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II. ABBREVIATIONS USED IN ELECTROTHERAPEUTICS. A., or Aa. Anode.

KI.

Klang (Sound). A. C. C. . Anodal Closure Contraction,

K. C.. Kathodal Closing. A. D... Anodal Duration.

K. C. C. . Kathodal Closing Contraction. A. 0. Anodal Opening.

K. C. T. . Kathodal Contraction, Tonic. A. 0. C. . Anodal Opening Contraction.

K, D... . Kathodal Duration (or Period of Cathode.

Closure of Circuit). C. C. . . Cathodal Closure.

K. D. T. · Kathodal Duration Tetanus. C. C. C. . Cathodal Closure Contraction.

Ma. Milliampére. C. C'. C".. Various Degrees of Contraction. o.

Opening of Circuit. C. O. C. . Cathodal Opening Contraction. Te.

Tetanic Contraction. C. S. Current Strength.

R.

Resistance. D. . Duration.

z.

Zuckung (Contraction). D. . Density.

. Anode or Positive Pole. De, R. . Reaction of Degeneration.

. Kathode or Negative Pole. E. . Electromotive Force.

. Greater than, as, K > A. K. Kathode.

. Less than.

Acc.
Ah.
Am.
As.
cm.
Cyl.
D.
E.
F.
H.
L. E.
M.

III. ABBREVIATIONS USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY.
Accommodation.

mm.

Millimeter.
Hyperopic Astigmatism.

O. D. Right Eye.
Myopic Astigmatism.

O.S. ... eft Eye.
Astigmatism.

P.P. .. Punctum proximum, Near Point. . Centimeter.

p. r.

Punctum remotum, Far Point. . Cylinder, Cylindrical Lens.

R.E. Right Eye.
Diopter.

Sph.

Spherical, Spherical Lens.
Emmetropia, Emmetropic.

V.

Vision, Visual Acuity.
Formula.

+,

Plus, Minus, Equal to.
Hyperopia, Hyperopic.

. Infinity, 20 ft. distance.
. Left Eye.

. Combined with. · Myopia, Myopic.

Degree.

IV. SUNDRY ABBREVIATIONS. Adj. Adjective.

Lat.

Latin. Adv. Adverb.

Masc. Masculine. Am. American.

Math. Mathematics. Arab. Arabic.

Med. Medicine, Medical.
A. S. Anglo-Saxon.

Nat. Hist. Natural History.
Bot.
Botany, Botanical.

Neg. Negative.
Celt. Celtic.

Obs.

Obsolete. Chem. . Chemistry, Chemical.

Ophth. Ophthalmology, Ophthalmological. Colloq. Colloquial.

Path,

Pathology, Pathological.
Comp.
. Compounded, Compound.

Phil. Philosophy, Philosophical.
Dim.
Diminutive.

Phys. Physiology, Physiological. e. g. . For example.

pl.

Plural. Elec. . Electricity.

priv. Privative. Eng English.

Pron. Pronounced, Pronunciation. Etym. . . Etymology, Etymological.

9. v.

(Quod vide) which see. Fr. French.

Sax.

Saxon. f. Feminine.

Sing.

Singular. Geog. Geography, Geographical.

Sp. Spanish. Geol, Geology, Geological.

Surg. Surgery, Surgical. Geom. . Geometry, Geometrical.

Unof. Unofhcial.
Ger.
German.

V..

Verb.
Gr.
Greek,

v.i. Intransitive verb. Heb. Hebrew.

v. t.

Transitive verb. Ichth. Ichthyology.

Zool. . Zoology, Zoological. It.

Italian,

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES USED IN MEDICAL TERMS.

1. PREFIXES. A-, an-, called alpha privative (Gr. a, av, or au). The equivalent of our prefix, un-, or in-; denotes,

an absence or want of the thing or quality expressed by the principal. 2.g., adynamia, anærobic, aphasia, apraxia, apyrexia, astigmatism, atony, etc. a, is used before consonants,

an, before vowels, and, rarely, am before bl, or br. (To be distinguished from ana, below.) Amphi- (or amph-) (aude) upon both sides, in two ways, as in amphiarthrosis, amphibia, etc. Ana- (ava). Up, through again. .g., anabolism, anasarca, anatomy, etc. Anti- (or ant-) (avti). Against, opposed to opposite of, as antaphrodisiac, antipyretic, antiseptic, etc. Apo- (ato). Off, away, upon. 6.8., aponeurosis, apoplexy, etc. Dia- (a). Through. Examples: Diabetes, Diagnosis, Diaphragm, Diarrhæa, etc. Dys. (dus). Difficult, defective, painful...g., Dysentery, Dyspnea, Dysuria. Ec-, Ex-, Ecto- (ex, 66, EKTOS). Out, outside, away from. As in Ecchymoses, Ecdemic, Eclampsia,

