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TELESCOPE

433

TENDO-SYNOVITIS

Telescope (Tyne, far, GKOTEW, to examine). An instrument for observing objects situated at a great distance, especially the heavenly bodies. T.-eye, an abnormalism of the orbit said to be caused by the constant use of optical instruments, like the telescope, microscope, etc. Telester'eoscope (7717, OTEPEOS, solid, OKOTEW, to view). An instrument for obtaining a stereoscopic view of distant objects by which such objects obtain a relief like that of near objects. Tellu’rium (teraus, the earth). Te=128; quantivalence ii, iv and vi. One of the elements resembling sulphur in chemical properties. None of the preparations are used in medicine. The element itself, like selenium, imparts an extremely foetid odor to the exhalations and excreta of the body. Telolem'ma (Temos, end, haußavo, to take). The membrame covering the eminence of Doyère. Tem'per (tempero, to regulate). That mixture of mental and emotional qualities that produces a predominant quality of disposition or character. Moderation, equipoise of mind; also, to mingle, modify. Tem'perament (temperamentum). A term vaguely applied to the predominance of one group or order of constitutional functions over others in an individual. The various divisions of temperament were based on the former doctrine of the four humors of the body—blood, lymph, bile and atrabilis or black bile; the predominance of any one resulting respectively in a sanguine, lymphatic, bilious, or melancholic temperament. Although the doctrine of the temperaments has long since lost its significance, it is generally admitted that an individual may have a predisposition to types of mental action not improperly classed as nervous, phlegmatic, lymphatic, etc. Tem'perance (tempero). Moderation in satisfying desire; especially as regards the use of alcoholic beverages. Tem'perate (tempero). Moderate, without excess. T. Zone, the zone of climate situated between the isotherms of 30° and 70° T. Tem'perature (tempero). The intensity of heat or molecular vibration. T., Absolute, that reckoned from the absolute zero of temperature estimated at 273° below the zero of the Centigrade thermometer. T., Morbid, any considerable variation from the normal temperature of the body. T., Normal, the temperature of the body in a

state of health—98.6° F., as estimated by the clinical thermometer. See Thermometer. Tem'perature-spots. Variations of the heat of the skin, showing a specific endapparatus arranged in a punctated manner connected with the temperature-sense. T.-S., are arranged in a linear manner or in chains, usually slightly curved. Coldspots, spots where only the sensation of cold will be felt. Hot-spots, where only heat will be felt. Both are anæsthesic toward pain and pressure. The cold-spots are more abundant. Tem'ple (tempus, time, from belief that the hair first turns gray at this place). The flat or depressed portion of the head between the eye and ear and neighboring parts. Tem'poral (tempora, the temples). Per. taining to the temples. T. Artery. See Artery. T. Bone, the bone situated at the side and base of the skull. It is divided into a squamous, a mastoid and a petrous portion. T. Muscle. See Muscle.

Table. Temporiza'tion (tempus). The expectant

treatment of disease. See Expectant. Temporo- (tempus). A prefix denoting connection with the temple, as, e.g., temporo-facial, temporo-malar, temporo-occipital, etc. Tena'cious (tenax, tough). Having the quality of toughness or ability to resist mechanical strain or dissolution. Tenac'ity (tenax). Toughness. Resist

ance to fracture or dissolution. Tenac'ulum (teneo, to hold). An instrument, usually hook-shaped, for seizing and holding divided vessels, etc. Ten'dency (tendo, to stretch). The inclination or aim toward a given state or condition. Ten'derness. The condition of abnormal

sensitiveness to touch. Soreness. Ten'dinous (tendo). Pertaining to or

having the nature of tendon. Ten'do, or Ten'don (tendo). A white, glistening, fibrous cord connecting its muscle with the more movable or more peripheral organ or part. Tendo-Achillis, the Achillis tendon or common tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, the thickest and strongest of the body. Patellar T. Reflex. See Reflex. Ten'do - synovi'tis. The “compound ganglion" of older text-books, now recognized as a local tuberculosis.

