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der, the pear-shaped sac in the right lobe of the liver, constituting the reservoir for the bile. G. Stones, tbe calcareous concretions occasionally formed in the gallbladder and its ducts. Gal'la (Lat.). Nut-gall. An excrescence on the leaves of dyer's oak, Quercus lusitanica, caused by the deposited ova of an insect. Contains tannic acid from 10-75 per cent., gallic acid 5 per cent. G., Tinct., 20 per cent. Dose 3 ss-iij. G. Unguentum, 10 per cent. See Acid,

Tannic. Gal'lic (galla, an oak-gall). Pertaining to the oak-gall or nut-gall. G. Acid. See Acid, Gallic. Gal'lon. A standard unit of volumetric measurement, having in the United States a capacity of 231 cu. in., and equivalent to a weight of 58,328.8 grains of distilled water at maximum density. In Great Britain its capacity is 277.27 cu. in. Galton's Whistle. An instrument for testing the audibility of shrill notes. Galvan'ic (Galvani, an Italian physician and scientist). Pertaining to galvanic or chemical electricity. G. Battery. See Battery. G. Belt, a belt composed of alternate plates of copper and zinc separated by pieces of felt moistened with dilute acid. Designed to be worn around the waist. G. Cautery. See Cautery. Galvaniza'tion. The transmission of a current of low electro-motive force through any part of the body, for the purpose of diagnosticating or curing disease. Galvan'o- (Galvani). A prefix denoting connection with chemical or current-electricity. G.-cautery. See Cautery. G.puncture, the introduction of fine needles, that complete an electric circuit, into the skin or other tissue. Also a form of galvano-cautery employing a current of the necessary electro-motive force to heat the needle to whiteness. Galvanom'eter (letpov, a measure). An instrument used for the qualitative determination of the presence of an electric current. Gambogel. See Cambogia. Gangʻliform (ganglion and forma, a form). Formed like, or having the nature of, a ganglion. Gang’lion (yayyhuov, a knot). A separate and semi-independent nervous center communicating with other ganglia or nerves, with the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Used also of an enlarged bursa in connection with a tendon.

Ganglia, Basal, the ganglia at the base of the brain, comprising the corpus striatum (caudate and lenticular nucleus), optic thalamus and corpora quadrigemina. Bidder's Ganglia, two ganglia at the auricular groove of the frog's heart. An alphabetical table is appended of the principal ganglia, showing their location, roots and distribution (see p. 169). Gangræ'na Oris. See Stomatitis. Gan'grene (yayypauva, a sore, from ypavw, to gnaw). Mortification or death of a part of the body from failure in nutrition. The putrefactive fermentation of a dead limb or tissue. G., Constitutional, that dependent upon systemic disease, such as diabetes, or circulatory disease. G., Dry, shriveling and desiccation from insufficiency of blood. G., Embolic, caused by an embolus that cuts off the supply of blood. G., Hospital, a contagious form arising in crowded conditions without antiseptic precautions. G., Moist, with abundance of serous exudation and rapid decomposition. G., Primary, without preceding inflammation of the part. G., Secondary, with preceding inflammation. G., Senile, that attacking the extremities of the aged. G., Symmetric, attacking corresponding parts of opposite sides. Called, also, Raynaud's G. See, also, Sphaceloderma. Gan'grenous. Pertaining to or being of

the nature of gangrene. Gaps, Cra'nial. Certain occasional con

genital fissures of the skull. Garb'age. The refuse materials of kitch

ens, cookery, etc. Gar'gle (dim. of garga, the throat). To rinse or wash the interior of the throat and upper part of the pharynx. Also, a wash for the throat. Gar'lic. See Allium. Gar'rot (Fr. garotter, to bind). An in

strument for compression of an artery by twisting a circular bandage about the part. Garru’lity. See Vulva. Gar'rya. California feverbush. The leaves of G. Fremontii. A bitter antiperiodic, popular on the Pacific coast as a remedy in malarial diseases. Dose of the Ad, ext. mx-xxx. Unof. Gas (Dutch, geest, a ghost). Any substance which is normally aēriform. Substances normally in a liquid or solid state are usually called vapors when changed to an aëriform condition. Gas'kell's Clamp. An instrument for compression of the heart so that the pulsa

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Andersch (Petrous Petrous Portion Hypoglossal.

Nerves at Base of Skull.
or Inferior). Temporal Bone.

See Otic.
Cardiac (Wris- Beneath Arch of Cardiac Plexus.

Cardiac Plexus. berg).

Carotid Artery.
Carotid Plexus.

Carotid Plexus.
Cervical (Inferior). Last Cervical Ver-7th and 8th Cervical, Mid-Cardiac Nerves and Plexus, etc.


dle Cervical.

