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Vol'vulus (volvo, to roll). A twisting of the bowel upon itself. An old name was Ileac Passion. Vo'mer (Lat., a plowshare). The thin plate of bone which separates the nostrils. Vom'ica (vomo, to vomit). A collection of pus in the lungs or adjacent organs that may discharge through the bronchi and mouth. Vom'it (vomo). To expel from the stom

ach by vomiting. Vom'iting (vomo). The forcible, convulsive ejection of the contents of the stomach, duodenum, or intestines through the mouth. V. of Blood. See Hamatemesis. V., Stercoraceous, the ejection of fæcal matter in emesis. Vomito-ni' gro (vomo, niger, black). Black

vomit. A name for yellow fever. Vom’itory (vomo). Any agent or substance that induces emesis. Also, a vessel to receive the ejecta. Vom'itus (vomo). Vomited matters. V.

Cruentus, bloody vomit. Vora'cious (voro, to devour). Having an insatiable appetite or desire for food. See, also, Bulimia.

Vorac/ity (voro). Greediness or rapa

ciousness for food. Vor'tex (Lat., a whirl). A name applied to the spiral arrangement of the fibres of the walls of the heart. Vow'els. The chief sounds of the voice, formed by the vibrations of the vocal cords unmodified by the resonance organs. Vox. See Voice. Vulgar (vulgaris). Common. Popular. Vulnerary (vulnus, a wound). In therapeutics, any remedy or agent useful in healing wounds. Vul'va (volvo, to roll up). Same as pudendum, though not, strictly speaking, including the mons veneris. V., Garrulity of, vaginal flatus. Vulvis'mus. See Vaginismus. Vulviltis. Inflammation of the vulva. Vul'vo- (vulva). A Latin prefix denoting

connection with or relation to the vulva. Vulvo - vag'inal. Pertaining conjointly to the vulva and the vagina. V. Glands, the small glands situated one on each side of the vulva near the vagina.

W

Wachendorf's Membrane. The fatal membrane of the pupil of the eye. It atrophies about the seventh month. Wagner and Meissner's Corpuscles. Tactile end-organs lying in the papillæ of the skin. Wagner's Spot. See Macula. Wahoo. See Euonymus. Waist'coat, Straight. See Jacket. Wale. See Wheal. Wallerian Law of Degeneration. From experiments Waller showed that the trophic center of the anterior roots of spinal nerves lies in the multipolar nerve cells of the anterior horn of gray matter, while that of the posterior root lies in the ganglion placed upon it. Generalized, the law

predicates that the course of the impulses in a nerve may be ascertained by tracing the course of the subsequent degeneration. Wall-eye. A vulgarism used to express the appearance of leucoma of the cornea, or of eyes with a light-colored iris.

Wall Pepper. See Sedum Acre. War'burg's Tincture. Consists of aloes Ib j, rad. rhei; sem. angelicæ ; confec. Damocratis ää Ziv; rad, helenii; croci sativi; sem. fænuculi; cretæ prep. aa z ij; rad. gentianæ; rad. zeodariæ; pip. cubebæ; myrrh elect.; camphoræ; bolet. laricis ; ää 3j. Digest with proof spt. 3 500, and add quinia disulph. 3x. Filter. Dose Zij. Ward-carriage. An apparatus for hospital-service mounted upon wheels, and containing a reservoir of water, and other materials, instruments, etc., used in surgical operations and dressings. Wardrop's Operation. Ligature of the

artery beyond an aneurism. Warm-blooded. Used of animals that maintain an uniform temperature, whatever the changes of temperature in the surrounding medium. Wart. See Verruca. Wash. See Lotion.

WASHING

464

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Wax. See Cera and Cerumen.
Wax'y Degenera'tion. See Degenera-

tion. Weal. See Wheal. Wean. To cease to give suck to offspring at a period when the latter is capable of taking substantial food from external

W. on

sources.

Wash'ing. The mechanical operation of separating soluble from insoluble matter. Wast'ing. See Atrophy. Wa'ter. See Aqua. W.-bed, a rubber mattress containing water; used to prevent the formation of bed-sores. Brain. See Hydrocephalus. W.-brash. See Pyrosis. W. of Crystallization, the water employed in giving molecular structure to the crystals of chemical salts, to which their physical qualities are due. W.-cure. See Hydropathy. W., Distilled. See Aqua. W., Florida, a perfume consisting of oleum bergamii ziv, comp. tinct. benzoini 3ij, alcohol Oj. W., Hard, natural waters containing soluble calcium salts, distinguished by their curdling action on soap. W. Hemlock. See Cowbane. W., Mineral. See Mineral Water. W., Rice. See Oryza. W., Soda. See Soda Water. Watt. In electro-mechanics, one volt

ampère. See Volt. Wave-Lengths and Frequencies of Light. The ethereal wave-lengths, together with their frequencies, of the visible portion of the spectrum are given in the following table. The average vibrational frequency of white light has been estimated at 554 millions of millions per second.

