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Prosoponeuralgia (TT POOwnov, neuralgia). Neuralgia of the face. Prosopothoracop'agus. See Thoraco. pagus. Prostatal'gia prostate, [gland), ałyos, a pain). Pain in the prostate gland. Pros'tatauxè (prostate, avčn, increase).

Enlargement of the prostate gland. Prostatec'tomy (prostate, Ektoun, exci

sion). Excision of a part of the prostate. Pros'tate Gland (ipo, lotnut, to stand). The glandular body surrounding the neck of the bladder and beginning of the urethra. Commonly called the prostate. Prostat'ic. Relating to the prostate. Also, a descriptive term applied to several muscles and to a sinus. Prostatitis (prostate, itis, inflammation).

Inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatorrhoe'a (prostate, pew, to flow).

A thin gleety discharge from the prostate gland in prostatitis. Prosthet’ic (Tpooleois). Pertaining to prosthesis, or the use of artificial instruments to replace lost or wanting parts of the body. P. Dentistry, the science and art of the replacement of natural teeth by artificial substitutes. Prostitu'tion ( pro, sto, to stand [for hire]). The condition or act of a woman who indiscriminately lets her body for sexual intercourse. In many of the countries of Europe prostitution is recognized as a matter for hygienic inspection, the prostitutes being subject to police surveillance and medical inspection. In the United States the existence of the evil is, in general, legally ignored. Pros'trate (pro, sterno, to spread). To lie flat or at full length. In pathology, to suffer almost total loss of nervous power. Prostra'tion (pro, sterno). The condition of being prostrate. Extreme exhaustion of nervous or muscular force. Pro’tagon (Tporos, first). A nitrogenous glucoside containing phosphorus; obtained from nervous tissues. Protec'tive (pro, tego, to cover). That which covers or protects. P. Dressing, an antiseptic dressing, shielding the part involved from injury or septic contamination. Pro'teids (TPWTOS). A general term for the albumins and albuminoid constituents of the organism. They are the anhydrides of peptones, colloid, non-crystallizable, and lævogyrous. They are precipitated from solutions by alcohol and various metallic salts, coagulated by heat and min

eral acids. They are divided by Landois into 1. The Native Albumins, comprising Serum-albumin, Egg-albumin, Metalbumin and Paralbumin. 2. The Globulins, subdivided into Globulin, Vitellin, Para-, or Serum-globulin, Fibrinogen, Myosin, and Globin. 3. The Derived Albumins, or Albuminates, comprising Acid-albumin or Syntonin, Alkali - albumin, Casein. 4. Fibrin. 5. Peptones. 6. Lardacein, and similar substances. 7. Coagulated Proteids. P., Vegetable, proteid substances found in plants, especially in seeds, closely resembling those in animals, and have been given the same names with the prefix vegetable, as, e. g., vegetable globulin, myosin, vitellin, casein, glutin, etc. A true peptone has not been found, but allied substances called albumoses, and divided into Alpha (a-) Beta (13-) Phytulbumoses, have been differentiated. Prote'iform (Proteus, a mythical character

who assumed various shapes, forma, a form). Having various forms. Pro'teïn. A nitrogenous substance analogous to fibrin. It is formed artificially by the action of an alkaline hydrate on albumin, fibrin, or casein. The addition of acetic acid precipitates the protein as a gelatinous translucent precipitate. Proteolyt'ic. See Ferments. Pro'teoses (TPOTOC). The intermediate bodies formed in gastric digestion between the food proteids and the elimination of peptones, called anti-peptone, hemi-peptone, etc. Pro'teus (Lat.). A class of microbes of the order of schizomycetes. P. Mirabilis. See Bacillus Mirabilis. P. Vulgaris. See Bacillus Vulgaris. P. Zenkeri. See Bacillus Zenkeri. Proth'esis (Tpo, tionill, to place). The application of an artificial instrument to remedy a want or defect, or to conceal a deformity of the body. P. Ocularis, an artificial eye. Prothet'ic. Pertaining to prothesis. Protis'ta (TTPUToc). According to Häckel a division of organisms supposed to be primordial or primitive. They are unicellular organisms intermediate between the animal and vegetable. Pro'to- (TPWTOs). A Greek numeral signi

fying first. P. Albumose. See AlbuPro'toblast (FPWTOÇ, 32aoros, a cell). A

cell without distinct cell-wall. Protoplasm. Protoca'seose. The first product of the digestion of casein.