TENDO-VAGINALIS GRANULOSA 434

TEREBINTHINA

Osseous

а

Ten'do - vagina'lis Granulosa. See

Tendo-synovitis. Tenes'mus (TELVW, to strain). Rectal pain with spasmodic contraction of the sphincter ani. The painful desire to empty the bowels without the evacuation of fæces. Ten’nis-elbow. A strain of the elbow,

said to be frequent in tennis-players. Ten'nysin. A certain alkaloid occurring

in brain tissue. Tenog/raphy. See Tenontography. Tenol'ogy. See Tenontology. Tenoni'tis. Inflammation of Tenon's cap

sule. Ten'on's Capsule. See Ocular. Tenontog'raphy (TEVOV, ypaow, to write).

The descriptive anatomy of the tendons. Tenontol'ogy (tevov, 2oyos, a treatise).

A treatise on the nature, etc., of tendons. Ten'ophyte (TEVOV, QUtov, a growth). An

or cartilaginous growth on tendon. Tenor'rhaphy (Tevwv, puon, a suture). The uniting of a divided tendon by sutures. Tenosto’sis (τενων, οστεον,

bone). Ossification of a tendon. Tenosynovi'tis (Tevw). Combined in

flammation of tendons and of their sheaths. Tenot'omy (TEVWV, TELvw, to cut). The operation of cutting a tendon to correct deformities due to muscular contractions, and for the correction of strabismus. See Strabotomy. T., Graduated, cutting a part of the fibers of the tendon of an ocular muscle for insufficiency or slight degrees of strabismus. Ten’sion (tendo, to stretch). In physics, that force apparent in mutual repulsion of the molecules of gases. It disappears when the repulsion is balanced by gravitation. In physiology, the condition of an organ when under a strain. Ten'sion, Intra-ocu'lar. The pressure of the intraocular contents upon the sclerotic.. Abnormal increase of the same is characteristic of glaucoma. Accurate measurement of T. is made by means of instruments called tonometers; for practical purposes it is estimated by palpation with the fingers. The registration of T. is indicated by the following terms: Tn. Tension normal; the varying degrees of subnormality by the sign prefixed to the figures 1, 2, 3, the latter denoting extreme flaccidity; hypertension is indicated by the sign +, prefixed to 1, 2, 3, the latter indicating the extreme hardness of the highest glaucomatous pressure.

Ten'sor (tendo, to stretch). Applied to an organ or part whose function is to make tense. T. Muscles. See Muscle- Table. Tent (tendo). An instrument made of compressed sponge, laminaria, tupelo, or other material that will increase in volume by the absorption of water; used chiefly for dilating the cervix of the uterus. Ten'tacle. A mobile, tactile appendage, as the antennæ, or “ feelers," of many insects and invertebrata. Tento'rium (tendo). An arched lamina of dura mater covering the upper surface of the cerebellum, and supporting the posterior lobes of the brain. T.-Cerebelli, is the common form. Tephromyeli'tis. See Poliomyelitis. Tephro'sis. See Incineration. Tep'id (tepidus, warm). About blood-heat. Tepida'rium (tepidus). A warm bath.

See Bath. Tepo'potė. Teamsters' Tea. The twigs of Ephedra antisyphilitica. Commonly known in the Southwestern U.S. as canutillo or whorehouse tea. Serviceable in venereal diseases. Dose of the fid. ext. 31-ij. Unof. Ter- (Lat., three times). In chemistry, joined to the names of certain compounds in which three acid atoms or radicals take part. A common prefix meaning three, or threefold. Teratog'eny (tepas, a monster, yevvaw, to beget). The formation or bringing forth of monstrosities. Ter'atoid (tepas, Eidos, resemblance). Resembling a monster or anomalous organization. Teratol'ogy (tepas, hoyos, a treatise). A treatise on monsters and other anomalies of organization. Terato'ma (Tepac). A congenital tumor,

