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LARYNGECTOMY

233

LATEX

and lower parts into which the layrnx may be conveniently divided. Laryngect'omy (hapuys, EKTOun, a cutting out). An operation for the extirpation of the larynx. Laryngis'mus (Tapvyyibw, to vociferate). A term loosely applied to various spasmodic affections of the larynx. L. Stridulus. Same as Laryngospasm. Laryngi'tis (rapuys, itis, inflammation). A catarrhal inflammation of the larynx accompanied by sore throat, hoarseness, and, usually, painful deglutition and cough. In severe cases there may be ædema, dyspncea, and suffocation. In infants it is much the same disease as croup. It also accompanies malignant affections of the throat and trachea, such as diphtheria, cancer, etc. Laryn'go-fis'sure (2 apvyg, fissura). Division of the larynx for the removal of tumors or foreign bodies. Laryngography (λαρυγξ, γραφω, to

write). A description of the larynx. Laryngol'ogy (apvyš, hoyos, a treatise).

A treatise on the larynx. Laryngoparalysis (λαρυγξ, παραλυσις, palsy). Loss of the voice or paralysis of the vocal cords from nervous affections, not local disease. Laryngop'athy (aapvyp, Taboç, a suffering). A term including all affections of the larynx. Laryngophantom (λαρυγξ, φαντασμα, a vision). An artificial larynx designed for illustrative purposes. Laryn'go-pharynge'al (aapvys, papuys, the throat). Pertaining conjointly to both larynx and pharynx. Laryngoph'ony (Papvys, owvn, the voice). The sound of the voice observed in the auscultation of the larynx with the stethoscope; also the sound of the voice observed in the auscultation of a large cavity in the lung. Laryngople'gia (2 apvy, 2.779, a stroke).

Paralysis of the muscles of the larynx. Laryngospasm (λαρυγξ, σπασμος, spasm). Spasmodic contraction or closure of the glottis ; spasmodic croup, as distinguished from inflammatory croup. Laryn'goscope (hapvyš, OKOTEW, to observe). An instrument for examination of the larynx. Laryngo-steno'sis (apvyg, OTEVWOIS, a contraction). Contraction in size of the larynx. Laryngot'omy (aapvyš, Teuva, to cut). The operation of incision of the larynx.

Laryngo-trache'al (aapvys, tpaxela, the

windpipe). Pertaining conjointly to the larynx and the trachea. Laryngotracheot'omy (2apuig, Tpa yela, Toun, a section). That form of the operation of tracheotomy in which the cricoid cartilage, and some of the upper rings of the trachea are divided. Lar'ynx (aapuys,). The upper part of the air passage, between the trachea and the base of the tongue. It comprises three single cartilages, the thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis, and three pairs of cartilages, the arytenoid and those of Santorini and Wrisberg. It is lined with an extremely sensitive mucous membrane, which forms two transverse lipped folds that constitute the vocal cords. Lasciv'ious (lascivia,wantonness). Libidi

nous. Wanton. Having an unlawful desire. Las'situde (lassus, tired). A state of exhaustion or weakness, arising from causes other than fatigue. La'ta. See Miryachit. La'tency (lateo, to be hid). The condition

of being latent or concealed. La'tent (lateo). Concealed. Not manifest. In physics, applied to heat that apparently disappears when a liquid is vaporized or a solid melted. L. Period, the time required for the incubation of a disease. Lat'erad (latus, the side). Toward the

lateral aspect of. Lateral (lateralis). At, belonging to, or

pertaining to the side. The aspect of the side viewed from the middle. L. Column, that column of the spinal cord between the antero- and postero-lateral fissures. L. Operation, that form of operation in lithotomy in which the opening is made on the left side of the perina um. L. Plates, the part of the mesoblast lying external to the provertebræ. L. Sinuses, the two veins of the dura mater situated in the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli. Lateri'tious (later, brick). Pertaining to

an urinary sediment resembling brick-dust. Latero-cervi'cal (lateralis, cervix, the neck). At or about the side of the neck. Latero-dor'sal (lateralis, dorsum, the

back). At or near the side of the back. Latero-flex'ion (lateralis, flecto, to bend).

