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POTATO-PASTE

358

PRECUNEUS

diseases. Dose mv-3 ss, diluted. P. Nitras, saltpeter, refrigerant and diuretic in fevers. Dose gr. v-X. P Nitratis, Charta, unsized paper saturated with a 20 per cent solution. Used, when burnt, for inhalation. P. Permanganas. See Manganese. P. Tartras, refrigerant and laxative. Dose gr. XX

(-3 ss. P. Sulphas, hepatic stimulant and cathartic. Dose gr. XX

- 3 ss. Pota'to-paste. A substitute for the solid potato as a culture medium for bacteria, when a very extensive surface is desired. It is a stiff paste made with water from the dry, floury centers of well-boiled potatoes. Pota'to Spirit. See Alcohol. Po'tency (potens, from posse, to be able).

Power. Efficacy. Poten’tial (potens). Able or powerful. A term applied to remedies or agents that are energetic. In electricity, the tension or pressure of the current. It is estimated quantitatively in volts. P. Cautery. See Cautery. Po'tio (Lat.), or Po'tion. A drink or draught of a medi

cinal preparation. Potoma'nia. See Mania. Pott's Disease or Curvature. See

Caries. Pott's Fract'ure. See Fracturc. Pouch (Fr. poche, a pocket). Any pocketshaped cavity or receptaculum. P. of Douglas, the cul-de-sac of Douglas, a pouch formed by the recto-uterine fold of the peritonæum. P.'s, lleo-cæcal, narrow-necked folds of the peritonæum, at the termination of the ileum. P., Inguinal, a fold of the peritonäum behind the abdominal ring. P. of Rathke, the hypophysial pouch in the embryo prolonged through the base of the skull to form the anterior element of the hypophysis. P. of Seesel, a pouch in the embryo behind the summit of the hypophysis. P., Subcæcal, a fold of the peritonæum behind and below the cæcum. Poul'tice (T102tos, porridge). An emul

sion of some soft substance, as slippery elm, meal, etc., for application to the skin. Pound (A. S. pund). A weight of 5760

grains Troy, or 7000 grains avoirdupois. Pou'part's Lig'ament. See Ligament. Pow' der. See Pulver. P., Insect. See Insect Powder, P., Seidlitz. See Potassium. (Pulv. effervesc. comp.) Pox (pocks, pl. of pock). A term applied to several contagious, pustular, eruptive

diseases. P., Chicken. See Varicella. P., French. See Syphilis. P., Small. See Variola. Practice (TPaktikn). The official duties of a physician or surgeon in his professional work. Practi'tioner (Fr. practicien). One who practices a profession, especially that of medicine. P., General, one who treats all ailments, in distinction from the specialist, who treats only one or more diseases, or the diseases of one or a few organs. Præ- (Lat.). A Latin preposition meaning before, used as a prefix to denote position. It places the words with which it is combined in antithesis to those combined with post. Præcor' dia (pra, cor [gen. cordis], the heart). A name applied variously to the diaphragm, the thoracic viscera, and the epigastric region. Præpu'tium. See Prepuce. Prælvia (pria, via, a way). A condition in which an organ or part stands in the way, thereby preventing the functions of another organ. P., Placenta. See Placenta. Prax'is. See Practice. Preatax'ic. Pertaining to a time or phase

preceding the development of ataxy. Preax'ial ( præ, axis). In the anatomy of the spinal skeleton all parts which, in man, are superior (in other mammals anterior) to an imaginary axis drawn at right angles to the general direction of the vertebral column. The remaining inferior (or posterior) parts are classified as posta xial. Precip'itant ( præ, caput). Any reagent

causing precipitation. Precip'itate ( pra, caput, the head). Anything changing from a soluble to an insoluble form in a solution. P., Red. See Hydrargyrum Oxidum Rubrum. P., White, N2(Hg2)3Cl2, formed by adding ammonium hydrate to a solution of mercuric chloride. Precipita'tion (pra, caput, a head, headlong). The process of throwing down solids from the liquids which hold them in solution. Effected usually by chemical reaction. Precipitates are crystalline, curdy, flocculent, granular, or gelatinous, according to the form assumed. The agent causing precipitation is the precipitant. Precoc'ity (pre, coquo, to ripen). Abnormal development or maturity before time. It is applied especially to development of the intellectual faculties. Precu'neus. The Lobus Quadratus. Precursory. See Premonitory.