which may contain various concretions of organic tissue. Terebene, or Terebin'thina. Turpentine. The oleoresin obtained from the yellow pine, P. australis, and other species. Properties due to an essential, volatile oil, which is the form mainly used. Stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic and anthelmintic; externally a rubefacient. Useful in hemorrhage of the intestines, as a stimulant to the heart and in various zymotic fevers. Externally in neuralgia, gangrene and rheumatism. Dose of the oil mv-Xv (of the oleoresin gr. v-31). T., Canadensis, “balsam of fir,” a liquid oleoresin. Dose gr. v-xxx. Turpentine, Chian, of re

TEREBRATION

435

TETRANERYTHRIN

puted benefit in cancer. Dose gr. iij-v. T. Liniment., resin cerate 65, oil of turpentine 35 parts. Turpentine Venice, usually a solution of resin in oil of turpentine. Terebene, prepared by the action of sulphuric acid on turpentine. A disinfectant. Terebra'tion (terebro, to bore). The oper

ation of boring or trephining. Te'res (tero, to rub). A name given to various organs and parts characterized by a round, smooth appearance. T. Muscle. See Muscle- Table. Term (Tepua, a limit). The time during

which anything lasts. Ter’minal (Tepua). Pertaining to the

end. Terminology (terminus, a name, hoyos, a treatise). A treatise on any systematization of names. Ter'nary (ter, three times). Pertaining to

the number three. Ter'pine. A terpine hydrate derived from turpentine. Useful in bronchial and pulmonary diseases to loosen and facilitate the expectoration of mucus. Terra (Lat.). Earth. T. Alba, white clay. T. Cariosa, rotten-stone. T. Oleum, petroleum. T. Ponderosa, baryta or barium sulphate. Terrain-cure (Fr.). A therapeutic method consisting in mountain-climbing, dietetics, etc., for plethora, corpulence, neurasthenia, chlorosis, incipient phthisis, etc. Terra'queous (terra, land, aqua, water), Pertaining to or consisting of both land and water. Terrene' (terra). Terrestial. Ter'tian (tertius, third). Applied to variety of intermittent sever the paroxysms of which recur every third day. Ter'tiary (tertius). Third in order. T.

Syphilis. See Syphilis. Tes'selated (tessera, a square). Formed into little squares. Chequered. Having quadrangular arrangement. Test. In chemistry, a characteristic reaction which distinguishes one body from all others. Also, the reagent for producing a test. Test'es (pl. of testis, a witness (of mascu

linity]). The two glandular bodies, situated in the scrotum, that secrete the semen. They lie in the abdominal cavity in early fretal life, and descend into the scrotum about the time of birth. T. of Brain. See Corpora. T., Descent of, passage through the inguinal canal into the scrotum. T. Muliebris. See Ovaries.

Tes'ticles. See Testes. Testi'tis. See Orchitis. Test'-paper. See Litmus. Test'-types. Letters or figures of different sizes to test acuteness of vision. Those most in use subtend an angle of five minutes at the proper distance. Tetan'ic. Pertaining to tetanus. Tetanil'la (tetanus). A form of tetanic

spasm affecting the fingers and toes. It is observed mainly among children, and is a concomitant of rachitis. Tet'anine. A ptomaine obtained by cultivating impure tetanus-microbes on beefbroth. It has recently been obtained from the amputated arm of a tetanus-patient by Brieger, who thus demonstrated the presence of tetanine in tetanus-patients during life. Nevertheless, it has not been found in the brain and nerve-tissue of persons dead from tetanus. The base produces the characteristic symptoms of tetanus, though probably not all, since three other toxines, including spasmotoxine, occur with tetanine in cultures of the tetanus-microbe. Tet'anoid (tetanus, Eldos, resembling).