Bending to one side. Lateropulsion (lateralis, pello, to drive). An involuntary motion or bearing to one side. La'tex (Lat., liquid). The sap or the juice of the tubes or vessels of plants.

a

LATHYRUS CICERA

234

LEIPOTHYMIA

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Lath'yrus Cic'era. A species of vetch, commonly known as “chick-pea." See Lathyrism. Lath’yrism (rathpıs, spurge). The convulsive movements, tremors and paraplegia arising from the use of the seeds of Lathyrus cicera. Latis'simus (superl. of latus, wide). An adjective signifying widest. It is used as a descriptive term with certain muscles. L. Colli. See Muscle (Platysma Mlyoides). L. Dorsi. See Muscle. Laud'anin. One of the alkaloids of opium. It is soluble in chloroform and alkaline solutions. Laud'anum. See Opium. Laugh’ing (Sax. hlehhan). A succession of rhythmic, spasmodic expirations with open glottis and vibration of vocal cords. L. Gas. See Nitrogen. Laurel. See Kalmia. La'va (Lat., a flood or torrent). The

molten ejecta of a volcano. Lavage (Fr.). Irrigation or washing out

the stomach. Lavamen'tum (lavo, to wash). An in

jection. Lavender, or Lavan'dula. The flowers of L. vera. Properties due to a volatile oil. Aromatic, stimulant and carminative, but used mainly as a flavor and adjuvant of other medicines. L. Ol., the volatile oil distilled from the whole herb. Dose mj-v. L. 01. Florum, the oil distilled from the fresh flowers, preferable to preceding. Dose mj-v. A constituent of Spt. Odoratus. L. Spt., 3 parts of the oil in 97 of alcohol; a perfume. Dose 3 ss-j. L. Tinct. Comp., oil of lavender 8, oil of rosemary 2, cinnamon 18, cloves 4, nutmeg 10, red saunders 8, alcohol 680, water 270, dilute alcohol to make 1000. Dose 3 ss-ij, a constituent of Fowler's solution. Laveran, Corpuscles of. See Bacillus,

of Malaria, and Plasmodium. Lax (la xo, to loosen). Loose. Not tense. Lax'ative (laxo). An agent that loosens the contents of the bowels. A mild purgative. Laxa'tor (laxo). That which loosens or relaxes. A name applied to various muscles. L. Tympani. See Muscle. Lay'er (Sax. leger, a couch). A mass of uniform, or nearly uniform, thickness, spread over or covering a considerable area. Lazaret'to (Ital., a pest house). A quar

antine establishment. Also, a place for fumigation and disinfection. Lead. See Plumbum. Lead-poisoning. Either due to accidental or industrial introduction of lead into the system. The symptoms are disturbed nutrition, anæmia, the gingival line, lead colic, constipation, pains in the limbs, local muscular paralysis (wrist-drop) and wasting, saturnine encephalopathy, etc. The treatment consists in stopping ingress of lead to the system, its elimination by iodide of potassium, aperients, etc. Leaf Cup. See Bearsfoot. Lean'ness. A condition of having less than the normal amount of flesh. It may be natural, or the result of disease. Leav'en (levo, to raise). A name given to several species of ferments belonging to the class of saccharomycetes, of which the culture known as “sour dough” is a common example. Lecithin (nekilos, yolk of egg). A class of nitrogenized, phosphorized substances occurring in brain- and nerve-tissue. Lectua'lis (dim. of lectus, a bed). Pertaining to a bed or couch. Also, diseases that contine one in bed. Also, a patient. Lec'tulus (dim. of lectus). A bed or couch. Also, a couch or mattress containing medicinal substances. L. Medicatus, a dry fermentation. Leech (Sax. lace, physician). Hirudo Medicinalis, of the order Hirudinea, class Annelida, sub-kingdom Vermes. To extract blood by leeching. L., Artificial, the apparatus for cupping. Lees (A. S. læs, dregs). The dregs or solid matter held in suspension by a liquid, that finally settles at the bottom of the vessel. Especially the sediment of vinous liquors. Leg. The lower extremity of man, especially that part from the knee to the ankle. An organ of locomotion of man and other animals. Legit'imacy (legitimo, to make lawful). The condition of being within the bounds of the law. Also, the statutory recognition of a child born within wedlock, or within a period of time necessary to gestation, which may elapse after the death of the father. Legu'min. See Casein. Leiomyo'ma (heios, smooth, LUS,

muscle). A form of myoma characterized by unstriped muscular fiber. Leipothy'mia (heltw, to relinquish, Ivuos, the mind). A term denoting sainting or syncope.