Weber's Experiment. A tuning-fork on the vertex is heard more distinctly with the closed ear. W.'s Law. See Fechner's Law. W.'s Paradox. When so loaded that it cannot contract, a muscle may elongate. Wei de Meyer's Catarrh Remedy. A proprietary remedy composed mainly of sodium carbonate. Weigert's Method. Hardening and staining medullated nerve-fibers, and so tracing their course. Weights and Measures. The U. S. standard unit of weight is the Troy pound; it was copied in 1827, from the imperial troy pound of England, for the use of the U. S. Mint, and there deposited. It is standard in air, at 62° Fah., the barometer at 30 inches.

TROY WEIGHT. Grains.

24 i dwt. 480 20 I OZ. 5760 = 240 = 12 = 1 lb. 22.816 cu. in. of dis

tilled water at 62° Fahr.

TABLE OF THE WAVE-LENGTH AND FREQUENCY OF LIGHT.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Drachms.

16 - I oz. = 437-5 grains troy. 256 16 i lb. = 1.2153 lb. troy. 6400 400

25

I quarter. 25000 1600 - 100 4

I cwt. 512000 32000 - 2000 80 ** 20 = i ton.

20

APOTHECARIES WEIGHT. Grains.

i scruple. 60

i drachm. 480 24 = 8 - 1 oz. 5760 288 96

- 12 = 1 lb.

APOTHECARIES' MEASURE.
60 min.

=> i fluid-drachm.
8 fluid-drachms I fluid.ounce.
16 fluid-ounces i pint.
8 pints

- Igall. 45 drops, or a common teaspoonful, make about i fluid-drachm; 2 tablespoonfuls about i fluid-ounce; a wineglassful about 1 fluidounces; and a teacupful about 4 fluid-ounces.

(FROM DANIELL.)

FREQUENCIES- LENGTHS
PER SEC.

IN CM.

Line A,

395,000,000,000,000 .00007604 Center of red,

00007000 Line B,

437.300,000,000,000 00006867 Line C,

457,700,000,000,000 .00006562 Center of orangered,

.00006208 Center of orange,

.00005972 Line Di

508,905,810,000,000 .00005895 Line D2

510,604,000,000,000 .00005589 Center of orangeyellow,

.00005879 Center of yellow,

.00005503 Center of green,

.00005271 Line E,

570,000,000,000,000 .00005269 Line 6,

.00005183 Center of bluegreen,

.00005082 Center of cyanblue, .

.00004960 Line F,

617,900,000,000,000 .00004861 Center of blue,

.00004732 Center of violetblue,

.00004383 Line G,

697,300,000,000,000 .00004307 Center of puceviolet,

.00004059 Line Hi

756,900,000,000,000 .00003968 Line H?,

1763,600,000,000,000 .00003933

LIQUID, OR WINE MEASURE.
Gill

-7.2187 cu. in.

i pint 28.875 cu. in.
8
2
I quart

= 55.75 cu. in.
32
8

I gallon. 2010 - 404 252 = 63 I hogshead. 4032 1008 504

126 - 2

i pipe. 8064 2016 1008 252 4 m 2 - 1 tun.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

465

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

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The Standard Unit of Liquid Measure adopted by the U. S. Government is the Winchester Wine Gallon, which contains 231 cubic inches, and holds 8.339 lbs. Avoir. of distilled water, at its maximum density weighed in air, the barometer being at 30 inches.

The Imperial Gallon adopted by Great Britain contains 277,274 cubic inches, and equals 1.20032 U. S. gallons.

The Standard Unit of the U. S. and British linear measure is the yard. It was intended to be exactly the same for both countries, but in reality the U. S. yard exceeds the British standard by .00087 inch. The actual standard of length of the U. S. is a brass scale 82 inches long prepared for the Coast Survey and deposited in the office of Weights and Measures at the U. S. Treasury Dept., Washington. The yard is between the 27th and the 63d inch of this scale. The temperature at which this scale is designed to be standard, and at which it is used in the U. S. Coast Survey, is 62° Fahrenheit.

SOLID MEASURE.

Cu. in.

1728 I cu. foot.
46056 = 27 = 1 cu. yard.

DRY MEASURE.

Pint

33 6 cu, in.
2 - I quart 67.2 cu. in.
8

4 i gallon — 268.8 cu. in.
16 8 I peck = 537.6 cu. in.
64 32 4 = i bushel.

LONG MEASURE. Inches.

12 i ft. 36= 3 i yd. 72 6

2

I fath.
198= 16.5= 55 2.75 1 pch.
7920= 660

220
f 1 10

= 40 -I fur. 63360=5280 =1760

-880
=3208

sanim,

The standard U. S. bushel is the Winchester bushel, which is, in the cylinder form, 18/2 in. diameter and 8 in. deep, and contains 2150 42-100 cub. inches. The English Impe- ( 2218.192 cu. in. rial bushel

1.03152 U. S. bush.

8 Imperial bushels. The Eng. quarter 8% (nearly) U. S. bu.

10.2694 cubic feet.