Cervical (Middle or Opp. 5th Cervical Cervical and Spinal Cavernous Plexus, Laryngeal,

Nerves and Ganglia. Cardiac, etc.

Cervical (Superior). Opp. 2d and 3d Cer. Cervical, Petrosal, Pneu- Sup., Inf., Ext., Int. Branches vical Vertebræ. mogastric, Hypoglos- Carotid and Cavernous Plexsal, etc.

uses, etc.

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Spheno-maxillary Sup. Maxillary, Facial, Ascending (Orbit), Descending

(Palate), Internal (Nose), Pos-
terior (Pharynx).


Above Sub. maxil- Gustatory, Chorda Tym- Mouth and Sub ma xillary lary Gland,

pani, Sympathetic. Gland.


Junction of Great Solar Plexus.


Supra-renal Capsule.


See Cervical (Mid


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tions of the auricles and ventricles may be separately registered; used in the study of cardiac pulsation. Gasp (Ice. gaispa, to yawn). To catch

for breath. To breathe spasmodically with open mouth, Gasse'rian. See Ganglion. Gas'tero- (yaotup, the belly). See Gastro. Gastral (γαστηρ).

Pertaining to the stomach or abdomen. Gastral'gia (7aothp, 02705, pain). Pain of the stomach. A mild form is sometimes called gastrodynia. Gastrec'tomy (7aotne, Ektojn, a cutting out). Resection of the pyloric extremity of the stomach. Gas/tric (yaoinp). Pertaining to the stomach. G. Digestion, that part of the digestion of food performed by the gastric juice; the conversion of albuminous bodies into peptones. G. Fistula, a perforation or communication other than the normal one, between the stomach and peritoneal cavity, or with the outer part of the body. G. Follicles. See Glands, Peplic. G. Juice, the normal secretion of the tubular, peptic glands of the stomach. A clear, colorless liquid, having an acid reaction containing from .5 to 2 per cent. of solid matter in solution. A small amount of hydrochloric acid .2 to .4 per cent., and a ferment called pepsin, are the essential elements. Gastri'tis (yaot np, 1715, inflammation). In

flammation of the coats of the stomach. Gas'tro- (yaornp). A Greek prefix denoting connection with or relation to the stomach. G.-colic, pertaining to both the stomach and the colon. G.-colitis, concurrent inflammation of the stomach and large intestine. G.-colpotomy, the operation of the Cæsarean section in which the opening is made through the linea alba into the upper part of the vagina. G.duodenal, pertaining to the stomach and duodenum. G.-elytrotomy. See Casarean Operation. G.-enteralgia, concurrent pain of the stomach and bowels. G.enteric, pertaining to both stomach and bowels. G.-enteritis, concurrent inflammation of stomach and bowels. G.. enterostomy, formation of a fistulous connection between the stomach and duodenum in obstruction of the pylorus. G.enterotomy, intestinal incision through the abdominal wall. G.-epiploic, pertaining to stomach and omentum. G.. hysterectomy. See Cæsarean Operation. G.-hysterotomy. See Cæsarean Opera

tion. G.-stenosis, a stricture or morbid contraction of the stomach. Gas/trocele (yaoine, Knin, hernia). A

hernia of the stomach. Gastrocne'mius. See Muscle. Gastrodynia (γαστηρ, οδυνη, pain). A mild pain of the stomach. See also Gastralgia. Gas' trolith (yaotip, Milos, a stone). A

calcareous formation in the stomach. Gastrol'ogy (aornp, hoyos, a treatise). A

treatise on the stomach and its functions. Gastromala'cia (7aotnp, paakia, softening). An abnormal softening of the structural tissue of the stomach. Gastrop'athy (yaorp, Tabos, suffering).

Any disease or disorder of the stomach. Gastrorrhagia (γαστηρ, ρηγνυμι, to break forth). See Hlematemesis. Gastror'raphy (7aotnp, paon, suture). Suture of wounds of the abdominal wall or stomach. Gastrorrhoe'a (yaotup, pew, to flow). A regurgitant flow of gastric mucus or liquid from the mouth. Gast'roscope (yaoTIP, OKOTEL), to see). An instrument for viewing the interior of the stomach. Consists essentially of a tube with incandescent electric light and reflecting prisms. Gastros'copy. The inspection of the interior of the stomach by means of the gastroscope. Gastro'ses (yaomnp). A general term for diseases of the abdomen or of the stomach only. Gastros/tomy (yao np, otoua, mouth). The establishing a fistulous opening into the stomach. Gastrot'omy (yaoTnp, Teuvo, to cut). Inci

sion of the abdomen or stomach. Gastrox'ia (yaornp, ogus, acid). Abnormal

acidity of the contents of the stomach. Gastru’la (yaornp). In Haeckel's classification, the larval form of all animals above the protozoa. Gath'ering. A popular name for abscesses,

pustular inflammations and suppurating Gaule's Experiment. See Cytozoön. Gaulthe'ria. Wintergreen, Teaberry, Methyl Salicylate. The leaves of wintergreen, G. procumbens, an evergreen plant. Properties due to a volatile oil, that is also found in black birch and several other plants. Stimulant, astringent, and antipyretic. Used in rheumatism and gout, or where salicylate acid is indicated. G., Ol., oil of wintergreen, much used as a flavor.