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LEITER'S TUBES

235

LEPROSY

the eye.

or

Lei'ter's Tubes. Tubes of soft, flexible metal designed for bending about any part of the body. Cold water is passed through the tubes, thereby reducing the temperature of the parts encased. Lem'on. See Limon. Lens (Lat., a lentil). A regularly-shaped piece of glass or crystal for the refraction of rays of light. The crystalline lens of

L., Achromatic. See Achromatic. L., Biconcave, a thick-edged lens having concave spherical surfaces upon its opposite sides, called also a negative or minus lens; used in spectacles to correct myopia. L., Biconvex positive or plus lens), a thin-edged lens; it has two convex surfaces; used to correct hyperopia. L., Cylindrical (either minus or plus), one ground upon a cylindrical tool, i.e., one with a plane surface in one axis and a concave or convex surface in the axis at right angles to the same. L., Decentered, one in which the optical center is not opposite the pupil of the eye. L., Periscopic, one with concavo-convex convexo-concave surfaces, the opposite sides being of different curvatures; to avoid spherical aberration, and to gain a greater field of clear vision, called meniscus lenses. L., Plano-concave, Planoconvex, Plano-cylindrical, has a plane surface upon one side and a curved surface upon the reverse. L., Spherical, one whose curved surface is a segment of a sphere, either concave or convex, in contradistinction to a cylindrical lens. L., Sphero-cylindrical, one with a spherical surface upon one side, and a cylindrical upon the reverse, used for the correction of either myopia or hyperopia, combined with astigmatism. See Spectacle-Lenses. Lentic'ular (dim. of lens). Pertaining to or resembling a lens; also a descriptive term applied to an instrument with a curved cutting edge for removing the rough edges of bone made by the trephine. L. Ganglion. See Ganglion. L. Nucleus, the extraventricular portion of the corpus striatum. Lenti'go (lens). Freckles, Ephelides. Circumscribed spots or patches of pig. ment, small in size and occurring mainly on the face and hands. Freckles rarely occur before eight years, and are not common in aged persons. Most frequent among people of light complexion. Len’tor (lentus, adhesive). Viscidity of a

liquid. Leonti'asis (leo, a lion). See Elephantiasis. L. Ossa. See Osteitis.

Lep'er (nem pos, scaly). One affected with

leprosy. Lep'ido- (NETIS, a scale). A Greek prefix

signifying a scale, or scaly. Lep'idoid (RETLC). Having the appear

ance of a scale. Lepidoplastic (aeris, naoow, to form).

Forming scales. Lepidop'tera (NET15, Tetepov, a wing). An order of insects distinguished by featherlike scales and a spirally coiled suctorial apparatus. The order includes butterflies and moths. Lepid'osis (2ETT). Same as Ichthyosis. Also, a synonym for Lepra. Lep'ocyte (RETOS, a husk or sheath, KUTOS,

a cell). A nucleated cell. Lep'othrix (NETTOS, Opıp, a hair). A condition of the hair, especially that of the armpits, in which the shaft becomes encased in a sheath of hardened sebaceous matter. Also, the typical thread-like form assumed by certain species of bacteria of the order Schizomycetes. Lep'ra (hen pa, a leper). Leprosy. Elephantiasis Græcorum. Leontiasis. Psoriasis. An endemic, chronic, and highly malignant disease, somewhat analogous to syphilis in pathological character. Preva. lent in Europe and Asia, especially along the Mediterranean shores. Rare in North America, except on Pacific coast.

A constitutional disease preceded by malaise, debility and languor, followed by characteristic bullous, macular, or tubercular lesions of the skin. L., Tuberculated, characterized by massive infiltrations and the formation of tubercles, commonly on the face, breasts, scrotum and penis. L., Non-tuberculated, a form of the disease characterized by macular patches that spread peripherally, until much or the whole of the skin is involved. In later stages the disease extends into the subcutaneous tissues, muscles and bones, resulting in disarticulation and destruction of the joints of the fingers and toes. This form of leprosy is nearly always marked by anästhesia of the parts involved. L., Mixed Tuberculated, involves both forms of the disease. There is very strong evidence in favor of the contagious character of the disease, and, also, that it is intimately connected with the development of a specific bacillus. Leprophthalmia (λεπρα, οφθαλμος, the eye). Ophthalmia of a leprous character. Lep'rosy. See Lepra.

