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rie-Ss disgraceful to his former fame, he surrendered to one of Gasca's officers; Carvnjal endeavouring to escape, was overtaken, and seized. Gascn, liappv in this bloodless victory, did not stain it with cruelty. Piiarro, Carvajal, and a small number of the most notorious offenders, were punished capitally. Pizarro was beheaded the day after he surrendered. He submitted to his fate with a composed dignity, and seemed desirous to atone by repentance for the crimes which he had committed. The end of Carvajal was suitable to his life. On his trial he offered no defence-. When the sentence, adjudging him to be hanged, was pronounced, he carelessly replied, "One can die but once." In the interval between the sentence and execution, he discovered no signs of remorse for the past, or solicitude about the future, scoffmg at all who visited him, in his usual sarcastic vein of mirth, with the same quickness of repartee and pleasantry, as at any other period of his life, Cepeda more criminal than cither, ought to have shared the same fate,but the merit of having deserted his associates at such a critical moment,and with such decisive effect, saved him from immediate punishment. He was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and died in confinement.
On the death of Pizarro, the malecontents in every corner of Peru laid down their arms, and tranquillity seemed to be perfectly re-established. But two very interesting objects still remained to occupy the president's attention. The one v/as to fmd employment immediately for a multitude of turbulent, daring adventurers, with which the country was filled; as might preve^Hiliemi from exciting new commotions. The Other to reward those, tp whose loyalty and valour he was indebted for his success. The former of these he accomplished by appointing Pedro de Valdivia to prosecute the conquest of Chili, and by empowering Diego Centeno to underfake the discovery of the vast regions'borderkig on the river De la Plata; the reputation of these leaders, and the hopes of bettering their condition,allured many desperate soldiers to follow theirstandards, and drained that part of the country of a large portion of that inflammable mutinous spirit which Gasca dreaded. The latter was an affair of great difficulty, ^"ho claimants were wry ntf> merousv
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'* HISTORY OF, &e. J
That he might have leisure to weigh the cotnparatrvil merits of their several claims, he retired with the archbishop of Lima to a village twelve leagues from Cuzrol There he spent several days in allotting to eachadisM srtrict of lands and a number cf Indians, in proportion to his idea of their past services.
But that he might get beyond the reach of the fierce storm of clamour aud rage which he foresaw would burst out on the publication of the decree, he setot for Lima leaving the instrument of partition sealed up, with orders not to open it for some days after his depar tare. As he expected, so it happened, but by his pnr dent management the discontented were appeased, and order was established. Having now accomplished every object of his mission, Gasca longed to return to a private station. He committed the government of Peru to the court of audience, and set out for Spain, where he was received with universal applause. Men let cnterprizing and desperate, and more accustomed to move in the path of sober and peaceable industry, set* tied inPcru, and the royal authority was gradually established as firmly there, as in the other Spanish coloniesC
HISTORY Of AMERICA,
COLUMBUS in his third voyage, having attained -.he great object of his ambition, by discovering the conUncut of America; his success produced a number of adventurers from all nations; the year before this, Sebastian Cabot, in the service of Henry the Seventh of England, discovered the Northern continent, of which it is intended now explicitly to treat. The questions. <vhich first present themselves to our notice arc, From what part of the Old World has America been peopled? and how accomplished? Few questions in the history of mankind have been more agitated than these. Philosophers and men of learning and ingenuity, have been, speculating" upon them.evcr since the discovery of the American Islands by Columbus. But notwithstanding, -ill their labours, the subject still affords an ample field for the researches of the man of science, and for the fancies of the theorist.
It has been long known that an intercourse between the old continent and America, might be carried on with facility, from the north-west extremities of Europe, and the north-east boundaries of Asia. In the year 982, the Norwegians discovered Greenland, and planted a colony there. The communication with that country was renewed in the ,Ust century by Moravian missionaries ,ll order to propagate their doctrines in that bleak uncultivated region. By them we arc informed that the north-west coast of Greenland is separated from America by a verynarrow strait; that at the bottom of the bay it is highly probable they are united; that the Esquimeaux of America, perfectly resemble the Green* landers, in their aspect, dress, and manner of living; and that a Moravian missionary, well acquainted with the languageof Greenland, having visited the country of the Esquimeaux, found to his astonishment, that they spoke the same language,and were, in every respect the same people. The same species of animals, arc also