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Dose m iij-x. G., Spt., oil of wintergreen 3, alcohol 97. Gauze. See Antiseptic. Gavage' (Fr.). Forced feeding. Applied to the feeding of weak infants by the aid of an csophageal tube. Gelatine (gelo, to congeal). An albuminoid substance of jelly-like consistence, obtained by boiling skin, connective tissue, and bones of animals in water. The glue of commerce is an impure variety. G. Capsules, capsules of gelatine designed for containing medicines of nauseating taste. G., Medicated, a soft basis consisting of gelatine 3, zinc oxide 3, glycerine 5, water 9 parts, to which antiseptic or other medicaments may be added. Preferable to greasy ointments. All unof. G. Culture-medium, a jelly made by a solution of the best commercial food gelatine in the proportion of 6, 8 or 10 parts to 100 of water, with 1 or 2 parts of dried peptones or glucose (the latter not used if the culture is to be made on slides), for increased nutritive value. Bicarbonate of soda is used to neutralize the acid reaction. This in bacteriology is simply known as Gelatine. Gelat'inous. Resembling, or having the nature of gelatine. G. Tissue. See Animal Tissue. Gellose. A culture-medium used in bacteriological investigation. Gelatine lique fies at 23° or 24° C., and is thus inferior to gelose, for those cultures that require a higher degree of heat for their proper development. The base of gelose is a vegetable mucilage, derived from an Indian seaweed, Gelidium spiniforme, of which a jelly is made, 2 to 3 parts (to 100) of dried peptones added; 10 to 15 parts of this substance to 50 parts of water, with 1 to 5 of glycerine, forms the nutritive jelly called gelose. Gel'osine. A mucilage extracted from a species of alga found in Japan. Soluble in water and alcohol. An excellent excipient for powders, tinctures and salts. Unof. Gelsem'ium. Yellow Jasmine. The root of G. sempervirens, abundant in the southern U. S. Properties mainly due to an alkaloid, gelsemine, a powerful motor depressant, antispasmodic and diaphoretic. In toxic doses produces diplopia, extreme muscular weakness, and anaesthesia, death occurring from asphyxia. Useful in exaltation of nerve action, cerebro-spinal meningitis, etc. Especially valuable in remittent and malarial fevers. Dose gr. ij-xx.

G., Ext. Fld., alcoholic. Dose mij-xx. G., Tinct., 15 per cent. in strength. Dose mv-xxx. Gelsemina, the alkaloid. Dose gr. -5. Gemel’lus (dim. of geminus, twin). Double. In pairs. G. Muscle, the gastrocnemius muscle, on account of its double origin. See Muscle. Gem'inate (geminus). In pairs. In botany, parts that are disposed in pairs. Gem'inous. Same as Geminate. Gemma'tion. See Budding: Gen'erate (genero, to beget). To beget, to produce of the same kind. Genera'tion ( generatio, a begetting). The begetting or production of offspring. G., Organs of, those that are functional in reproduction; the genitalia. G., Spontaneous, the supposed production of organic matter or beings, from inorganic matter. G., Alternations of. See Alternations of G. Gener'ic' (genus, a kind). Pertaining to

the same genus. Gene'sial (Yeveois, origin). Pertaining to

generation. G. Cycle, the periods of ovarian, uterine, and mammary activity, into which the reproductive life of the female is divided; the first extending from puberty to conception, the second from conception to gestation, and the third from gestation through lactation. Gen'esis (YEVEOIS). The act of begetting.

Generation. Genet'ic (yeveous, generation). Pertaining to generation. Also, anything inherited. Genic'ulate Bodies. Two oblong, flattened bodies on the outer side of the corpora quadrigemina and under the back part of the optic thalamus. Gen'io- (yevalov, the chin). A prefix denot

ing connection with the chin. Gen'ital (genitalis, pertaining to generation). Pertaining to the genital organs or to reproduction. G. Cord, the union of the two ducts of Wolff and of Müller to form a common cord in the embryo. G. Eminence, or Tubercle, an elevation appearing about the 6th week of embryonic life, in front of the cloaca, and from which the penis or clitoris is developed. G. Fissure, a furrow extending from the genital eminence of the embryo to the cloaca. G. Folds, two plications at the side of the orifice of the cloaca. G. Sense, the degree of vigorousness of the development of ovisacs. Genita'lia (genitalis). The organs of generation.