LEPTANDRA

236

LEUCOCYTOSIS Leptan'dra. Culver's Root. The rhizome Leuchæ'mia. See Leucocythæmia. and rootlets of L. virginica. Properties Leu'cin (nevrós, white). A crystalline thought to be due to a glucoside, leptan- substance probably identical with amidodrin. A tonic, laxative, and cholagogue. caproic acid, occurring in the pancreas, Indicated in indigestion and chronic con- spleen, thymus gland and other parts of stipation. Dose of the ext. gr. j-iij, of the body. It is a product of pancreatic the Ad. ext. m xx-3).

digestion. Lep'to- (2.ETTOs, thin, small, slender). A Leu'co- (Neukos). A Greek prefix signify

Greek prehx, signifying small or slender. ing white. Leptoceph'alic, or

Leu'coblast. See Leucocyte. Leptoceph'alous (2ETT TOS, Kepahn, head). Leu'cocyte (NEUKOÇ, KUTOS, cell). The colHaving an abnormally small head.

orless or white corpuscles of the blood, Leptoceph'alus. A monstrosity with an probably derived from the lymph glands, abnormally small head.

and also from the spleen and marrow. Leptomeningi'tis (PETTOS, umveys, a mem- Similar corpuscles are found in many other brane). Intammation of the pia and tissues, and appear thickly wherever inarachnoid of the brain and the spinal cord, flammation is set up. They are without in contradistinction to Pachymeningitis, envelope, and are capable of amcboid though meningitis alone usually signifies movements. They average about too of the same as leptomeningitis. See Menin- an inch in diameter, but three classes are gitis. L. Cerebralis, an inflammation, differentiated : The small, with one or two confined usually to the pia mater of the nuclei, and a small amount of protoplasm; convex surface of an anterior lobe of the those the size of the red corpuscles; the cerebrum. L. Spinalis, any inflamma- large amoboid, with much protoplasm. A tion of the pia mater of the spinal cord. phagocytic function has been ascribed to Lep'torhine. See Index.

them. They are divided into two kinds, Lep'tothrix (NETTOS, Opus, a hair). A leucoblasts and erythroblasts, the latter genus of the family Bacteriaceës, whose transformed into colored blood corpuscles elements form straight filaments, often of in the spleen and bone marrow. great length. Possibly indistinguishable Leucocythæ'mia (PEVKOS, KUTOS, hollow, from the genus Bacillus. The only L. aqua, the blood). A disease of the bloodstudied is L. Buccalis, very common in making organs, characterized by an abnorthe mouth, playing a large part in the for- mal increase of the number of white cormation of dental tartar and the production puscles, together with enlargement of the of caries of the teeth. L. Gigantea, found spleen, lymphatics, and disease of the mein tartar of the teeth.

dullary substance of the bone. The liver Lep'tus Autumna'lis. Harvest Bug. and kidneys are also sometimes involved. Mower's Mite. A parasite that burrows The etiology is obscure; the hæmoglobiniunder the skin, causing lesions similar to zation of the leucocytes does not take place, those of itch.

and hence the increase of untransformed Le'sion (lædo, to hurt). Any injury, hurt white corpuscles. Anæmia, breathlessness, or wound in any part of the body. In muscular lassitude, hemorrhages, retinal pathology, any morbid change. L. of and other pain in bones, etc., are the most Continuity, a division or break in any frequent symptoms. See Charcot-Robin part that is normally continuous. L. of Crystals. Nutrition, any pathological alteration in Leucocytogen'esis (LEUKOS, yevvaw, to the capillary system, consisting of increase beget). The formation of white corpuscles or decrease in the amount of blood required in the blood. for assimilation and absorption.