PREDIASTOLIC

359

PRESCRIPTION

cause.

Prediastol'ic (præ, diaotcán, a dilatation). That which precedes diastole of the heart. Predicrot'ic Wave. The primary wave

in the dicrotic curve of the sphygmogram. Predispos'ing ( præ, dispono, to be liable).

Acting under an unusually slight exciting Predisposi'tion (præ, dispono). That condition of the body which, by the stimulus of a very slight cause, renders it liable to the attacks of certain diseases, especially to those of hereditary character. Prefront'al (pra, frontale, the frontal bone). That which is in advance of the frontal. A name sometimes given to the middle portion of the ethmoid bone. Preg'nancy (pregnans, with child). The condition of being with child, or gravid; the period from conception to delivery. P., Abdominal, that occurring in the abdominal or peritoneal cavity; primary, if the fertilization take place in the cavity; secondary, if the embryo or ovum break through the enclosing walls into the peritoneal cavity. P., Cervical, primitive, a variety of ectopic gestation wherein the ovum is arrested and developed in the cervical canal ; secondary, in early abortion the ovum expelled from the uterine, remains in the cervical cavity. P., Extra-uterine, ectopic gestation, the development of the ovum outside of the normal cavity of the uterus. P., Interstitial, a variety of extra-uterine and tubal pregnancy, the ovum developing in that portion of the oviduct that passes through the wall of the uterus. P., Multiple, when the uterus contains two or more fætuses. P., Ovarian, the fecundation and growth of the ovum taking place within the ovisac. P., Plural, the development of more than one fætus at one time. P., Single or Simple, the normal development of a single fætus.

P., Tubal, development of the ovum in the oviduct. P., Tuboabdominal, the ovum is developed in the ampulla and extends into the abdominal cavity. P., Tubo-ovarian, the ovum is attached to the oviduct and ovary. Tubo-uterine. Same as Interstitial P. Prehen'sile (prehendo, to seize). A term applied to organs or parts adapted to seizing or grasping, as the hands of bimana or quadrumana, the talons of birds, etc. Prehen'sion (prehendo). The act of

taking hold or seizing. Prelum'bar. Anterior to the lumbar verte

bræ. Premature La'bor. See Labor.

Pre'mature Respira'tion. Respiration taking place before the complete birth of the foetus. Premax'illary. See Intermaxillary. Premo'lar (pra, molar, one of the jaw

teeth). A descriptive term applied to the first two pairs of molar teeth in each jaw. Premon'itory (pre, moneo, to warn). Used of the initial or precursory symptoms, or of such as indicate on-coming disease. Preos/seus (præ, os, a bone). That which precedes the formation of bone. Applied to a transparent substance having the chemical characters of osteine, with cavities containing osteoblasts, from which the bone is formed. Prepara'tion (pre, paro, to get ready). Anything made ready. In anatomy, any part of the body prepared or preserved for illustrative or other uses. In pharmacy, any compound or mixture made after a formula. Pre'puce (præputium). The foreskin of the penis. P. of Clitoris, the superior folds of the nymphæ surrounding the glans clitoris. Prepu'tial. Pertaining to the prepuce. Presbykou'sis (TpeoBus, akovu, to hear). Senile lessening of acuteness of hearing. Presbyo'pia ( peoBus, old man, oy, the eye). A condition reached at about 45-50 years of age, in which from growing inelasticity of the lens of the eye (failure of accommodation) the near-point of distinct vision is removed to an inconvenient distance from the eye, with consequent diminution in size of the retinal image. Prescrip'tion (pra, before, scribo, to write). A formula written by the physician to the dispenser of medicines, designating the substances to be employed in a mixture or preparation. The following shows the essential features of a prescription :