Milligramme
Centigramme
Decigramme
Gramme
Decagramme
Hectogramme
Kilogramme
Myriogramme
Quintal
Tonneau

METRIC, OR FRENCH WEIGHTS.
Gramme.

Troy. Gr.
.001 ams .01543
.01

.15433 .

1.5433 Avoir. Oz. 1.

15-43316 .03528 IO.

-3528 100.

3.52758
1000.

35.2758
10000.
100000.
1000000

Avoir. Lb.

.0022047 .02 2047 .2204737 2.204737 22 04737 220.4737 2204.737

METRIC, OR FRENCH DRY AND LIQUID MEASURE.
Lit. U. S. Cu. In.

U. S.
Milliliter

(Liquid .00845 gill.
.001 = .061

Dry

.0018 pint. Centiliter

Liquid

.61 .01

.0845 gill. Dry

.018 pint. Deciliter

6.1

Liquid .845 gill 2113 pints.
.I

Dry

.18 pint. Liter

61.02

Liquid 1.

2.113 pints

= 1.057 quarts.

Dry 1.8 pt. -.908 qts. 1135 p. Decaliter

Liquid
610.16
10.

2 641 gallons.
U. S. Cu.Ft.

Dry 9.08 qts. = 1.135 p. Hectoliter

(Liquid

26.414

gallons.
100.

3.531 =
Dry 2.837

bushels. Kiloliter

Liquid 264.141 gallons.
1000.
35.31
Dry

bushels. Myrialiter

Liquid 2641.4 gallons.
en 10000.

353.1
Dry

bushels.

.284 b.

28.374

283.7

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

466

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

METRIC, OR FRENCH CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE.

Cu. Meters. U. S. Cu. In.
Cub. Centimeter

.0001

.0610165 Cub. Decimeter

.001/ 610165 U.S. Cu.Ft.
Centistere

.01
610.165

-353105 U. S. Cu. Yd.
Decistere

.
6101.65
3.53105

.13078
Stere
I.

35.3105

1.3078
Decastere
IO.

353.105

13.078
Hectostere
e 100.

3531.05

130.78

100.

Mile. .0621347 .6213106 6.213406

METRIC, OR FRENCH LINEAL MEASURE.
Meter U.S. In.

Ft.
Millimeter*

.001
.03937

.00328
Centimetert

.01
-3937
.03280

Yd.
Decimeter

.I
3.937

-32807 10936
Meter
I. 39.3085

3.2807

1.0936
Decameter
10.

32.807 10.936
Hectometer

328.07

109.36 Kilometer 1000.

3280.7

1093.6 Myriameter 10000,

32807:

10936.
Nearly the 1-25 part of an inch. † Full 7 inch.

METRIC, OR FRENCH SQUARE MEASURE.
Sq. Meter.

U.S. Sq. In.
Sq. Centimeter .01 -

.155
Sq. Ft.

Sq. Yd.
Sq. Decimeter

.I
15.5

.10763 .01196
Centiare

1.
1549.88

1.196
Are
IO. 154988.

1076.3

119.6
Hectare
= 100.

107630.

11959 Sq. Kilometer

•38607 Sq. Mile. Sq. Myriameter 38.607

Acre.

10.763

.00025
.0247
2.47
247.
24708.

.

The following table of approximate and exact equivalents of the metric and common weights and measures may prove serviceable.

LENGTH.

Approximate Accurate Unit of Measurement. Equivalent. Equivalent. rinch, :

2 cubic centimei centimeter (do ters,

2.539 meter), . 0.4 inch,

0.393 1 yard, . I meter,

0.914 I meter (39.37 inches), 1 yard,

1.093 I foot,

30 centimeters, 30.479 i kilometer (1000 inetres), $9 mile,

0.621 I mile, .

12 kilometer, 1.609

WEIGHT.
Igramme,

1572 grains,

15.432 I grain,

0.004 gramme, 0.064 i kilogramme (1000 grammes), .

24 lbs.avoirdupois, 2.204 1 pound, avoirdupois, % kilogramme,. 0.453 i ounce, avoirdupois,

43712 grains, . 2873 grammes, 28.349 I ounce, Troy

or a pothecary (480 grains),

31 grammes, . 31.103

BULK. I cubic centimeter, .0.06 cubic inch, . 0.061 1 cubic inch, . 16's cubic centime

ters,

16.386 1 liter (1000 cubic cen- 1 U. 's. standard timeters),

quart,

0.946 i United States quart, I liter,

1.057 i fluid ounce,

29'2 cubic centi

meters, .... 29.570

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COMPARISON OF U. S. AND FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

467

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Comparative Scales, showing the exact equivalent of ordinary weights and measures in those of the Metric System, and vice versa.

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i D = 12

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400

6

13 = 8

30

1 fl. oz.=8 The equivalent of fractions, whether large or small, may be found with great nicety by these scales. For instance, 78 grain Ys of the metric equivalent of 7 grains, and 1-200 grain = 1-4000 of the metric equivalent of 20 grains. This method is, of course, reversible.

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