Exostosis, Exanthema, Ectropion, Ectoderm. En-, Em- (ev, eu). In, within. As in Embryo, Embolism, Endemic, etc. Endo-, Ento- (evdos, evtos). Within, internal. e.g., Endarteritis, Endoscope, Entoblast, Entoplic. Entero- (evtepov). The intestine. As in Enterocele, Enterostomy, etc. Epi- (el)Upon, over, above. 4.8., Epiblast, Epicranium, Epistaxis, Epidemic, etc. Extra- (Lat.). Outside. e. g., Extravasation, Extroversion. Gastro- (yasip). The stomach; relation to the stomach. e.g., Gastrocele, Gastrocnemius, Gas

troenterostomy, etc. Hæma., Hæmato- or Hemo- (aqua). The Blood; pertaining to the blood. See Hæmatomesis,

Hæmatoma, Hæmorrhage, etc. Hemi- (nuc-qulovs). Half. As in Hemiachromatopsia, Hemicrania, Hemiplegia. Hetera. (etepos). Different; opposite. 2.8., Heteroinjection, Heterologous, Heteropathy. Hydro., Hydr-(wowp). Water; resembling or relating to water, dropsy, etc., as in Hydræmia,

Hydragogue, Hydrate, Hydrocephalus, etc. Hyper- (UTED!. Excess; exaggerated abnormality in amount, size, quality, etc. See Hyperæs

thesia, Hypermetropia, Hyperpyrexia, Hypertrophy, and others. Hypo- (uro). Diminution asto degree, amount, size, quality, etc., or that located under or beneath.

e. g., Hyposthenia, Hypoblast, Hypochondriac, Hypodermic, Hypoglossal. Hystera-, Hystero- (votepa). The uterus or womb; relation to the same. e.g., Hysterectomy,

Hystero-epilepsy, Hysteropexia, etc. Im,- In- (In). Privative; negative, as Imperforate, Incarceration, Insane, Incontinence. In- (ev). In, within, upon, by; as incubation, Infarction, Inflammation, Inoculation, etc. Infra- (Infra). Beneath, Below; e.g., Inframaxillary, Infrascapular. Inter- (Inter). Between. See Intercellular, Intercostal, Intertrigo, and others. Leuco- (AEUKOS). Whiteness.e.g., Leuchamia, Leucocyte, Leucomaines, Leucorrhæa. Lith-, Litho- (Aldos). Pertaining to stone, calculus, or lithic acid. See Lithæmia, Lithiasis,

Lithotripsy, etc. Macro- (pakpos).' Largeness, Hypertrophy, as in Macroglossia, Macromelia. Melano- (Meias). Blackness, Pigmentation. e.g., Melancholia, Melano-sarcoma. Meso- (Megos). The middle. See Mesoblast, Mesocolon, etc. Meta-(meta). With, amidst. 1.8., Metabolism, Metatarsus. Micro- (Mikpos). Smallness. e.g., Micrococcus, Microglossii, Microscope. Mon-, Mono- (novos). Singleness. For example, Monamine, Monomania, Monorchis. Multi- (multus). Number, many. 6.g., Multilocular, Multiparous. Myelo (mvedos). Referring to the brain or spinal cord, as in Myeloid, Myelitis. Myo- (uvs). Pertaining to a muscle or muscularity. See Myocarditis, Myoma, Myopathia. Neuro- (vevpov). Relatiug to a nerve or neurology. As, e.g., Neuralgia, Neurasthenia, Neuri.

lemma, Neuroglia. Odonto- (oôovs). of the teeth, as in Odontology, Odontalgia. Oligo- (ocyos). Fewness or lack of, as Oligocythamia. Ophthalmo- (opaduos). Pertaining to the eye, as in Ophthalmia, Ophthalmoplegia, Osteo- (ooteov). Referring to bone. See Osteoblast, Osteomyelitis, Osteoplastic. Oxy- (0vs). Denoting the presence of oxygen, or acidity, as in Oxygen, Oxyhæmoglobin. Para- (Tapa). Through, near, by, by the side of, abnormality. Examples : Paracentesis, Paræsthe

sia, Parenchyma, Parotid. Peri- (nep). About, around. See, e. g., Pericardium, Perimeter, Perinæum, Perineoplasty,

