on their persons, and tem- » ples, but several of their vessels for cominon use were made of those precious metals. Pizarro and his companions seemed now to have attained the completion of their most sanguine hopes, and concluded all their wishes and dreams of inexhaustible treasures, would soon be realized..
It was, however, impracticable for Pizarro, with such a Sender force, to make any progress in subjugating a country so populous, and of which he hoped hereafter to take possession. He ranged, however, along the coast, maintain. ing a friendly intercourse with the nalives, who were no less astonished at their new visitants, than the Spaniards were with the uniform appearance of opulence and culti. yalion, which they beheld.
Having explored the country. as far as was requisite, to ascertain the importance of the discovery, Pizarro procured from the inhabitants some of their Lauas or tame cattle, to which the Spaniards gave the name of sheep ; some vessels of gold and silver, as well as some specimens of their other works of ingenuity, and two young men, whom he proposed to instruct in the Spanish language, that they might serve as interpreters in the expedition which he meditated, - With these he arrived at Panaina. Yet neither the splendid relation which he and his associates gave of the incredible opulence of the country which he had aiscovered, nor the bitter complaints he made on account of the, unseasonable recal of his forces, which had put it out of his power to make a settlement there, could move the governor to swerve from his former purpose. His coldness, however, did not in any degree abate the ardour of the three associates; they therefore determined to solicit their sovereign to grant that permission which was refused by bis delegate. . .
With this view after adjusting among themselves that Pizarro should claim the station of governor, Almagro that. of lieutenant governor', and Luqu the dignity of bishop, in the country witch they proposed to conquer, they sent Pizarro as their agent to Spains . ;
Pizarro lost no time in repairing to court: he appeared before the emperor with the unembarrassed dignity of a man conscious of what his services merited ; and he conducted his negociations with such dexterity and address, which could not have been expected from his education or former habits of life. His description of his own sufferings, and pompous account of the country which he had discovered, confirmed by the specimens he had brought, made such an impression on Charles, and his ministers, that they not only approved of the intended expedition, but seemed to be interested in the success of its leader. Pre. suming upon those favourable dispositions, Pizarro paid little attention to the interest of his associates. But as the pretensions of Luque did not interfere with his own, he obtained for him the ecclesiastical dignity to which he as. pired. For Almagro he ,claimed only the command of a fortress, intended to be erected at Tumbez To himself he secured whatever his boundless ambition could desire. He was appointed governor, captain-general, and Adelantado of all the country which he had discovered and hoped to conquer; with supreme authority, civil as well as military and an absolute right to all the privileges and emolua ments usually granted to adventurers in the New World, His jurisdiction was declared to extend two hundred leagues along the coast, south of the river St. Jago ; to be independent of the governor of Panama: and he had power to nominate all the officers who were to serve under hini.
In return for these concessions, Pizarro engaged to raise two hundred and fifty men, and to provide the ships, arms and warlike store3, requisite towards subjecting to the crown of Castile, the country of which the government was allotted him. Pizarro's funds were so low, that he could not complete more than hali the stipulated number ; after he had received his patents from the crown, he was obliged to steal away privately out of the port of Seville, in order to elude the scrutiny of the office rs who had in charge, to examine whether he had fulfilled the stipulations of his contract : before his departure, however, Cortes who had returned to Spain, about this time, advanced hina a supply of money, willing to contribute his aid towards enabling an ancient companion, with whose talents and courage he was well acquainted, to begin a career of glory similar to that which he himself had finished.