Protocatechu'ic Acid. Dioxy-benzoic

acid. It sometimes occurs in urine. Protoelas/tose. One of the products of the breaking up of elastin. Protoglob'ulose. One of the primary

products of the digestion of globulin. Protomyos'inose. A primary product of the digestion of myosin. Protoör'ganism (TPWTOs, opyavov, an organism). An obsolete term for certain unicellular organisms whose classification was formerly in dispute. Protopla'sis (Tputos, 77acow, to form.) The primary formation of tissue. Pro'toplasm (TPWTOs, Thacow). Sarcode, Blastema, Protoplast, Bioplasm, Germinal Matter. A term loosely applied to that mucilaginous, granular matter of the cell which has the power of reproducing itself and forming new cells. Considered by many embryologists as the physical basis of life. The word was coined by Hugo von Mohl to designate certain active contents of the vegetative cell. Other parts of the cell are the Cytoplasma, the mass exclusive of the granular contents; Hyaloplasma, the outer hyaline layer; Paraplasma, the liquid interfilar portions; Polioplasma, the grayish, granuPro'toplast (TPUTOS, Thacow). See Protoplasm. Protover'tebræ. The cells of the mesoblast : cubical masses disposed in pairs behind one another on each side of the chorda dorsalis or notochord. Protozo'a (TPUTOS, (wov, an animal). A name given to an order of unicellular animals, comprising those of lowest organization. Protrac'tor (pro, before, traho, to draw). That which draws forward. A name applied to several muscles, and also to a surgical instrument. Protu'berance (pro, tuber, a swelling). A projecting part, as P., Frontal, the prominence of the frontal bone, etc. Proud Flesh. A popular term for any morbidly inflamed flesh, especially with excess of granulations adjacent to a lesion. Also, any fungous growth. Prox'imal. Same as Proximate. Prox'imate ( proximus, nearest). Nearest. Immediate. P. Cause, the immediate cause of any change. P. Principles of Disease, zymotic principles, or those organic forms which, by their growth and development, cause certain epidemic dis

Pru'nin. See Cherry. Pru'num (Lat). Prune. The fruit of P. domestica, native to W. Asia. Laxative and nutritious. Dose indefinite. Pru'nus Virginia'na. Wild cherry. The bark of P. serotina; contains amygdalin, and a volatile oil resembling oil of bitter almond. An aromatic bitter increasing appetite and promoting digestion. Useful in bronchitis and the hectic cough of consumption. An ingredient of various proprietary cough mixtures. Dose of the bark 3 ss-j; of the fld. ext. 3 ss-j; of a 4 per cent. infusion 3 ss-ij; of a 12 per cent. syrup 3j-iv. Prurig'inous. Pertaining to or like pru.

rigo. Pruri'go (prurio, to itch). Pruriginous rash. A chronic disease of the skin marked by a thickened condition and the presence of recurring white or pale red papules. Occurs usually on the extensor surfaces. Accompanied by intolerable itching. Classed as P. Mitis or P. Ferox, according as it is mild, or severe with secondary lesions. Pruri/tus (prurio). A defect or abnormal condition of the innervation of the skin marked by the sensation of itching. In P. Universal the greater part of the skin is involved. In P. Ani and P. Vulvæ, the anus and the vulva are the seats of the affection. Prus'sic Acid. See Acid, Hydrocyanic. Psammo'ma (yapuos, sand). A tumor of or near the pineal gland containing sabulous or calcareous particles. Psam'mous. See Sabulous. Psellis'mus (4210uos). Stuttering or

stammering Pseud.. Same as Pseudo-. Pseudacu'sis (Evdns, false, arova, to

hear). Imperfection or error of hearing. Pseudæsthe'sia (pevons, arotinois, feeling). Any depraved state of the sense of touch, temperature, etc. Also, an imaginary sense of feeling in parts of the body that have been removed by surgical operation. Pseudarthritis (Yevdns, arthritis). Hysterical affection of a joint, simulating arthritis. Pseudarthro'sis (Vevonc, apopov, a joint). The condition of having a false joint or articulation. Pseudencephalus (ψευδης, εγκεφαλος, brain). An exencephalic monstrosity with absent cranial vault and brain, and in place of the last a vascular tumor.