Periosteum. Poly-, Pol- (Tonus). Many, much. e.g., Polycoria, Polygalactia, Polyuria. Præ-, Pre- (Præ). Before. e. g., Præcordia, Prepuce. Pro- (po). Before, down, as in Process, Procidentia, Prolapse, Proptosis. Pseudo- (vevons). False, spurious, as in Pseudarthrosis, Pseudocyesis. Pyo- (Tvov). Pertaining to pus, or purulency. c.g., Pyogenic, Pyosalpinx. Pyr-, Pyro- (nup). Concerning fire or heat, or inflammation. e. g., Pyrogenous, Pyrexia. Retro- (Retro). Backward, behind. .5., Retroflex, Retroversion. Sub- (Sub), Beneath, under; and also Partialty or Deficiency of, as, Subclavian, Subluxation. Super- (Super). Above, upon; excess of. e.g., Supercilium, Superfecundation. Supra Supra). Above, upon, superior to, as Supraorbital, Supraspinatus. Sym-, Syn- (our). With, together, same. See, e.g., Symblepharon, Symphysis, Synalgia, Synchon. drosis.

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PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES USED IN MEDICAL TERMS.

xi

II. SUFFIXES. -æmia (axua, blood). Denotes a condition of the blood, or ingredient in the same expressed by

preceding word. e.g., Hydramia, Lilhamia, Pycemia, Uræmia. -agogue (ayw, to bear off, carry away). Signifies an agent stimulating the function of excretion or

secretion of the product. Thus, Emmenagogue, Hvaragogue, Salagogue, etc. -agra (aypa, an attack, seizure). Denotes an acute attack of pain in the part, as Arthragra,

Podagra. -algia (alyos, pain). Pain in a part, expressed by the chief word. e.g., Cephalalgia, Gas algia,

Nostalgia. -atresia (arpnola). Imperforate, as in Proctatresia. -cele (knan). A tumor, hernia or protrusion. See Cystocele, Hydrocele, Meningocele. -ectomy (ekTeuvw). Excision, exsection, as in Oophorectomy, Nephrectomy, Splenectomy. -graph, graphy (ypadw, to write). An instrument; a treatise or description. e.g., Sphygmo

graph, Demography. -itis (itis). An inflammation, as Gastrilis, Otitis, etc. -logy (Aoyos, discourse). A treatise upon, as Bacteriology, Dermatology, Pathology. -malacia (malaxos, soft). Abnormal softness, as in osteo-malacia. -mania (uavia, madness). The chief word denotes the principal symptom of the mental affection:

.g., Erotomania, Kleptomania, etc. -odynia (odvvn, excessive pain). The principal word denotes the seat of great pain, as Coccyo

dynia. -oid (ecôos, form). Similar in shape, etc., as in Choroid, Cuboid, Sphenoid, Xiphoid. -oma (wha). A tumor. See Glioma, Sarcoma. -opia (wy). Pertaining to the eye or vision, as in Amblyopia, Myopia, etc. -pathy (malos). A condition of disease, and also a method of cure. As, e.g., Adenopathy, Psycho

pathy, Homæopathy, Hydropathy. -phobia (00Bos, fear). Excessive fear or dread, as Agoraphobia, Photophobia. -plasty Tagow, to form). Surgical plastic operation upon a part. e.g., Blepharoplasty, Rhino

plasty. -shaphy (paon, a suture). A stitching or suturing of a part, as Enterorrhaphy, Perincorrhaphy. -shagia (pnyvune, to burst forth). A hemorrhage or excessive discharge. 2.g., Blennorrhagia,

Metrorrhagia. -shea (pew, to flow). An excessive discharge or excretion, as in Blennorrhæa, Diarrhæa, Leucor.

rhea. -scopy (OKOnew). An examination, as Ophthalmoscopy. The instrument by which the examina

tion is made takes the termination scope, as in Laryngoscope. -tomy (Teuvw, to cut). Incision. e.g., Laparotomy, Tenotomy. -uria (ovpew, to urinate). Abnormalities of the urine or of urination. As Albuminuria, Polyuria.