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PRESENTATION OF FETUS

360 PROBABLE DURATION OF LIFE

Presenta'tion of the Fætus. That part of the foetus that presents at the pelvic outlet in labor. The presentation depends upon the position of the fætus, and may be either the vertex (occiput), the face (frontal), the breech (sacral), and either shoulder (dorsal). See Position. Preser'vative Fluid (for section cuttings of specimens). Many are used. Hamilton recommends equal parts of glycerine and water with about eight minims of carbolic acid to the ounce. Presse-artère (Fr.). An instrument for the compression or temporary occlusion of an artery. Pres/sor Filbers. Nerve-fibers whose stimulation excites the vasomotor centers, and consequently increases the arterial tension. Others reflexly diminishing the excitability of these centers are called Depressor Fibers. Pres'sure (premo, to press). The act of pressing. Weight or tension, as of the blood in the arteries, the intraocular fluids, etc. P. Phosphenes. See Phosphenes. P. Points (or Spots), points of marked sensibility to pressure or weight, arranged like the temperature spots, and showing a specific end-apparatus arranged in a punctated manner and connected with the pressure-sense.

P.-sense. The sense of pressure upon the skin. Prestern'um (pra, sternum). The manu

brium. Presystol'ic (pre, ovoroan, contraction).

Preceding the systole. Preven'tive. See Prophylactic. Prever/tebral (pre, vertebra, the back

bone). Situated in front of the vertebra. Pri'apism (Tplanoc, the penis). Persistent,

painful and abnormal erection of the penis. Prick'le Cells. Certain peculiar cells of the rete Malpighii of the skin. Prick'ly Heat. See Miliaria. Pride of China. See Asederach. Pri'maries. A term used of syphilitic sores the direct result of contact or infection. Primary (primus). First in time. First in character or time as opposed to secondary. Primigrav'ida (Lat.). A woman in her

first pregnancy. Primip'ara ( primus, first, pareo, to bear). A woman bearing or having borne her first child. Primip'arous (primus, pareo, to bring forth). Pertaining to a female who is pregnant or is in labor for the first time.

Primi'tiæ (primus). A term applied to the waters discharged before the extrusion of the foetus at birth. Prim'itive. First formed; pertaining to the initial stage or phase of the development of an organ or tissue, hence, usually referring to embryological structures, as the P. anus, mouth, aorta, circulation, etc. P. Chorion. See Chorion. P. Kidneys. See Reproductive Organs.

P. Groove, the enlargement and deepening of the P. Streak, at the posterior or narrow end of the blastoderm. Primor' dial (primus, ordior, to begin). Pertaining to the beginning or primary phase. P. Cell, an embryonic cell. P. Cranium, the membranous skull of the embryo. P. Kidney, the Wolffian body. P. Ova, cells lying between the germepithelium of the surface of the embryological ovary Prince's Pine. See Chimaphila. Prin'ciple (principium). A synonym of element, essence, or primary quality of a body. P., Immediate, the components of an organized tissue as it exists functionally in the living tissue. P., Mediate, the chemical compounds and simple bodies into which the immediate principles are decomposed. P., Proximate. See Proximate. Pri'nos. Black Alder. The bark of P. vercillatus. Astringent and tonic. Used in intermittent fever, diarrhea, and, locally, in cutaneous diseases. Dose 3 ss-j. Unof. Prism (prisma). A figure with plane surfaces, triangular or quadrangular, in which one of the dimensions is greater than the other two. Made of glass, it is used for refracting the sun's rays and forming a spectrum, and to make prismatic lenses. Prismatic lenses refract the light toward the base of the prism. Their chief use in ophthalmology is, in cases of insufficiency of the external ocular muscles, to so transplace the retinal image as to throw less work upon the weak muscle. Prismat'ic Spectrum. See Spectrum. Prisop'tometer (Tpigw, prism, wy, the eye, pet pov, a measure). An instrument for estimating ametropia by means of two prisms placed base to base. Privates, or Privit'ies. The genital organs. Probable Duration of Life. The age at which any number of children born into the world will be reduced to one-half, so that there are equal chances of their dying before and after that age. The age PROBANG

