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2. Troy Weight. 84 grains (gr.) make 1 penny-weiglit, marked put. 20 penny-weights,
1 ounce, 12 ounces, 1 pound,
16. 3. Avoirdupois Weight. 16 drams (dr.) make 1 ounce, 16 ounces,
16. 28 pounds, 1 quarter of a hundred weight,
97. 4 quarters,
1 hundred weiglit,
cut. 20 hundred weight,
T. By this weight are weighed all coarse and drossy goods, grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver.
4. Apothecaries Weight. ?O grains (gr.) mako 1 scruple, 3 scruples,
1 dram, 8 drams,
1 ounce, 12 ounces, 1 pound,
it Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines.
5. Cloth Measure. 4 nails (na.) make 1 quarter of a yard, gr.
a 4 quarers,
1 yard, 3 quarters,
i Ell Flemish, E. FI, 5 quarters,
1 Ell English, E. E. 6 quarters,
1 El French,
6. Dry Mcasure. 2 pints, (pt.) make
gt. 1 peck,
pk. 4 pecks, 1 bushel,
bu. This measure is applied to grain, beans, flux-seed, salt cats, oysters, coal, &c.
7. Wine M[casure.
pt. gt. gal,
4 gills (gi.) make
1 pint, 2 pints,
1 quart, 4 quarts,
1 gallon, 31į gallons, 1 barrel,
Ul. 4.2 gallons, 1 tierce,
ticr. 63 gallons, I hogshead,
hhd 2 hogsheads, 1 pipe,
p. 2 pipes, 1 tuni,
T. All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are measur ed by wine measure.
Note. 2:31 solid inches, make a gal lon. 8. Long Measure.
in. 3 barley corns (6. c.) make 1 inch, marked 12 inches,
1 foot, 3 feet,
yd. 5} yards,
1 rod, pole, or porch, rd. 40 rods,
fur. 8 furlongs,
1 mile, 3 miles,
lca. 691 statute miles,
1 degree, on the earth. 360 degrees, the circumference of the earth.
The use of long measure is to measure the distance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, withiont regard to breadth.
N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make I hand. In mensuring depths, 6 feet make 1 fathom or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain, four rods long, containing one hundred links."
9. Land, or Square Measure. 144 square inches make
I seguirre foot. 9 square feet,
1 square yarius 3:); square yards, or 17:21 svitare leel,
I square roll, 40 squirr rols,
! square promoci 4 son ire moods,
sequatre incre, 640 square acres,
1 10. Solil, or Cubic Nicastre. 1723 solid inches make
I solil foot. 40 feet of round tuber, or
1 iuni or lurid. 50 tiet of hewii timber,
I cord of wood. 4 wide, and thigli, All souls, or things that live length, breadth, and depth rre measured by this measure. N. B. The wine xullon contains 231 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 202. A bushel contains 2150,12 solid inches.
11. Time. 60 seconds (S.) inake I ininute, marked M. (l) milles,
h. 0 hours,
d. 7 days,
I week, f weeks,
1 month, 1:3 months, 1 day and 6 hours, I Julian year, yr. l'hirty days lath September, April, Jure, and November, Fruiry twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one. N. B. Iu Bissexuile, or leap year, February hath 29 days.
12. Circulur Hlution. 60 seconds (") make 1 minute, 60 minutes,
I degree, 30 degrees,
S. 1:2 sigus, ur 360 degrces, the wlwle greut circle of the Zoillack
Explanation of Characters used in this Book.
Equal to, as 12d. = ls. signifies that 12 pence are equal to i shilling.
+ More, the sign of Addition; as, 5+7=12, signifies that
5 and 7 added together, are equal to 12.
Minus, or less, the sign of Subtraction; as, 6-2=4, sig. nifics that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4.
x Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication; as,
4*3=12, significs that 4 multiplied by 3, is equal to 12.
• The sign of Division; as, 8+2=4, signifies that 3 di.
vided by 2, is equal to t; or thus, f=t, each of which signify the same thing.
:: Four points set in the middle of four numbers, denote
them to be proportional to one another, by the rule of three ; as 2:4::8: 16; that is, as 2 to 4, so is 8 to 16.
✓ Prefixed to any number, supposes that the square root of that nuniber is required.
Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of that number is required.
✓ Denotes the biquadrate root, or fourth power, &c.
ARITIMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has tive principal rules for its operation, viz. NumeraLion, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division.
NUMERATION. Numeration is the art of vumberiny. It teaches to express the value of any proposed number by the following characters, or figures :
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0-or cipher. Besides the simple value of figures, each has a local ralue, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz. any Sgure in the place of units, represents only its simple value, or so many ones; but in the second place, or place of tens, it liecomes so many tens, or ten times its simple value; and in the third place, or place of hundreds, it becomes a hundred times its simple value, and so on, as in the following
Nute.-Although a cipher standing alone signifies nothing; yet when it is placed on the right bar.d up ligures, it increases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throving them into hicher places. Thus, 2 with a cipher anhexed to it, becomes 20, twenty, and with two ciphers, thus, 200, two hundred.
2. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given to be read, it will be found convenient to divide them into as many periods as we can, of six figures e:ch, reckoning from the ri hi hand towards the left, calling the first the period of units, the second that of millions, the third billions, the suurth trillions, &c. as in the following inimber :
6 0 7 3 6 2 5 4 6 2 7 8 9 0 1 2 5 06 7 92 4. Perioil of 3. Period of 2. Period of 11. Period of Trillions. Billions. Millions.
506792 The fore: oing number is read thus - Eight thousand and seventy-three trilli: ; six hundred and twenty-five thousand, four hundred and sixtytivo billions ; spven hundred and eight-nine thoi sand and twelve inillions; live hundred and sis thursand seves hundred and ninety-two,
N. B. Billions is substituted for millions of millicus.