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Pseud'o- (Yevdms). An adjective prefix

denoting false or seeming. Pseudo-bul'bar Paral’ysis. Symmetrical disease of both hemispheres involving the centers or paths of the nerves of speech, and thus resembling the defect of disease of the medulla. Pseudo-cye'sis (XevenS, KUNOIS, pregnancy). False pregnancy. The belief in the existence of pregnancy on the part of a woman (usually the result of desire) accompanied, perhaps, by uncertain signs. Pseudo-gan'glion (yevdns, ganglion). A false ganglion, usually a slight thicken. ing of a nerve. P. of Bochdalek, an enlargement of a branch of the middle alveolar nerve from which fibers descend to supply the canine teeth. P. of Circumflex Nerve, an expansion of a branch of the nerve which goes to the teres major. P. of Cloquet, a thickening of the palatine branches of the naso-palatine nerve. P., Valentin's, a slight thickening at the junction of certain divisions of the middle alveolar branch of the maxillary nerve. Pseudo-glio'ma of Retina. See Glioma. Pseudo-hydropho'bia (Vevons, hydrophobia). Hysterical convulsions in one believing himself to have been bitten by a rabid animal. There is, however, absence of the true respiratory spasm.

It has also been called Lyssophobia. Pseudo-hypertro'phic Paral'ysis (pevdns). A term applied to loss or diminution of the power of motion, accompanied by hypertrophied muscles. Pseudoma'nia (Vevons, uavia, madness). A form of insanity in which the person affected accuses himself of a crime or crimes of which he is innocent. It is usually a form of hysteria. Pseudomem'brane (vevóns, membranum). A false membrane, such as the mycelium of the fungus of diphtheria. Pseudomem'branous (yevons, membran

ous). Pertaining to false membranes. Pseudophthi'sis (vevons, poiois, decay). Emaciation and general wasting arising from other causes than pulmonary tuberculosis. Pseudosclero'sis. An affection similar in symptoms to sclerosis but without the anatomical lesions. Pseud'oscope (HevÓNS, OKOTEM, to see). A prismatic instrument so arranged that, e. g., if a spherical surface be looked at with the instrument the image formed in each eye is inverted laterally. Shadows are reversed and the ball appears hollow.

Pseudos'mia (pevdns, ogun, a smell). A

defective or illusive sense of smell. Pseudo-stomata (ψευδης, στομα, a mouth). Small holes or outlets in the cement substance of the alveoli of lung tissue. Pseudoxan'thine. A name given, it is thought inappropriately, by Gautier to a leucomaine-base, C,H,N,0, isolated from fresh muscle-tissue of beef. It so much resembles xanthine, however, that it may have been often mistaken for that compound-hence, the name given by Gautier; but it differs from xanthine in its empirical composition, solubility, and crystalline form. The name Pseudoxanthine was also given by Schultzen and Filehne to a body isomeric with xanthine, obtained by action of sulphuric upon uric acid. Psilo'sis (yihow, to remove the hair). The removal of the hair from a part. Depilation. Pso'æ (uwa, the loins). The psoas mus

cles. Pso'as (pwa). The loins. P. Muscle.

See Muscle. P. Abscess. See Abscess. Psod'ymus (poat, loins, didvoc, double). A sysomic monstrosity with two heads and thoraces, and conjoined abdominal and pelvic cavities. There are two legs, and occasionally the rudiments of a third. Psoi'tis (Pwa, itis, inflammation). Inflammation of the psoas muscles, or of the region of the loins. Pso'ra (uwpa, from you, to scratch). Same

as Scabies. Psorelco'sis (popa, ehkwols, ulceration).

The ulceration frequently occurring during the progress of scabies. Psori'asis (pupa, the itch). Lepra; Lepra alphos; Alphos. A chronic, intiammatory affection of the skin, distinguished by dry, red, roundish patches, covered with silvery scales. Commonly affects the extensor surface of the limbs, the scalp and the trunk. Begins as a small papule, that enlarges at the margin and becomes covered with white scales. It may be diffuse, universal, punctate, guttate, circinate, gyrate, inveterate (thickening of the skin) or rupoid (when pus forms under the crust). Psorophthal'mia. See Ophthalmia. Pso'rous (popa). Pertaining to or affected

with the itch. Psychi'atry (tv xn, the mind, tatpikos, the healing art). Treatment of the diseases of the mind. Psy'chic (Yvxn). Pertaining to the mind. PSYCHOGENESIS