361

PROGNOSIS

at which a given population is reduced by one-half its number. Pro'bang ( probo, to try). A rod of whalebone or other material, with a sponge attached to one end, for introduction into the æsophagus. P. Ball, with ivory bulb instead of sponge. Probe (probo). A stylus, wire or rod,

flexible, rigid or jointed, for examining and trying a wound, in reference to its depth, contents, etc. P., Chemical, one carrying a charpie with dilute acetic acid or other drug. P., Drainage, so constructed and used as to assist drainage. P., Drum, provided with a drum or reverberator to enable the ear to detect contact with foreign bodies. P., Electric, with two insulated wires, so that contact with a bullet or metal completes the circuit, and thus indicates the presence of such a foreign body. P., Lachrymal. See Lachrymal. P., Magnetic, employment of the telephone as an indicator. P., Nélaton's, is capped with unglazed porcelain upon which a leaden ball makes a metallic streak. Probos'cis (Lat.). The feeding organ of

an insect. Also, the trunk of an elephant. Proc'ess (procedo, to issue from). A general name given to any eminence or prominence of bone, as e. g., the Mastoid Process. Also, a lobe of the brain. Proces'sus e Cer'ebelli ad Tes'tes (Lat.). The peduncles of the cerebellum. See Peduncle. Proces'sus Petro'sus Anticus (Lat.).

See Lingula. Prociden'tia. See Prolapsus. Proclivity (pro, clivus, a slope). Tendency or inclination. Procrea'tion (pro, creo, to create). Beget

ting, generation, or production. Procta'gra (TTPWKTOS, the anus, aypa, gout).

Pain in the anal region. Proctalgia (TPUKTOS, ahyos, pain). Pain

in the anus or rectum. Proctatre'sia (TPWKTOS, arpnoia, imperforate). The imperforate condition of the

coat of the rectum due to relaxation of the sphincter muscle. Proctocystot'omy (TPWKTOS, KVOTIS, a sac, Touin, a cutting). A form of lithotomy in which the incision is made through the walls of the rectum. Proctodæ'um (TPWKTOÇ, dato, to divide). The anus of the embryo, formed by the invagination of the epiblast. Proctodyn'ia (TPWKTOS, oduvn, pain). Any pain in the anus. Proctoparalysis. Paralysis of the

sphincter muscle of the anus. Proc/toplasty (TPWKTOS, Tacow, to form).

Plastic operation upon the anus. Proctople'gia. See Proctoparalysis. Proctopto'ma (TPWKTOS, Ttwua, a fall).

Same as Proctocele. Proctopto'sis (TPORTOS, TTTWOIS, a falling).

Same as Proctocele. Proctor'raphy (TPWKTOS, paon, suture).

Suture of the rectal wall. Proctot'omy (TPWKTOS, Teuvw, to cut). Incision of the anus or rectum for imperforation, stricture, etc. Procum'bent (pro, cumbo, to lie). Lying

flat, face downward. Pro'drome (ipo, forward, Spouos, a run

ner). A forerunner of a disease. Precursory symptom. Prodro'mous (Tpo, dpoulos). Pertaining to the precursory symptoms of a disease. Prodromus (προ, δρομος). The pro

drome; also the period in which the precursory signs of a disease occur. Proenceph'alus (ipo, Eykepaloc, brain). An exencephalic monstrosity with the brain protruding through a fissure in the frontal region. Professional or Occupational Neurosis. A neurosis caused by continuous exercise of one set of muscles. Profunda Arteries. See Artery- Table. Profun'dus (pro, fundus, the bottom). A descriptive term applied to any organ or part that is deep-seated. Progen'itor ( pro, genitus, begotten). An

ancestor or forefather. Prog'eny (pro, genus, race). Offspring.

Descendants. Proglos'sis (Lat.). The point of the

tongue. Proglot'tides (pl. of proglottis). The seg.

ments of the tapeworm. Progna'thic, or Progna'thous. See Index. Progno'sis (otpo, YlyVwokw, to know). The prevision and judgment concerning the progress and result of a disease.

anus.

Procteu'clisis. Constriction of the anus. Procteuryn'ter. An instrument for dilat

ing the anus. Procti'tis (TPWKTOS, (TLC, inflammation).