Resembling tetanus. Tetanom'eter (tetanus, pet pov, a measure). An instrument for stimulating a nerve mechanically. Tetanotox'ine (tetanus, toxicum, poison). A poisonous ptomaine obtained as one of the products of the culture of the tetanusmicrobe, by Brieger. It is tetanizing in its action,-producing first tremor, then paralysis and violent convulsions. Tet'anus (TEIVO, to stretch). A spasmodic and continuous contraction of muscles, causing rigidity of the parts they supply. See Trismus, Opisthotonos, Emprosthotonos, Pleuroth otonos. Brieger has isolated four toxic ptomaine substances, from cultivations of so-called tetanus bacilli: Tetanin, produced symptoms of tetanus (mice); Tetatoxin, caused tremors, paralysis and convulsions; Muriate of Toxin, produced tetanus and salivation; Spasmotorin, prostrated quickly with clonic and tonic spasms. T., Acoustic. See Acoustic. T., Cephalic, T., Hydrophobic, T., Kopf. See Kopf- Tetanus. Tetatox'in. See Tetanus. Tet'ra- (Tetpa, four). A Greek numeral

used as a prefix and denoting four. Tetrama'zia (Tetpa, pactos, breast). The

presence, normal or abnormal, of four teats or mammary glands. Tetraner'ythrin. A reddish pigment found in the blood of some decapod crus

a

TETRANOPSIA

436

THERIACA

taceans identical with that in the exoskeleton and hypoderm. Tetranop'sia (Tetpa, wy, the eye). A contraction of the field of vision limited to one quadrant. Tetras/ter (Tetpa, aornp, star). The karyokinetic figure when there is a fourfold division of the nucleus. Tetrasto'ma (Tetpa, atoua, a mouth). A

parasitic worm infesting the kidneys. Tet'ter. A form of herpes, commonly

known as ringworm. See Herpes. Tex'ture (texto, to weave). In physiology, any organized substance or tissue of which the body is composed. Also, and more correctly, the arrangement of the elementary parts of tissue. Thalamenceph'alon (thalamus, EVKEPA

2ov, the brain). In embryology, the posterior portion of the anterior vesicle. Thal'amus (Bahapos, bed). Used of the

Thalami Optici. Two large masses of ganglionic gray matter at the base of the brain, supposed (erroneously) to be the origin of the optic nerves. Thal'lin. A synthetic chemical product. A powerful antipyretic. Effects not so lasting as those of antipyrine. Apt to produce collapse. Dose gr. iv. Unof. Than'atoid (Aavatoc, death, Eidos, resem

blance). Resembling or having the appearance of death. Thanato'des (oavatos). Mortal. Lethal. Thanatom'eter (@avatos, PET pov, measure). A thermometer introduced into the stomach or rectum to determine if the depression of temperature is so great as to be a sign of death. Thanatophid'ia (@avatos, 001c, a serpent).

The class of serpents whose bite produces toxic symptoms or death. Thanatopho'bia (Bavaros, poßos, a dread).

A morbid fear of death. Thap'sia Gargan'ica. The root of the plant is used by the natives of N. Africa as a counter-irritant. Internally a tonic.

Dose of the Ald. ext. mx-xxx. Unof. Thaumat'ropy (Davja, a wonder, Tporn,

change). The extraordinary transformation of one organ or part into another. The'a. See Tea. The'baine. Called, also, paramorphine.

A powerful tetanizer, exalting cerebrospinal centers and resembles strychnine in effects. Unof. The'baïsm. The condition induced by

thebaine or paramorphine. Thebesius, Foram'ina of. Numerous minute veins opening on the inner surface

of the right auricle of the heart. They return the blood directly from the muscular tissue without entering the venous current. The'ca (unkn, a sheath or scabbard). A sheath or investing membrane. T. Vertebralis, the investing membranes of the vertebral cord. The'cal (Onan). Pertaining to the theca. T. Abscess, tenosynovitis, paronychia or whitlow. Theci'tis (Onkn, Itu, inflammation). In

flammation of tendons and their sheaths. The'ine. See Tea. Thelal'gia (Onan, a papilla, ałyos, a pain).