Psychogen'esis (yr X, yevvaw, to beget). A term used of the causes and development of mental characteristics. Psychol'ogy (yuxn, hoyos, a treatise). A treatise on the nature and phenomena of the mind. Psychopath'ic (YVXn, Taflos, suffering). Pertaining to psychopathy. Psychop'athy (Yuxn, natos). Disease of

the mind or of the intellectual faculties. Psycho-physical Law. See Fechner's

Law. Psychophys’ics. The study of mental processes by physical methods, especially the determination of the difference of stimulus required to produce recognizable differences of sensation. Psychophysiol'ogy (üvxn, physiology). Mental physiology. A study of the physiology of the brain as related to mental and emotional processes. Psycho'ses (UVXn). Diseases of the mind

or of the intellectual faculties. Psycho'sin (¥VXn). A cerebroside resembling sphyngosin, occurring in brain-tissue. Psychotherapeu'tics. The cure of mental disease; also the treatment of disease by mental influence. Psychrom'eter (V xpos, cold, uerpov, a measure). An instrument for determining the amount of telluric moisture by precipitation on a cold surface. Psy'chrophore (¥v xpos, popew, to carry). An instrument for the conveyance of cold to parts deeply placed, as by a doublecurrent catheter to the prostate gland. Psydra'cium (YvSpaß, a blister or pimple).

A term loosely applied to various eczematous and psoriform eruptions of the skin. Ptar'mic (itapuos, a sneezing). Pertaining to the act of sneezing. Sternutatory. Also, a substance that produces sneezing. Pte'lea Trifolia'ta. Wafer-ash; Wingseed. The bark of a shrub yielding a bitter tonic extractive. A popular tonic in debility and dyspepsia. Unof. Pter'ion. See Skull. Pter'o- (iTepov, a wing). A Greek word

used as a prefix to denote resemblance to a wing, or wing-shaped. Pteryg’ium (Trepov). A triangular patch of thickened conjunctiva, the apex pointing toward the pupil, the fan-shaped base extending toward the canthus. Also, an abnormal growth of skin over the fingernail. Pter'ygo- (TTTE pov). A Greek word that, prefixed to another, denotes connection with, or relation to, the pterygoid process.

Pterygoid (TTTepov, Eldos, a form). A name

given to two wing-shaped processes of the sphenoid bone. P. Muscle. See Muscle. Pierygo-max'illary. Pertaining conjointly to the pterygoid process and the superior maxillary bone. Pterygo-pal’atine. Pertaining conjointly to the pterygoid process and the palate. Ptilo'sis. See Madarosis. Ptis'an (TT1Oow, to bruise). Barley water. Any decoction of barley designed as a medicinal drink. Pto'maines (TTTwua, corpse). Putrefactive alkaloids; a class of nitrogenous alkaloidal bases, of both animal and vegetable origin, formed during the putrefaction of organic matter. Some are poisonous, but the greater number of those isolated are not so. But all toxic products of putrefaction are not ptomaines. Since all putrefaction is dependent upon microörganisms, the formation of ptomaines is also dependent upon them, each distinctive ptomaine being probably due to a peculiar bacterium or combination of such. The dependence may sometimes be indirect and complicated with or also dependent upon purely chemical changes. The kind of ptomaïne is also dependent upon the stage of putrefaction, as they are “transition products in process of putrefaction," intermediates of katabolism, tinally becoming the end-products of excretion. Foods have been found to contain ptomaines, the principal being mussels, oysters, eels, sausage, ham, canned meats, cheese, milk, ice-cream, etc. The pathogenic action of many bacteria is probably due to their production of ptomaines. In addition to the ptomaines given in the following table, a number of unnamed substances have been studied that possess reactions and physiological effects similar or identical with well-known vegetable alkaloids. These at present can only be called after analogues, e. g., Coniïne-like Substances ; others are called Nicotine-like, Strychnine-like, Morphine-like, Atropinelike, Digitaline-like, Veratrine-like, Delphinine-like, etc. Selmi found ptomatropines or cadaveric ptomaines so closely resembling the vegetable product that when treated with sulphuric acid and oxidizing agents they gave the odor of blossoms (Reuss's test) as distinctly as the vegetable atropine. A powerful poison has been found in exhumed bodies giving reactions similar to strychnine, though by no means identical with the latter. Selmi

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Collidine (?).
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Unnamed. Tyrotoxicon.

Mydaleine. Spasmotoxine. Peptotoxine.


Ptomat'ropines. Ptomaînes found in the

cadaver. Ptosis (Trow, to fall). Complete or partial drooping and inability to raise the upper eyelid, due to paralysis of the third nerve, or of the levator palpebræ or to thickening of the lid.

Ptyal’agogue (Trvalov, saliva, ayw, to drive). A medicine producing salivation or increased flow of saliva. A sialagogue. Pty'alin (itvahov). A diastasic ferment existing in saliva, having the property of changing starch into dextrine and a sugar called ptyalose. See Ferments.

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