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AVA-KAVA

63

BACILLUS

A'va-Ka'va. See Kava-Kava. Ave'na Sativa. Oat. The embryo of the seed of the common oat plant. Contains starch, gluten, a ferment called diastase and a small amount of alkaline phosphates. A nutritious food. The pericarp contains an alkaloid with slight narcotic powers. Unof. Av'ens Root. The root of Geum rivale, A tonic and astringent. Contains gallic and tannic acid. Dose of fid. ext. 3 ss-j. Unof. Avoirdupois Weight (Fr., avoir, to have, du poids, of weight). The common English weight used for all commodities except precious metals, gems and medicines. The pound is equal to 7000 grains Troy, or 453-54 grammes, or 16 ounces. The ounce is divided into 16 drams, each of 437-5 grains. See Weights and Measures. Avulsion (avello, to clear away). A traumatic or surgical tearing or wrenching away of a part, as a polypus, a limb, etc. Ax'ial Current. See Poiseuille's Space. Axil'la (doubtful derivation). The armpit. Ax'illary. Pertaining to the axilla. A. Artery, the continuation of the subclavian artery, extending from the border of the first rib to the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle, where it becomes the brachial. A. Glands, the lymphatic glands of the axilla. A. Plexus, the brachial plexus formed by the last three cervical and the first dorsal nerves. A. Space, the irregular conical space of the axilla. A.

Vein, a continuation of the brachial, corresponding with the artery and terminating in the subclavian. Ax'is (axwv, an axletree). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body. The second vertebra. A., Cerebrospinal, the central nervous system. A. Cylinder (of a nerve), the conducting or essential part of a nerve lying in the centre and surrounded by the sheath, or sheath of Schwann. A., Optic, the line from the corneal apex to the macula lutea. A., Visual, the line from the object through the nodal point to the macula,—the two last are not identical. Azed'arach. The bark of A. melia, Occurs in curved pieces or quills, having a sweetish taste. The decoction, Zij to Oj, is a gastro-intestinal irritant and anthelmintic. Unof. Azoösperm'ia (a, 5wn, life, otepua, seed). Want or deficient vitality of the spermatozoids. Az'ote (a, 5wn). A synonym of nitrogen.

Azotic acid, nitric acid. Azotu'ria (azotum, nitrogen, urina, the urine). An increase of the urea in the urine. Azy'gos (a, čuyoç, yoke). Applied to parts that are single, not in pairs. A. U læ, a small muscle of uv A. Vein, a vein connecting the superior and inferior vena cava.

B

B. In chemical terminology the symbol

of Boron. B. A. A contraction of balneum aqua, a water-bath; also, of balneum arena, a sand-bath. B. M. A contraction of balncum maris,

a sea-water bath. B. V. A contraction of balneum vaporis,

Bac'illum (dim. of baculum, a stick). A stick; a cylindrical troche; an instrument for carrying a sponge; the rods in the layer of rods and cones of the retina. Bac'illus (bacillum, a little rod). The most important class pathogenically of the schizomycetes, schizophytes, or bacteria. They are microorganisms, cylindrical or club-shaped, straight, mobile or immobile, and held to be directly or indirectly the cause of many diseases. B. of Cancer, a form believed to be the specific cause of cancer, though cultures and inoculation experiments are not definitive. B. of Charbon. See B. Anthracis ( Table). B. of Symptomatic Charbon. See B.Chau.

a vapor-bath.

Ba. The chemical symbol of barium. Babès Oven. See Oven. Ba'by-farm. An institution for raising orphan and pauper infants. Bac' chia (Bacchus, the god of wine). A synonym for acne rosacea, often found in drunkards.

BACK-STROKE OF HEART

64

BAG OF WATERS

1

era.

vai(Table). B. of Cholera. See Spirillum Cholera Comma-Bacillus. See Spirillum Cholera. B. of Green Diarrhæa of Infants; Lesage has isolated a species whose pure culture produces in animals a disease similar to that of the infant. B. of Diphtheria ; quite a number of B. have been isolated and proved pathogenic; the D. of fowls is probably the chief source of the human disease. B. of Epidemic Dysentery; inoculations upon animals of a B. isolated by Chautemasse and Widal seemed conclusive that it was the specific cause of the disease. B. of Glanders. See B. Mallei ( Table),proved specificity. B. of Hay, the B. Subtilis, not pathogenic. B. of Hog Chol

See Table. B. of Jequirity, does not exist ; the ocul irritation being due to an alkaloid in the jequirity seed. B., Lactic. See B. Lacticus ( Table). B. of Blue Milk. See B. Syncyanus ( Table). B. of Leprosy. Hansen and others have isolated a B. they believe specific, but inoculation experiments are not conclusive. B. of Malaria. Lemaire, Klebs and Crudeli, and others, have isolated forms believed by them to be specific. Laveran first, and Richard and Marchiafava and Celli found in the blood three forms of protozoa, one of which particularly produced intermittent fever by inoculation. B. of Blue Pus. See B. Pyocyaneus ( Table). B. of Rhinoscleroma, probably the same as Micrococcus Pneumonia, of doubtful specificity. B. of Measles of Hogs (see Table), of proved specific nature. B. of Syphilis. Lustgarten first, and a number of others, have isolated a form believed specific, but no cultures have so far been successful. B. of Tetanus ; the bacterial origin of this disease seems established by many observers, the B. discovered by Nicolaier being the specific cause. B. of Tuberculosis. There seems to be no reason to doubt the specificity of Koch's B. B. of Typhoid, the typhic B. has not been isolated from the air, but has been isolated, and of its specific quality there is little remaining doubt. B. of Whooping-Cough. Afanassieff believes an iso. lated form specific, and injections in animals lends some support to the view.