Inflammation of the anus and rectum. Proc/to- (TPWKTOS, the anus). A Greek word which, prefixed to another, signifies connection with, or relation to, the anus. Proc'tocele (TPUKTOS, Knan, a hernia). The extroversion or prolapse of the mucous

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of the male spermatozoon that unites with the female pronucleus to form the new nucleus of the fertilized ovum. Proof Spirit. See Spirit. Proo'tic (apo, wuc, the ear). Pertaining to

that which lies in front of the ear. Propenylhydrate. See Glycerine. Propep'sin. See Pepsinogen. Pro-pep'tone. See Peptones. Prophylac'tic (Tt poovhašis, caution). Pertaining to prophylaxis. Also, a medicine or agent that prevents the taking of dis

ease.

Prognos/tic. Pertaining to prognosis. Projec'tion Systems. See Meynert. Prola'bium (pro, labium, a lip). The marginal edge of the lip. Prolapse', or Prolap'sus ( prolabor, to slip down). The falling forward or down of some part, so that it protrudes beyond its normal boundary. P. of the Anus or Rectum, protrusion of the rectal walls beyond the anus. P. of Cord. See Cord. P. of Iris, protrusion through a corneal wound. P. of Uterus, protrusion of the womb beyond the vulva. See Uterus. Prolep'sis (Tapo, haußavo, to seize upon).

See Prognosis. Prolifera'tion (proles, offspring, fero, to bear). Cell-genesis. The continued formation and development of cells in any organic tissue. Prolif'erous ( proles, fero). A tumor, cyst or other structure bearing other organisms similar to itself. Prolif'ic (proles, facio, to make). That which has the property of engendering. Also, fruitful. Prolig'erous ( proles, gero, to carry). Pertaining to a germ or proliferation. P. Discus, the elevation of the cells of the membrana granulosa by which the ovum is attached. Prom’inence (prominor, to jut out). Any conspicuous protuberance on the surface of a part, especially on a bone. Prom'ontory (prominor). An elevation or prominence. P. of Sacrum, the prominence made by the angle of the upper extremity of the sacrum and the last lumbar vertebra. P. of Tympanum, the prominence formed by the first turn of the cochlea. Prona'tion ( pronus, bent forward). The turning of the hand with the palm downward. Prona'tor (pronus). That which pronates or bends forward a part, as the hand, etc. A descriptive term applied to several muscles. Prone (pronus). With the palm downward. Also, inclined. Also, lying with the face downward. Proneph'ros (īpo, veppos, the kidney). The primordial kidney. See Reproductive

Organs. Pronu'cleus (contraction of protonucleus). The remaining part of the germinal vesicle within the vitellus after the extrusion of the polar globules is called the P., Female; the P., Male, is the middle piece

Prophylax'is ( TT popvhažis). The hygienic or other precautions conducive to prevention of disease. Proph'ysis. See Symblepharon. Proptosis (Tpo, iTwois, a falling). Any falling or downward movement of an organ from its place. Prolapsus. Propul’sion (pro, pello, to push). The act of pushing forward. Applied to a leaning of the body in walking as if pushed, a symptom of certain spinal diseases. Pro'pyl. The radical C,H,. Propyl'amine. A ptomaine, isomeric with trimethylamine. There are two propylamines possible, represented by the formulæ CH,.CH,.CH 2.NH, and (CH3)2. CH.NH,. The former, or normal compound, boils at 47°-48°; while the latter, or isopropylamine, boils at 31.5°. Iso-propylamine has been found among distillationproducts of beet-root molasses. Propylamine has been obtained from culture of the bacteria of human fæces, and a strongly similar basic substance from a cadaver. Both are non-poisonous liquids possessing an ammoniacal, fish-like smell. Pro re nata. A Latin phrase signifying

according to the circumstances of the case. Prosec/tor (pro, sector, a cutter). An officer of a medical college who prepares subjects for anatomical dissection, or to illustrate didactic lectures. Prosenceph'alon (+pos, near, Evkepahov, the brain). That part of the anterior cerebral vesicle developing into the hemispheres. Prosenchy'ma (I poc, ey xvua, an infusion).

Vegetable fibrous tissue composed of elongated cells with thick partitions. Prosopal'gia. See Tic Douloureux. Prosopecta'sia ( pogumov, the face, Ektaous, enlargement). Morbid enlargement of the face. Prosopol'ogy (APOOwnov, hoyos, a discourse). A treatise on facial expression, or physiognomy.

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