Gen'ito- (genitus, begotten, from gigno, to be born). A prefix denoting connection or relation to the genital organs. Gen'tian, or Gentia'na. The root of G. lutea, a European, and of G. catesbai, an American species. A simple, non-astringent bitter. Highly esteemed as a stomachic tonic in convalescence from acute diseases and malarial fever. G., Ext. Dose gr. j-v. G., Ext. Fld. Dose 3 ss-j. G., Infusum Comp., unof., gentian 10, bitter orange peel 2)2, coriander 212, alcohol 40, water to make 320. Dose 31-3). G., Mist. Alkalin., unof., dil. hydrocyanic acid miij, sodium bicarb. gr. xv, infus. of gentian comp. to make Zj. Dose Zj. G. et Sennæ Mist., unof., infus. of senna 3 iij, comp. tinct. cardamom 3j, comp. infus. of gentian 3 vj. Dose 3x. G., Tinct. Comp., contains gentian 8, bitter orange peel 4, cardamom 2, dil. alcohol to make 100. Dose 3 ss-ij. Gen'u (genu, the knee). Pertaining to the knee. G. Extrorsum, outward bowing of the knee,-bow-legs. G. Valgum, inward curving of the knee,-knock-knees. G. Varum. Same as G. Extrorsum. Gen’uclast (genu, khaw, to break). An

instrument for breaking irreducible adhesions of the knee-joint. Gen'u Corp'us Callo'sum.

A name given to the reflected part of the corpus callosum. Genuflex' (genu, flexus, bent). Bent at,

or like, the knee. Also, bent at any joint. Ge’nus (genus, a family). A species or a number of species marked by one or more common characteristics that distinguish

them from the species of another family. Genyplast'y (yevvs, the check, Thacow, to form). The operation for reforming or restoring the cheek imperfect either from injury or from congenital malformation. Geog'raphy (79, the earth, ypaow, to write). In medicine, a description of the earth's surface with reference to climatology, and the distribution of disease, with relation to origin and locality. Geology (yn, hoyos, a treatise). The science treating of the structural development of the earth. Geom'etry (yn, pet pov, a measure). That branch of mathematical science treating of the relations of magnitudes. Geoph'agism (y, payw, to eat). The practice of earth- or clay-eating, practiced in a few localities. Gera'nium. Cranesbill-root. The root of G, maculatum. Properties due to tan

nic and gallic acids. Useful in diarrhea, infant colic, etc. G., Ext. Fld. Dose mv-3j. Geratol'ogy (ypas, old age, hoyos, a treat

ise). A treatise concerning old age. Ger'lach's Network. An exceedingly

delicate fibrous network of the finest nerve fibrils in the gray matter of the cord. Ger'lach's Theory. Pertains to the connection of the nerve-fibers and ganglionic cells of the cord. Ger'lier's Disease. An affection (of farmhands) characterized by sudden paroxysms of ptosis, vertigo, muscular paresis, and cervico-occipital pain. Germ (germen, a sprout). The ovum, spore, or zoospore that, by fecundation, is capable of developing into an organism like that whence it was derived. G. of Disease, the special virus or spore by which a disease becomes communicable. G. of Sac, the vesicle constituting the blastoderm of mammals. G., Specific, same as Germ. G. Theory of Disease, the theory that contagious and infectious diseases are communicated by means of the transference to and development of a specific seed or spore within the organism of the animal infected. German Breast Tea. A decoction of

althæa, 9.v. German Chamomile. See Matricaria. Germ Epithe'lium. Cylindrical cells on the surface of the median plate of the mesoblast. Ger’minal. Pertaining to a germ or the genesis of a tissue or organ. G. Area, the arca germinativa, or embryonal shield, a white round spot upon one side of the vitelline membrane in which the blastoderm becomes double. G. Matter. See Protoplasm. G. Membrane, the blastoderm. G. Spot. See Zona Pellucida. G. Vesicle. See Zona Pellucida. Germination (germinatio, a sprouting). The sprouting of a seed. The beginning of the development of an ovum, spore or germ. Gero'ni Specio'sa. An Andean plant, having a reputation as a local remedy in syphilis and rheumatism. Unof. Gerontox'on. See Arcus Senilis. Gesta'tion (gero, to bear). Same as

Pregnancy. Giacomini's Method of Preserving the Brain. Immerse in a saturated solution of chloride of zinc ; turn several times daily and inject 600 grms. of the liquid through the carotids. Remove membranes

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