A Table of the chief characteristics of the principal B. is herewith appended (pp. 65-74). Back-stroke of the Heart. See Diastole. Bacteria (Baktnplov, a little staff). A generic term for microorganisms, or mi.

crobes. According to Cohn (1872), divisible into four families, the Spherobacteria, Microbacteria, Desmobacteria and Spirobacteria. The classification of Zopf ranged all forms also in four classes : Coccaceēs (including Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Merismopedia, Sarcina and Ascococcus); Bacteriaceēs (including Bacterium, Spirillum, Vibrio, Leuconostoc, Bacillus and Clostridium); Leptothriceēs (including Leptothrix, Beggiatoa, Crenothrix and Phragmidiothrix); Cladothriceēs (Cladothrix). Macé's classification gives three families: the Coccacees (including 4 genera, the Micrococcus, Sarcina, Ascococcus and Leuconostoc); the Bacteriaceës (genera: Bacillus, Spirillum, Leptothrix and Cladothrix); the Beggiatoaceēs (with two genera, the Beggiatoa and Crenothrix ). Bacteria'ceěs. The second family of the order of Bacteria or Schizomycetes; the elements are rod-shaped, sometimes in short cylinders or in filaments, but the length always exceeding the breadth. Many have true endogenous spores. The following are the members of the family: The Bacillus, Spirillum, Leptothrix and Cladothrix. Bactericide. See Germicide. Bacterid'ia. Davaine's designation of

the Bacillus. Bacterid'ium. According to Davaine, a genus of Bacteriaceës, characterized by immobility of the elements at all periods of their existence. The distinction does not now obtain. Bacteriol'ogy (Baktnplov, hozos, science). The science of microorganisms. Bacteriological investigation consists in the study by the microscope of forms present, the artificial cultivation or culture of the same, and the study of the effects of pure cultures upon animals. Bacteriopur'purine. The coloring matter of Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, isolated and studied by Ray Lankester. Insoluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, ammonia, acetic and sulphuric acids, etc. Bacterium. An individual of the order of Bacteria. B. Chauvæi. See Bacillus Chauvei. B. Chlorinum. See Ba. cillus Chlorinus. B. Janthinum. See Bacillus Janthinus. B. Phosphorescens. See Bacillus Phosphoreus. B. Termo. See Bacillus Termo. B. Xanthi. num. See Bacillus Synxanthus. ( Table.) Bag of Waters. The sætal membranes enclosing the liquor amnii, projecting through the os uteri, which usually ruptures when the cervix is dilated.

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TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MORE IMPORTANT BACILLI

(AFTER MACE).

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Pellicle thick, Viscid,

Pellicle

Agent of acetic

Rods 3.6 M by 0.6
Air.
hyaline, yellowish,

thick and
firm; liquid mobile when Aërobic.

fermentation
almost thick

culture.
cartilaginous.

free.
clear.

of alcohol.
Layer
Small yellow-
Air.
ish-green

yellow,
Liquid,

waxy, and

Slender rods. Aérobic. colonies, soon dirty gray.

Saprophytic.
then
liquefying

brown
Whitish

Decompose al- The spores are
Human

nacreous

Rods very mo-
fæces.
layer, becom-1

bile; 3 u long.

buminoids ac- larger than ing yellow.

tively.

the rods.
Ovoid
Numerous

Rods slowly mo-
Bees dying

whitish
Thin whitish Yellowish

bile; 3-5 p long colonies; of " foolsfilaments;

by 0.8 broad.

Stale odor, as

Pathogenic.
numerous
bread."

pellicle.
layer.

of urine.
slow
filaments.

Spores 2.12 by
liquefaction.

1.07 M. Downy

Whitish Immobile rods, Blood of Flocculent filaments

flakes;

5 to 6 by i to 1.5

Culture animals

about the colonies

White

clear point of

m; often united liquefying the

Aërobic.

thick, dirty with

creamy layer. liquid;

Pathogenic.

in filaments inoculation,

white.
anthrax. gelatine.

light
followed by

which produce
liquefaction.

deposit. spores.
Human

Very thin

Mobile rods, 0.8 feces. cloud.

Pathogenic.
by 0.4 h.

In sporulation
Cloudy dis-

Rods 3 to 5 by 0.8

Agent of buty

the cellules coloration in

to 0,8 m; very Air, earth,

enclose an

ric fermenta

mobile. Spores Anaërobic. the gelose water. protected

larger than the

carbons.

stance, colfrom air. rods.

ored blue by

iodine.

Large oval. Fermented

spore in the Rods 4 to 5 by 1 Facultative Ferment of al

M. Slowly moCaseine.

bile. anaërobia. buminoids. middle of the

joint.

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PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MORE IMPORTANT BACILLI—(Continued).

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