Leucocyto’mata (2.EUKOS, KUTOC, a hollow). Le'thal (20n, a forgetting). Deadly. Per- A word used to include all tumors containtaining to or producing death.

ing cellular growths similar in constitution Leth'argy (antin). A condition of drowsi. to the white corpuscles of the blood, such ness or stupor that cannot be overcome by as tubercle, lupus, lepra, etc. the will. See, also, Somnambulism. L., Leucocytosis (λευκος, κυτος). A tranAfrican. See African Lethargy.

sient increase in the number of white corLet'tuce. See Lactucarium.

puscles in the blood, not accompanied, Leucæ'mia. See Leucorythamia.

as in leucocythæmia, by splenic and glanLeucas'mus, Acquired. See Leuco- dular enlargement or disease of the bone derma.

marrow.

LEUCODERMA

237

LEUCOPATHIA

Leucoder'ma (2.EUKOS, white, depua, skin).
Vitiligo ; acquired leucasmus ; leuco-
pathia; piebald skin. An acquired dis-
ease marked by the existence and growth
of white patches with irregular rounded
borders of darker skin. L., Congenital,
see Albinism.
Leu'coline. See Chinolina.
Leuco'ma (REUKOS). An opacity of the
cornea the result of an ulcer, wound, or in-
flammation, and giving it the appearance
of ground glass.
Leu'comaïnes (îevkwļa, white of egg).
“ Basic substances found in the living
tissues either as the products of fermenta-
tive changes or of retrograde metamor-
phosis.” Bouchard and Schär believe
they are generated in the intestinal tract
and absorbed thence into the system. They
are divided into two groups, according to
their relations with the analogue chosen as
a type : the Uric Acid Group comprises
Adenine, Hypoxanthine, Guanine, Xan-
thine, Heteroxanthine, Paraxanthine, Car-

mine, Pseudoxanthine, and Spermine. The Creatinine Group comprises Crusocreatinine, Xanthocreatinine, Amphicreatinine and two unnamed bases. Among yet undetermined leucomaines are bases known to exist in expired air, and animal exhalations. The aqueous extract of vapors exhaled by dogs has been found to cause death within 24 hours, when injected into the veins of other animals. The same violent poison is said to produce pulmonary phthisis in confined air by continuous influence. Sewer-air is thought to contain a kindred poison. The leucomaines of the saliva are also yet undetermined—though it is known that normal saliva contains several toxic substances, and that the aqueous solution of saliva at 100° poisons or narcotizes birds. The leucomaïnes of the venom of poisonous snakes are also still undetermined. There are, also, several undetermined leucomaines of urine and of animal tissues. The following table is from Vaughan :

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Adenine.

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Hypoxanthine.
Guanine.
Xanthine.
Heteroxanthine.
Paraxanthine.
Carmine.
Pseudoxanthine (?)
Spermine.
Cruso-creatinine.
Xantho-creatinine.
Amphi-creatine.
Unnamed.

C,H,N, Kossel. Nuclein-containing or- Non-poisonous. Muscle

gans.

stimulant. C,H.NO Scherer. Nuclein-containing or- Non-poisonous. Muscle

gans.

stimulant. C,H,N,O Ungel. Nuclein-containing or- Non-poisonous. Muscle

gans; Guano.

stimulant. C.H.N.O, Marcet. Nuclein-containing or. Non-poisonous. Muscle

gans; Calculi.

stimulant.
C.H.NO, Salomon. Urine.
C,H,1,0, Thudichum,

Salomon.
C,H,1,0, Weidel. Liebig's Meat Extract. Not known to be poison-

ous. Muscle stimulant.
C,H,NO Gautier. Muscle.
C2H5N Schreiner. Sperma. In tissues of

leucocythæmics.
C,H,NO Gautier. Muscle.
C H1N,O

Poisonous.
C,H,9N,0.
C, H, N100.
C2H26N106
C,H,2N, O, Pouchet. Urine.
CzH;NO,

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Leuco'matous (nevkoua). Having the

nature of leucoma. Affected with leucoma. Leucomyeli'tis (Levkos, live205, marrow). Inflammation of the medullary substance of the spinal cord. Leuconecrosis (MEUKOS, VEkpwors, death). A form of dry gangrene, distinguished by light or nearly natural color instead of the usual dark color of gangrene.

Leuconos'toc. A genus of the family of
Coccaceës having its elements disposed in
chains and enveloped in a sheath of tough
jelly. L. Mesenteroïdes, abundant in
molasses, beet-root juice, and in sugar
refineries.
Leucopath'ia (REVKOC, Tabloc, suffering).
Albinism. L., Congenital. See Albinism.
L., Acquired. See Leucoderma.

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