CONCERNING PRONUNCIATION.
The syllable marked with a single acute accent, is the accented syllable.

Quantity of Vowels. Accented vowels are usually long, except i followed by a consonant and i, as in inhibition, imbibition, beneficial, etc.

Diphthongs are usually long, but in a few words, such as hæmorrhage, which are often spelled with a single vowel, the e is short.

In words ending in ite, the i is long,
In words ending in itis, the i of the penult is always long, as bronchitis, neuritis, etc.

Final i, o, and u are long; final e, unless silent, is long. It is marked with a grave accent if sounded.

A vowel which is obscure in quantity has usually the long sound.
A vowel before two or more consonants, except as previously noted, is short.
The i in words ending in ine is short.
The vowel i at the end of an unaccented syllable is short.

When in one syllable a vowel is followed by a consonant, the vowel has the usual short English sound, as in man, men, sin, not, stuff, mystery. 1.8., macula, pectoral, diploe, lobulus, suppurate, systemic.

Quality of Vowels. Final a has the Italian sound of a, as in father. In words ending in aîne, such as ptomaine, the a has the Italian sound. æ and æ are pronounced as e, in mete. au (diphthong) has the sound of aw in saw. eu (diphthong) has the sound of ew in yew.

CONSONANTS.
In words of Latin and Greek derivation ch is hard, like k.
The letters ph, representing the Greek •, have the sound of f.
In Greek words th has the soft sound, as in thin.
The combination phth, 03, has the sound of t at the beginning of a word.

Before e, i, y, a, and é, c has the sound of s, and g, of j. c.g., cæliac, cephalic, gynecology, ginglymus. In other cases c and g have the hard sound.

NEW DICTIONARY

OF

MEDICAL WORDS AND PHRASES.

A

A (a, av, or af, without). The Greek letter lines, the upper parallel with the cartilages alpha, called alpha privative, equivalent to of the ninth ribs, the lower with the iliac the prefix un or in. It denotes absence crests, and by two lines from the cartilages or want of the thing or quality expressed of the eighth rib to the center of Poupart's by the root of the word. q- is used before ligament. The regions thus formed are, consonant, and an- before vowel sounds; above, the right hypochondriac, the epigasam is sometimes used before bl or be. tric, and the left hypochondriac; secondly, Also, the symbol of anode.

the right lumbar, umbilical, and left lumAa (ava, of each). An abbreviation, writ- bar; and below, the right inguinal, the ten ää, used in prescriptions to denote repe- hypogastric and the left inguinal. Pentition of the same quantity for each item. dulous A. A relaxed and pendulous Ab (ab, from). A Latin prefix signifying condition of the abdominal walls. from.

Abdom'inal. Pertaining to or connected Abact'us Venter (abigere, to drive out). with the abdomen. A. Aorta. See Artery.

An abortion procured by artificial means. A. Ganglia. See Ganglia. A. GestaAbaptis'ton (a, not, BATTIOTOS, immersed). tion. See Pregnancy, Extra-uterine. A. A trephine so shaped that penetration of Muscles, the Internal and External the brain is impossible.

Obliques, the Transversalis, Rectus, PyraAbarticula'tion (ab, from, articulatio, midalis, and Quadratus Lumborum. A. joint). Same as diarthrosis, a term more Reflex, an involuntary contraction of the frequently used.

abdominal muscles when the skin over the Aba'sia (a neg., Baois, a step). Motor in- abdomen is stimulated. A. Regions. See co-ordination in walking. See Astasia. Abdomen. A. Respiration, R. carried Abbé's Apochromatic Lenses. See on chiefly by the diaphragm and abdominal A pochromatic Lenses.

muscles. A. Ring, External, a trianguAbbrevia'tions. See List of Abbrevia- lar opening in the fibres of the aponeurosis tions, p. vii.

of the external oblique muscle transmitting Abdo'men (abdere, to hide). The large the spermatic cord of the male and the inferior cavity of the trunk, extending from round ligament of the female. A. Ring, the pelvic cavity to the diaphragm, and Internal, an oval aperture in the fascia bounded in front and at the sides by the transversalis which transmits the spermatic lower ribs and abdominal muscles; behind cord of the male and the round ligament by the vertebral column, psoas and quadra- of the female. tus lumborum muscles. It is artificially Abdominos'copy (abdomen, OKOTEW, to divided into nine regions by two circular examine). Examination of the abdomen

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