Pain in the nipples. Theli'tis (Onan, LTHS). Inflammation of

the nipples. The'lium (Ana.n). A papilla; also, a layer

of cells. The'lothism (oni.n), wew, to push). Projection of the nipple, caused by contraction of the transverse muscular fibers. The'nal (Devap, the palm). Pertaining to the palm or the sole; also, towards the palm. The'nar (@evap). The palm of the hand;

also, the sole of the foot. Theobrom'æ Oleum. Butter of Cacao. The fixed oil of the seed of the chocolate tree, T.cacao. Consists mainly of stearine with a little olein. Demulcent, and does not become rancid. Used in making suppositories. T. Ceratum,“ red lip-salve,” cacao butter, white wax, ää 35; oil of almond 30 ; oil of rose, to flavor, and carmine to color, ää q. s. Theobromine, the alkaloid; properties like those of caffein. Theomalnia (Ocos, God, pavia, madness).

Religious mania. Theoph'yllin. An alkaloid discovered in tea, It is isomeric with the base obtained from cacao (theobromin) and with paraxanthin, but differs from them in its reactions. Theoret'ical (Dewpew, to investigate).

Based on theory. Speculative. The'ory (0wpew). The abstract principles of a science. Also, a reasonable sup position. Therapei'a. See Therapeutics. Therapeu'tic (Depaneva, to cure). Per

taining to Therapeutics. Therapeu'tics (Bepanevw). That branch of medical science which considers the application of remedies as a means of cure. Ther'apy. See Therapeutics. Therilaca. Treacle, Molasses. The noncrystallizing residue of the juice of the THERMÆSTHESIA

437

THERMONEUROSIS

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cane, left after the process of evaporation. Consists of cane sugar solution, caramel, and various impurities. Rarely used in pharmacy. Formerly used as an antidote to the bites of venomous snakes or insects. Thermæsthe'sia (Heppn, heat, aiotous,

sensation). The sensation of heat or the temperature of bodies. Thermesthesiometer (θερμη, αισθησις, HET pov, a measure). An instrument for measuring the sensibility to heat of different regions of the skin. Ther'mal (tephen). Pertaining to heat. Ther'mo- (tepun). A Greek word used as a prefix to denote connection with or relation to heat. Thermo-cautery. See Cautery. Thermo - chemistry,

That branch of chemical science embracing the mutual relations of heat and atomic changes. Thermochro'ic (depun, xpow, to separate). Pertaining to a quality of certain substances that transmit some thermal radiations but absorb or change others. Thermo-electric'ity. Pertaining to electricity generated by heat. Thermogen'esis (depun, yevvaw, to produce). The production of heat. Thermogen'ic (Bepun, yevvaw). Pertain

ing to Thermogenesis. Ther/mograph (Aepun, ypaow, to write). Any automatic device for registering variations of temperature. Thermom'eter (depun, heat, fet pov, a measure). An instrument for measuring the intensity of heat, consisting of a reservoir of mercury (or alcohol) expanding into a vacuous capillary tube, the intensity being measured by the length of the column of mercury. T., Centigrade, the freezing point is oo and the boiling point at 100°. T., Fahrenheit's, the interval between freezing and boiling is divided into 180 equal parts, each called a degree, the zero point being 32 degrees or divisions below the freezing of water. T., Reaumur, the freezing point is oo, and the boiling point 80°. To convert the registration of one thermometer into that of another the following formulæ are useful :Let F No. of degrees Fahrenheit.

Centigrade.
" R

Reaumur.
Then to convert
Fahr. to Cent.

Fahr. to Reaum.
5(F-32)

4(F-32) C.

R.

9 Cent. to Fahr.

Reaum. to Fahr. 90

9R + 32=F.

+32F.

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